Geographic location:Xiaoyan Village, Yindu District, Anyang City
Famous scenery:Yubei Mall Ruins, Jiaguyu Cave
Suitable for the play season:Suitable for all seasons
Yinxu, formerly known as “Beimeng”, is the site of the late Shangcheng of the Shang Dynasty in China, located in Anyang City, Henan Province. In the 14th year of Pan Geng, the 19th monarch of the Shang Dynasty was moved to Beimeng (now Anyang, Henan), and the name of “Northern Mongolia” was changed to “Yin”. In the fifteen years of Pan Geng, the construction of Yindu began. Since the Pan Geng moved to Yin, to 1046 BC, Emperor Xin died in the country, and experienced Pan Geng, Xiao Xin, Xiao Yi, Wu Ding, Zu Geng, Zu Jia, Yan Xin, Kang Ding, Wu Yi, Wen Ding, Emperor B, Emperor In the 273-year rule of 12 kings of Xin Dynasty, Yin has always been the political, economic, cultural, and military center of the late Shang Dynasty.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Yin Ruins were famous for discovering the oracle bones. In 1928, the Yin Ruins officially began archaeological excavations. A large number of Ducheng architectural sites and rich cultural relics represented by oracle bones and bronzes were unearthed, systematically demonstrating the splendid and brilliant Chinese Shang Dynasty. The bronze civilization established the scientific position of the Yin Shang society as a history of faith. It was named the first of China’s “100 major archaeological discoveries” in the 20th century.
The Yinxu has unearthed about 150,000 pieces of oracle bones. The information recorded in Oracle has advanced the credible history recorded in China to the Shang Dynasty, and it has also produced a new discipline, oracle bone.
Yinxu is the first city in China to have a test of literature and is confirmed by archaeology and oracle bones. It consists of the ruins of the Yinxu Wangling, the ruins of the Yinxu Palace, the site of the Yubei Mall, and the oracle bone.
In March 1961, the State Council listed Yinxu as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units. In July 2006, Yinxu was listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization as a World Cultural Heritage List. It is now a national AAAAA tourist attraction. On October 13, 2018, the 90th Anniversary Commemorative Meeting of the Yinxu Scientific Discovery and the Yinxu Development and Archaeological Forum was held. On October 11, 2018, he was selected as the “National Primary and Secondary School Students’ Practice Education Base” list.
Yinxu is located around Xiaotun Village, Yindu District, Anyang City, Henan Province. The geographical coordinates are 114°18′50′′E, 36°07′36′′N, about 80m above sea level, about 6km in length and width, and the total area is about 36 square kilometers. The protected area has a core area of 414 hectares and a buffer area of 720 hectares.
The overall layout of the Yin Ruins is rigorous. It is centered on the ruins of the Yinxu Palace in the Xiaoxu Village, along the banks of the Weihe River. The existing relics mainly include the Yinzong Palace Zongmiao Ruins, the Yinxu Wangling Site, the Yubei Mall, the Hougang Site, the Settlement Site (the clan), the family cemetery group, the oracle bone cave, the cast copper ruins, and hand workshops.
Palace ancestral temple
The palace ancestral temple ruins are located in Xiaotun Village and Garden Village on the south bank of the Weihe River in Anyang City, Henan Province. It is 1000 meters long from north to south, 650 meters wide from east to west, and has a total area of 71.5 hectares. It is the place where Shangwang handles government affairs and residence, and is also the most important place in Yinxu. The site and its components, including the palace, the temple and other building bases, more than 80. On the west and south sides of the palace ancestral temple ruins, there is a artificial excavation to form a defensive trench, which surrounds the palace ancestral temple and plays a role similar to that of the palace city.
In the palace Zongmiao District, there is also the wife of the wife Wu Ding of Shangwang Wuding. This is the only preserved tomb of the royal family members found so far. It is also the only member of the Shang Dynasty royal family who can contact the Oracle and determine the age, the owner and identity of the tomb. Tomb. There are 16 people in the tomb, and 1928 pieces of unearthed objects, including 468 bronzes, 755 jade articles and 564 pieces of bones, and nearly 7,000 sea shells.
There are also a large number of oracle bones in the Zongmiao area of the Yinxu Palace. About 15,000 pieces of oracle bones were unearthed.
