Geographic location:Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province
Famous scenery:Yongning Gate (South Gate), Anyuan Gate (North Gate)
Suitable for the play season:Suitable for all seasons
Xi’an City Wall, also known as Xi’an Ming City Wall, is the largest and most preserved ancient city in China. It is the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units and national AAAAA level tourist attractions. The Xi’an city wall in a broad sense includes the Xi’an Tangcheng Wall and the Xi’an Ming City Wall, but generally refers to the Xi’an Ming City Wall in the narrow sense.
Xi’an Mingcheng Wall is located in the downtown area of Xi’an, Shaanxi Province. The wall is 12 meters high, the top width is 12-14 meters, the bottom width is 15-18 meters, the outline is closed rectangle, and the circumference is 13.74 kilometers. People in the city walls are used to call the ancient city, covering an area of 11.32 square kilometers. The famous Xi’an Bell and Drum Tower is located in the center of the ancient city.
There are four main gates of Xi’an City Wall: Changle Gate (East Gate), Yongning Gate (South Gate), Anding Gate (West Gate), and Anyuan Gate (North Gate). These four gates are also the original gates of the ancient city wall. Since the beginning of the Republic of China, a number of city gates have been newly opened for the convenience of access to the ancient city. So far, there are 18 gates in Xi’an City Wall.
On March 4, 1961, Xi’an City Wall was announced by the State Council as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units.
At the 2018 Northwest Tourism Marketing Conference and Tourism Equipment Exhibition, Xi’an City Wall was selected as the “Magic Northwest 100 Scene” list.
Xi’an City Wall is the largest and most preserved ancient city in China.
The existing city wall is a Ming Dynasty building with a total length of 13.7 kilometers. It was built in the 3rd year of Emperor Hongwu of Ming Dynasty (1370). It was completed in the 11th year of Hongwu (1378). It was built in Ming Taizu’s “high wall, wide grain, slow Under the guidance of Wang’s policy, it was built on the basis of the Emperor and the Tang Emperor. It was the Fucheng of Xi’an. The Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang enshrined the second son Zhu Xi as the Qin Wang, and the Qifeng and Fuzhi were in the same city. Therefore, the scale of the city was magnificent and strong, and later the Ming and Qing Dynasties were repeatedly repaired and built, and they have been preserved intact.
At the beginning of 2004, the construction of the urban wall road project in the Guangmenmen section of Xi’an City, the Shaanxi Ancient Design Institute (now the Shaanxi Provincial Cultural Heritage Research Institute) was commissioned by the relevant departments to cooperate with the project to carry out archaeological investigations on the exposed section of the city wall. Its structure is complex, and its time span has been built from the Sui and Tang Dynasties to the modern times.
According to statistics, the section of the city wall is divided into five major periods from morning to night. which is:
Sui and Tang Dynasties: the existing section is close to a triangle;
The late Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties: thickening the old city wall from 1.5 meters to 2.5 meters, and the top is also nearly one meter high;
Song and Yuan Dynasties: The supplementary layer is at the center of the section of the Ming City Wall. The earth color is dark brown, the texture is dense, and a small amount of bricks are sandwiched.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties: all the walls of the previously built city walls were built, which is the current Xi’an city wall;
The modern repair layer is mainly the reinforcement treatment carried out by the relevant departments of Xi’an in the early 1980s.
After the establishment of the Sui Dynasty, Yan Wendi Yang Jian was originally living in Han Chang’an City. However, at that time, Han Chang’an City was crippled and the water pollution was serious. Therefore, it was decided to build another new city on the south slope of Longshou in the southeast direction.
In the second year of Kaihuang (582), the construction of Daxing Palace opened the prelude to the construction of Daxing City. Under the auspices of Yu Wenzhao, Miyagi and Imperial City were built in only about 9 months.
In the third year of Kaihuang (583 years), the imperial empire moved to Xinjing. Because Emperor Wendi was once named Daxinggong in the early years, he named the city “Daixing” with the name of “Daxing”, and Gongcheng named it Daxinggong. “.