Wangling Site is located in Houjiazhuang and Wuguan Village North Heights on the north bank of the Weihe River in Anyang City, Henan Province. It is about 450 meters long from east to west and 250 meters wide from north to south, with a total area of about 11.3 hectares. Since 1934, 13 large tombs have been discovered here, with more than 2,000 burial tombs, ritual pits and chariot pits, and a large number of beautifully crafted bronzes, jade, stoneware, pottery, etc., which are recognized by the academic community. The location of the Shang Dynasty Wangling. Among them, the number of ritual pits in the Eastern District is numerous and arranged in an orderly manner. There are many people and animal skeletons in the pit. It is a public ritual venue for the ancestors of the Yin royal family. It is now the M260 exhibition hall.
In addition, the late mother Wu Dafang Ding, unearthed in the east of Wangling, is the heaviest bronze found today.
Yubei Mall is located in the garden of the north bank of the Weihe River in Anyang City, Henan Province. The city site is generally square, 2.15 kilometers wide from east to west, 2.2 kilometers long from north to south, with a total area of about 4.7 square kilometers. There are slabs of walled bases around it. The discovery of the site of the Yubei Mall has extended the historical time of Yin Shang and extended the scope of the Yin Ruins.
The ruins of the Yubei Mall were earlier than the Yinxue merchant culture in the traditional sense. It was slightly later than the Zhengzhou early Shang culture, and it was probably a Tudor site in the middle and late Shang Dynasty.
On May 3, 2017, archaeologists discovered 18 Xiongnu tombs during archaeological excavations in the Yinxu Grand Site. These Xiongnu tombs are neatly arranged and the tombs are the same. Judging from the unearthed objects, these tombs were later than the Yin Ruins, and they were different from the shape of the Central Plains tombs. Its era should be in the late Eastern Han Dynasty to the Wei and Jin Dynasties, about 1800 years ago.
Historical shadow cloud
According to the “Shangshu”, “Historical Records”, “Bamboo Book” and other documents, there was a Shang Dynasty in Chinese history more than 3,000 years ago. The dynasty lasted for nearly 500 years and is the beginning of the ancient Chinese history with the territory of the country. . The first merchant, Wang Mingtang, founded the country in Qidu in the early 16th century BC and quickly conquered the neighboring forces and stabilized the political map of the Shang Dynasty. The throne of the Shang Dynasty was inherited by the method of “father of the dead” or “the brother of the brother and brother”. There were 31 business kings before and after.
The Tudors of the Shang Dynasty had migrated several times. Since the first 2019, the 20th generation of the merchants, Pan Pan Geng moved to Yin, and in 1046 BC, Emperor Xin died in the country, and experienced Pan Geng, Xiao Xin, Xiao Yi, Wu Ding, Zu Geng, Zu Jia, Yu. The 273-year rule of 12 kings of Xin, Kangding, Wuyi, Wending, Diyi and Dixin was the political, economic, cultural and military center of the late Shang Dynasty. After the demise of the business, it gradually became a ruin.
During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, Ruo Daoyuan gave a more precise description of the position of the Yin Ruins in the “Shui Jing Zhu”. During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, there were many bronzes unearthed in the Anyang area, which attracted attention, but it was considered to be the capital of Shangwanghe.
Iron cloud turtle
Xiaoyan is located on the bank of the Weihe River in the western suburb of Anyang City. This area is slightly higher, so it has been used as an ideal place to bury the undead since the Warring States Period, especially during the Sui and Tang Dynasties. It was not until the Ming Dynasty that it became a residential area composed of several households. Since the end of the Qing Dynasty, the residents of Xiaoyan often dig from the ground to the broken bone pieces in the farming. At the end of the 19th century, local rumors of broken bones, the so-called keel, were able to cure the disease, so the villagers collected pieces of bone fragments, either reserved for use or sold to Chinese medicine shops. Since then, the “keel” has been continuously excavated from the ground.
In 1899, the stone scientist Wang Yurong bought medicine because of illness. He found some very old words on the keel sold in the Chinese medicine shop in Beijing. He realized that this is a very precious cultural relic, and began to purchase heavily, and then verified these “Oracle”. It is “Yin people’s knives and pens.” In 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces captured Beijing, and Wang Rongrong was indignant. The collection of keel was resold by his son Liu Wei from the late Qing Dynasty. In 1903, Liu Wei published and published his collection of oracle bones, becoming the first Oracle article “Tie Yun Tibetan Turtle”.