In the 9th year of the great cause (613 years), Emperor Sui used more than 100,000 people to build Waiguocheng outside Miyagi and the Imperial City. The overall pattern of the city was basically formed, and it was inherited by the later Tang Empire.
Yan Daxing and Tang Chang’an City are 9721 meters wide from east to west, 8652 meters long from north to south, 36.74 kilometers in circumference and 84 square kilometers in total. They are the largest metropolis in ancient China.
In the first year of Tang Gaozu Wude (618), Li Yuan established the Tang Dynasty, Tang Chengyu formulated Changan, and renamed “Daxing City” as “Changan City” and “Daixing Palace” as “Taiji Palace”.
At the end of the Tang Dynasty, Chang’an City suffered a great deal of damage due to the war. The construction of the Youguo Army stationed in Chang’an made Han Jian, because the original city was not easy to defend, so Changan City was rebuilt.
Han Jian gave up the outer city of the former Chang’an City and Miyagi, and only retained the Imperial City, called the sub-city, for repair. The original imperial city has three cities in the east, south and west, and the north is a wide horizontal street, which becomes the boundary between the imperial city and Miyagi. This rectification will be the southern wall of Miyagi as the northern wall of the sub-city, connected with the east and west of the imperial city, so that the original imperial city becomes a solid city surrounded by a tall city and closed the emperor. The city’s Suzaku, Anfu, Yanxi three doors, north open Xuanwumen, in order to defend. The rebuilt Chang’an City is called the “New City”. The perimeter of the new town is 9.2 kilometers, only a quarter of the original Changan City perimeter. At the same time, there is an inner city built in the city as the official residence area; another small city is built outside the east and west city walls, as the governor of the county, Da’an County (later restored to the original name Chang’an County, Wannian County). This new city is only military and town.
After the Five Dynasties, the post-Tang Dynasty, the Later Jin Dynasty, the Later Han Dynasty, and the Zhou Dynasty, the Song and Yuan dynasties, the name and establishment of Chang’an City have changed many times, but the scale of the city has not changed, that is, from the end of the Tang Dynasty to the Song and Yuan Dynasties, Chang’an at that time. The city was only the imperial city of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, reflecting the gradual decline of Chang’an City.
In the Yuan Dynasty, the scale and distribution pattern of Fengyuan Road City (formerly known as Anxi Fucheng) was basically similar to that of the previous generation. It was only started in the tenth year of the Yuan Dynasty (1273), in the northeast of the city, near the high level of the Huhe River. The Anxi Palace was built with an area of about 0.3 square kilometers and a vertical rectangle. Italian traveler Marco Polo once praised his wall in his travels, the palace is magnificent, surrounded by spring water, and there is an army stationed for safari.
It can be seen that the scale of the “new city” city that Han Jian majored in changed little in the Five Dynasties, Song, Jin and Yuan. The Northern Song Dynasty was followed by Jingzhao Fucheng, and the Yuan Dynasty was Fengyuan Road City.
Before the establishment of the Ming Dynasty, when Zhu Yuanzhang captured Huizhou, a hermit named Zhu Sheng told him that he should “build a wall high, accumulate grain, and slow down the king.” Zhu Yuanzhang adopted these suggestions. In the second year of Ming Hongwu (1369), the general Xu Dajun led the army from Shanxi to the river, and Yuan Shou will escape, and Xu Da occupied Fengyuan City. Soon, the Ming court changed Fengyuan Road to Xi’an, which is the beginning of Xi’an’s name.
After the national reunification, Zhu Yuanzhang ordered the prefectures and counties to build cities. In the 7th year of Hongwu (1374), the Xi’an City Wall began to formally build a city and was completed in the 11th year of Hongwu (1378).
Zhu Yuanzhang thought that “the world is only the middle of the mountains and rivers is the danger”, and he attaches great importance to the status of Xi’an. Yu Shibei was asked to move to Xi’an, and in the twenty-fourth year of Hongwu (1391), Zhu Yuanzhang sent the royal prince Zhu Biao to visit Xi’an. And the second son of Zhu Xi is Qin Wang, and he is Xi’an.