After the news of the Shang Dynasty oracle bones spread, the whole academic community was excited, and many scholars joined the ranks of the collection of oracle bones. The “keel” in each Chinese medicine shop is worth a hundred times. Since the sale of oracle bones is profitable, the antique merchants concealed the land of the oracle bones. In 1908 (a talk about 1910), Luo Zhenyu sought out from various sources and began to know that the bones of the bones were out of the “small rafts of Binhai,” so he sent people to buy oracle bones many times, and made some interpretations of the text, thinking that small The 屯 is the Yin Ruins mentioned in the literature. At this point, the Yin Ruins site was first known by the academic community. In 1917, Wang Guowei conducted a textual examination of the materials on the Oracle bones, sorted out the list of merchants Wang Shi, and further confirmed that Xiaotun Village was the capital of Pan Geng.
In 1928, with the strong support of Fu Sinian, the first 18-day trial of the Yin Ruins began. A total of more than 800 pieces of oracle bones and bronzes, pottery, bones and other cultural relics were unearthed. In the spring of 1929, Li Ji presided over the official excavation of the Yin Ruins. By the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War in 1937, a total of 15 scientific excavations were carried out, and the palace district and the Wangling district of the Shang Dynasty were found, confirming the records of the “Zhushu Ji Nian” on the late Shang Dynasty. In the late generation, it became an unshakable conclusion.
In 1950, the tomb of the Wuguan Village was excavated and became the first excavation of the Yin Ruins in New China. In 1976, the tomb of the wife of Wang Wuding, the wife of the woman, was discovered in the northwest of Xiaoyan. By 1986, more than 20 excavations had been carried out on more than a dozen points, and about 150,000 pieces of lettering oracle bones were obtained. In January 1999, a large commercial site was discovered about 2 meters below the northeast of the Yin Ruins site. It overlaps slightly with the old “Yinxu” range, but the whole is on the north bank of the Weihe River. The academic community named it “Zhubei Mall”.
With the enrichment of archaeological discoveries, the scope of Yinxu research has become wider and wider, from the Yinxu cultural stage to the environment (such as geography, landforms, vegetation, resources, flora and fauna); from race, population, family organization, to architecture. Industry, handicraft industry (such as casting copper, making jade, making pottery, bones); from agriculture to burial system, sacrificial system; from writing to art and the nature of late business society, Shang Dynasty gradually became a history of faith.
On October 13, 1928, Mr. Dong Zuobin was appointed by the Institute of History and Language of the Central Research Institute to conduct the first excavation of the Yin Ruins in Xiaoyan Village, Anyang, Henan Province. Since then, until June 1937, 15 archaeological excavations have been carried out in Xiaoyan, Hougang, Houjiazhuang, Dashang Village and other places.
This is a major event in the history of Chinese archaeology and world archaeology, and an important milestone in the academic history of China in the 20th century. At this stage, the excavation of the Yin Ruins not only obtained rich archaeological materials, but also left many precious image images, field records, work logs, and letters to the residence, which became important materials for studying the germination and development of Chinese archaeology in the 20th century.
October 13, 2018, October 13, 2018, organized by the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the Henan Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau, and the Anyang Municipal Government, the 90th Anniversary of the Yin Ruins Science Discovery and the Yinxu Development and Archaeological Forum, from the Sea More than 200 archaeologists and scholars from both inside and outside attended the grand commemoration to commemorate the contribution of the archaeological ancestors of the Yin Ruins. They summed up the archaeological achievements of the Yin Ruins in the past 90 years. They discussed the archaeological heritage of the Yin Ruins and the 90th anniversary of the scientific excavation of the Yin Ruins. Representatives of archaeological workers – Zheng Zhenxiang, Yang Xiwei, Liu Yiman, Xu Guangde, Liu Zhongfu and former Anyang City Cultural Relics Team Captain Meng Xianwu of the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences awarded the medals and commemorative certificates of the archaeological excavations of the Yinxu. . He also held the academic works of Yin Ruins in the “90 Years of Archaeological People and Things in the Yin Ruins”, “The Pottery Unearthed in the Yin Ruins”, “The Complete Form of the Bronze War of the Yin Ruins”, “The Crested Bones of the Yin Ruins” and “New Jade Articles Unearthed from the Yin Ruins” The starting ceremony.