At that time, the Ming Dynasty’s fortifications were very popular. Most of the walls of the large, medium, and small cities preserved in China were built at that time. So far, the folks in Guanzhong still have the saying: “Hanhan Tangta pig (Zhu) circle”. Xi’an Ming City Wall was built in the craze of this city, and was supervised by Dudu Yuying and expanded on the basis of the old city of Tanghuangcheng. According to the literature, the Xi’an City, the Western Wall and the South Wall built in the Ming Dynasty were all enhanced by the original wall of the Imperial City of the Tang Dynasty. The East Wall and the North Wall were expanded.
The location of Qinwangfucheng decided the direction of Xi’an City’s expansion. In the early Ming Dynasty, the Qin Dynasty House was built in the northeast of the Song and Song Dynasties. Based on the guiding principle of “Qin Dynasty in Shaanxi Province”, the north and east sides fully utilized the walls and moats of Yuanfengyuan Road City to reduce the amount of engineering. This site basically determines the direction of the city’s expansion. The purpose is that the city will protect the Qinwangfu, and how to place the Qinwang government in the vicinity of the city center determines the specific scale of the city’s expansion to the east and the north. .
Ming Xi’an City finally formed a pattern of the two kings in the center of the Qin Dynasty. Ming Qin Wangfu City or Qin Yucheng, also known as Qin Wangfu, is the royal palace of the Ming Dynasty Qin Wang in Xi’an. The walls of the Qinwangfu City are divided into two parts, both inside and outside. In addition to the Qin Wangfu, there are many kings and generals in Xi’an Prefecture, together with various bureaucrats, occupying most of the city’s area. The rest are still mixed with temples, Taoist temples, schools and shops. In order to meet the needs of business development, the city was built outside the east, west, south and north gates in the late Ming Dynasty.
In the second year of Ming Muzong Longqing (1568), the governor of Shaanxi Province, Zhang Wei, presided over the restoration, and built the bricks on the outer wall and top surface of the city wall, making Tucheng the first time to become a brick city.
In the nine years of Ming Si Zong Chongzhen (1636), Sun Chuanting, governor of Shaanxi Province, repaired the four walls of Tucheng. There are four gates: Changle Gate in the east, Anding Gate in the west, Yongning Gate in the south and Anyuan Gate in the north. There are three gates in each gate: the gate, the arrow tower and the main building. The gate is outside, the arrow tower is in the middle, the main building is in the middle, and the wall between the arrow building and the main building is Yucheng. The entire city wall constitutes a strict defense system, and there is a wide moat outside the city.
After the dynasty’s change and the war, the gates of the ancient Chang’an City were damaged and repaired. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, Li Zicheng’s uprising army was attacked by Xi’an in Changlemen (East Gate). Li Zicheng saw the “Changlemen” hanging on the gate of the city and said to the soldiers around him: “If the emperor Changle people are going to suffer,” the next speaker heard the fire and burned down the Changlemen tower until the Qing Dynasty rebuilt.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Xi’an was the largest regional central city in the western region and a military and political center that was related to the northwestern security. During the Qing Dynasty, Shaanxi served as the governor. In order to consolidate the city defense, the Xi’an city was repaired several times, and the moat was repeatedly dredged. Have:
In the thirteenth year of Shunzhi (1656), the governor of Shaanxi Province, Chen Jixin, rebuilt Xi’an City, rebuilt the destroyed East Gate Building and the South Gate Moon Tower in the late Ming Dynasty, and dredged the city.
In the first year of Emperor Kangxi (1662), “The Governor Bai Rumei and the governor Jia Han rehabilitated Xi’an City.”
In the second year of Emperor Qianlong (1737), Cui Jixing, a governor of Shaanxi Province, introduced water from the Xi’an City due to the lack of water and dredging the Longshou Canal and the Tongji Canal.
In the 28th year of Emperor Qianlong (1763), the governor of Shaanxi Province, Hubei Province, repaired Xi’an City and dredged the city.