Oracle is the predecessor of Chinese characters and one of the three oldest writing systems in the world. It not only proves that ancient Chinese characters are of independent origin, but also provides the ancient Chinese word-making rules, which has fundamentally influenced Chinese culture since 3,000 years. Impact. The discovery of the oracle bones in the Yin Ruins not only advanced the credible history of Chinese written records to the Shang Dynasty, but also because of the rich content of the Oracle language, involving all aspects of the politics, economy, culture and ideology of the Shang Dynasty, it is important for the comprehensive restoration of the history of the Shang Dynasty. The meaning is called the earliest “archive” of ancient China and even mankind. The study of oracle bones has also produced a new discipline – oracle bones.
Bronze unearthed from the Yin Ruins, including ceremonies, musical instruments, weapons, tools, living utensils, decorations
Articles, works of art, etc., rituals have tripods, cymbals, cymbals, cymbals, princes, etc., musical instruments include cymbals, bells, cymbals, etc., weapons have ge, spear, cymbals, knives, cymbals, etc., tools have hoes, chisels, axes, Saws, shovel, etc., with bronze mirrors, rod heads, leaks, spoons, cymbals, pedestals, angles, etc., decorative art masks, head masks, bronze cows, copper tigers, brass bells, etc. The rich and varied forms and the mysterious patterns reflect the religious feelings and aesthetic concepts unique to the Yin and Shang dynasties, reaching the peak of the development of the Chinese Bronze Age and occupying an important position in the history of ancient Chinese civilization.
The text (golden text) cast on the bronzes, especially the long inscriptions, was a reflection of the real life of the people at that time, retaining the true face of the time, and thus has a very high research value.
There are four or five thousand bronzes unearthed from the Yin Ruins. According to statistics, in the bronzes unearthed in the 1930s, there were more than 170 ritual devices and more than 1,340 weapons, as well as tools and other miscellaneous devices. Between 1950 and 1986, more than 650 pieces of rituals were discovered, more than 1,400 weapons, and some tools, art and miscellaneous items. After 1986, many bronzes were still found. Bronze vessels are mainly unearthed in large and medium-sized tombs. Among them, the most unearthed is the well-preserved No. 5 tomb, the woman’s tomb, which has 468 pieces and is complete in variety.
The most exquisite casting technique in bronze is the ritual. The ceremonial instruments unearthed from the Yin Ruins are not only of various types, but also of various shapes, showing round, flat, square and other shapes, among which are rounds. The largest and heaviest of the descendants of the Wuguan Village tomb, the pentad square, 133 cm high, 110 cm long, 78 cm wide and 875 kg, is the largest ancient bronze ware found in the world and the peak of bronze civilization. The work. In addition, the two dynasties, Xin Ding Ding, unearthed from the tomb of M1004 in the northwest of Houjiazhuang, are also heavy rituals.
The Shang Dynasty architecture, represented by the palace ancestral temple building and the tomb of the royal tomb, is solemn and solemn, reflecting the unique sense of balance, order and aesthetic interest of ancient Chinese architecture. It embodies the palace construction pattern of the Yin and Shang Dynasties. Architectural art, architectural methods, and architectural techniques represent the advanced level of ancient Chinese palace architecture. The Yinbei Mall in Yinxu has a tall city wall, a majestic palace, and a strict “central axis” layout, which has become a feature of Chinese cities for thousands of years.
The excavation of Yinxu has almost completely changed the history of Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties in the traditional view of history, and truly established the scientific position of Yin Shang society as a history of faith, establishing a reliable chronological basis for Shang and Zhou archaeology, and Xia culture played a basic role; it filled the gap between the Chinese business culture represented by Zhengzhou Erligang and the late merchant culture represented by Yinxu, thus perfecting the Chronological Framework of Shang Dynasty.
The Yinxu cultural relics represented by bronzes and jade articles show that the handicraft industry in the Yinxu period was unprecedentedly developed, not only with complete categories, but also with a high level of craftsmanship. Some major handicraft production sectors, such as bronze smelting, jade, ceramics, bone making, car making, and textiles, have reached a considerable scale. The white pottery and original porcelain in this period occupied an important position in the history of Chinese ceramics. The merchant carriages unearthed in the Yin Ruins use a large number of bronze members, and they are double-set and double-wheeled. The structure is exquisite and complex, reflecting the superb mechanical and bronze casting and other composite technologies.