In the forty-two years of Emperor Qianlong (1777), Shaanxi governor Bi Wei reported the situation of Xi’an City Wall. This speech can be regarded as the earliest motion of the Xi’an City Wall overhaul project.
In the forty-fourth year of Emperor Qianlong (1779), Bi Yi and the Shaanxi-Gansu Governor Leer Jin made a “fine survey” of the situation of Xi’an City Wall. In the 45th year (1780), Bi Bi went to Suzhou to see the Emperor Qianlong, and further honoured the Xi’an City Wall to be repaired, and obtained the permission of Qianlong.
In the forty-sixth year of Emperor Qianlong (1781), Bi Wei first clearly sang the Emperor Qianlong with the title “Playing Xi’an City Wall”, which detailed the situation of the Xi’an City Wall to be repaired, and officially requested to repair the Xi’an City Wall. The prelude to the overhaul project was opened. This maintenance is the second comprehensive maintenance of the Xi’an City Wall since the Ming Dynasty expansion.
In the forty-six years of Emperor Qianlong (1781), Decheng and the governor Bi Yi and other sections examined the city wall. Five major problems were found. In response to the above problems, Decheng suggested that the maintenance of Xi’an City Wall must be “completed and repaired”. In the reply, Qianlong emphasized that the funds “do not hesitate to pay” and the scale “from its old” has become the two basic principles of maintenance of the city wall, ensuring that the Xi’an city wall can continue to be nearly 14 kilometers from the city’s expansion since the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, covering an area of 11.6 square thousand. The sheer size of the rice.
In the forty-seventh year of Emperor Qianlong (1782), Shaanxi governor Yongbao made a preliminary division of labor and officials involved in urban work, which prompted the maintenance of Xi’an City Wall to become the number one project in the current government and Shaanxi Province.
On the twenty-fourth day of the 19th year of Qianlong (1786), the Xi’an City Wall Overhaul Project, which lasted for five years, came to an end.
In the first year of Tongzhi (1862), the Qing army built Xi’an Xiguan and Beiguan, and added the East Road Pier.
In the second year of Tongzhi (1863), General Mu Teng A dug to protect the city.
Ernst Baishman’s Xi’an City Wall, 1908
Ernst Baishman’s Xi’an City Wall, 1908
In the four years of Tongzhi (1865), the supervision of the Western Expedition Grains Yuan Baoheng repaired the Xi’an City.
In the 22nd year of Guangxu (1896), the Longshou Canal was smashed, the Xi’an Guardian City was smashed into the pool, and the Qing dynasty and the princes of the Qing dynasty dredged the Longshou Canal, diverting water, and making the pool clear.
In the twenty-fourth year of Guangxu (1898), Wei Guangxuan of Shaanxi governor and the twenty-ninth year of Guangxu (1903), the governor of Shaanxi Province, had repeatedly dredged the Tongji Canal and diverted water.
From the 46th to the 51st year of Qianlong (1781 – 1786), Xi’an Chenggong was the largest in the history of Xi’an City Wall in the Ming and Qing Dynasties with its long construction period, the craftsman’s publicity, the huge amount of funds and the amount of materials. Maintenance engineering is not only directly related to improving urban landscape and improving the defense ability of the city wall, but also has a great impact on regional socio-economic development and ecological environment changes.
In the three years of Qing Xuantong (1911), the Qing dynasty tortured the city against the attack of the new army. At that time, the tower of Anyuanmen (North Gate) was the ammunition depot of the Qing dynasty. The troops stationed in the Qing dynasty were recalcitrant, and the new army concentrated fire bombardment of the ammunition depot. After a fatal blow to the entire line, the Manchu government that ruled Xi’an in 265 years was overthrown. Regrettably, the majestic Anyuan Gate Tower was also destroyed in the war.