The burial system, distribution pattern, burial method, and ritual rituals of the Yinxu Tombs reflect the social organization, class status, hierarchy, and kinship of the late Shang Dynasty, representing the highest level of the ancient Tombs in ancient China. Later, the Chinese dynasties followed suit and gradually formed a unique mausoleum system in China. At the same time, the funeral customs of the Yin Ruins, represented by people’s sacrifices, people’s plaques, car and horse burial, and animal sacrifices, highlight the ritual system centered on the hierarchy in the Yinxu period, reflecting the funeral customs at that time.
The excavation of the Yin Ruins is a combination of Chinese traditional pebbles and Western field archaeology, and is a symbol of the rise of modern Chinese archaeology.
The excavation of the Yinxu Palace District and the Wangling District, the discovery of a large number of precious cultural relics such as bronzes and jade articles, attracted the attention of Chinese and foreign academic circles and established the international status of Chinese archaeology;
In 1931, Liang Siyong discovered the “three stacks” of the Hougang site in Anyang. For the first time, the relative age relationship between Yangshao culture, Longshan culture and Shang culture was divided from the stratigraphy, which laid the foundation for the formation of Chinese archaeological stratigraphy. The basic Yinxu excavation site has become the cradle of Chinese archaeological talents. From here, Li Ji, Dong Zuobin, Shi Yiru, Gao Gou, Liang Siyong, Guo Baozhen, Yin Da, Xia Wei, Hu Houxuan and other first generation elites in Chinese archaeology .
The excavation of the Yin Ruins has responded positively to the skepticism that has been prevailing in the history of Chinese academic circles since the early 20th century. As the existence of the Shang Dynasty was confirmed by archaeology, the Chinese academic community was able to explore the “Xia Dynasty” in the relevant literature.
In 1961, the State Council listed Yinxu as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units, and defined the scope of key protected areas, general protected areas and peripheral areas, and formulated specific protection measures.
In 1982, after the publication of the “Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics”, the Henan Provincial Government and the Anyang Municipal Government also promulgated regulations related to the protection of the Yin Ruins, which incorporated the protection of the Yin Ruins into the legalization track and delineated the scope of protection of the Yin Ruins. Building control zone.
In 1987, the Anyang Municipal Government purchased nearly 80,000 square meters of farmland in the northeastern part of Xiaoyan (Yinxu Palace District), and took effective protection measures for the site. A museum of the site type (Yinxu Museum) was built here. The layout and architecture of the palace hall of the Yin Dynasty became a resort integrating archaeology, gardening, ancient construction and tourism.
In 1988, the Chinese Ancient Capital Association listed Anyang in the seven ancient capitals of China.
In 1997, Yinxu was designated as the first batch of 100 patriotic education demonstration bases in China.
In 2000, the archaeological community selected “China’s 100th archaeological discovery in the 20th century”, and Yinxu ranked first with the highest number of votes.
In 2001, with the application of the World Heritage, the Anyang Municipal Government requisitioned nearly 1,000 mu of land in the Yinxu Palace and Wangling Site as state-owned, which directly controlled it under the jurisdiction of the government, effectively preventing Xiaoyan and Garden Villa from moving to the palace reserve. Expand and invest huge sums of money to resettle and relocate residents in key protected areas outside the protected area. Wang Yuxin, president of the China Association of Businessmen, spoke highly of this and praised “protecting the Yin Ruins as the first major achievement of Anyang.”
In 2006, the Anyang Municipal Government invested more than 1.5 billion yuan to comprehensively manage the surrounding environment of the Yin Ruins, explore the display methods of the sites, and built the Yinxu Museum to collect, protect and display movable cultural relics unearthed from the Yin Ruins.
On July 13, 2006, at the 30th session of the World Heritage Committee in Lithuania, Yinxu was included in the World by the World Heritage-received selection criteria (ii), (iii), (iv) and (vi). The Heritage List becomes a world cultural heritage.
In 2010, it was included in the first batch of 12 archaeological sites in the country.
In 2011, it was rated as the first batch of “5A-level tourist scenic spots” by the National Tourism Administration.
The Yinxu Palace Zongmiao Ruins are located in the northwest suburb of Anyang City.
At the northern end of Yinxu Road, 5 km from downtown Anyang, visitors can arrive in three ways:
Self-driving: Take the Anyang exit of Beijing-Zhuhai Expressway and turn right along Renmin Avenue to the Fifth People’s Hospital.
Bus: 1,6,15,18,39,41, get off at Yinxu Station and walk for 5 minutes.
By train: Take the Anyang Station, take the bus No. 1 at the Cultural Palace, and take a 5-minute walk to the right.