The famous “two tigers defending Chang’an” which occurred in the fifteenth year of the Republic of China (1926) was an arduous battle that was fierce in attack and defense and lasted for eight months. This war has fully demonstrated the defensive advantage of Xi’an City Wall’s “deep ditch high barrier”. In the fifteenth year of the Republic of China (1926), Beiyang warlord Wu Peifu’s running dog Henan warlord Liu Zhenhua led the “Zhenyijun” of the Ministry of Military Affairs. The 120,000 people entered Henan from Henan and besieged Xi’an City controlled by the Shaanxi National Army. The total number of troops in the city, including Li Huchen and the second division commander Yang Hucheng, was less than 30,000, and 400,000 people in the city were besieged for eight months. Due to the topographical relationship, the East Gate battlefield has always been the focus of the Zhenyu Army’s offensive from the beginning of the war to the victory. The Zhenjun Army set up artillery groups outside the city, shelling the East Shaanxi Army positions, and dig tunnels outside the city. Attempt to bomb the city wall. A battalion of the Yanghu City Department was ordered to serve as the East Gate Defence, excavating the shackles under the city, specializing in defending the sneak attack of the Zhenjun Army, and the Zhenjun Army excavated the tunnel several times, all of which were discovered by the Shaanxi Army. In order to dismantle the defenders, Liu Zhenhua used a coffin to pack gunpowder and collapsed part of the city wall.
On the one hand, the “two tigers” mobilized all the soldiers and the whole city to resist the city wall as a barrier. On the one hand, they asked the Guangzhou National Government for assistance. The “Zhenjunjun” outside the city also stepped up the offensive. The extremely sinister “Zhenjunjun” wanted to trap the soldiers and civilians in the city because they were not in the same position with the defenders in the city. They set fire to the already mature 400,000 mu of wheat fields outside the city. The fire continued for five or six days, and there were more than 20,000 people in the city who starved to death. “The wounds are still in the air, and the blood is even more shackles.” The battle against the city persisted very hard. Until October, Feng Yuxiang, who was compiled by the Guangzhou National Government, was ordered to aid Shaanxi. Stars and nights were surprisingly successful, and even the four squads caused Liu Jun to retreat. The wolf escaped from Shaoguan and Xi’an was relieved. In this battle, the Yongning Gate (South Gate) Arrow Tower was blown up.
During the Republic of China, the war was frequent and the economy was declining. The Xi’an City at that time was also dilapidated. It was under such conditions that the local authorities during the Republic of China also did some necessary repair work to protect the city walls, such as the measures to protect the city walls and the implementation of small-scale repairs. These repairs failed to change the decline of the ancient city walls. The appearance, but played a positive role in protecting its integrity and for large-scale repairs in the future.
Xi’an City Wall completely surrounds the “defense” strategic system. The thickness of the city wall is greater than the height, and it is as stable as a mountain. The top of the wall can be used for sports cars and drills. The wall is 12 meters high, the top width is 12-14 meters, the bottom width is 15-18 meters, and the circumference is 13.74 kilometers. There are four gates: Dongchanglemen, Xi’an Dingmen, Nanyong Ningmen, Bei’an Yuanmen. Three gates per gate: the gate, the arrow tower, and the main building. The main building is 32 meters high and 40 meters long. It is a mountain top style, four corners are lifted, three layers are heavy, and the ground floor is surrounded by cloisters. It is antique and magnificent.
The city wall includes a series of military facilities such as moat, suspension bridge, sluice building, arrow building, Zhenglou, Jiaolou, enemy building, parapet wall and cornice. There are corner walls at each corner of the city wall, and there are battlements outside the city walls. On the outside of the city wall, there are 雉堞, also known as the 垛 wall, a total of 5,984, there are gargles, can shoot arrows and look. The inner low wall is called the female wall, and there is no mouthwash to prevent the soldiers from falling when they walk. The wall of the city is repaired every 120 meters, standing outside the city wall, and the top is flat with the city wall. This is specially designed for shooting enemies who climb the city. Half of the distance between the enemy and the station, just within the effective range of the bow and arrow, easy to shoot the enemy from the side. There are 98 enemy stations on the wall, and there are enemy buildings in the garrison.
The original Xi’an city wall was layered and beaten with loess. The bottom layer was beaten with soil, lime and glutinous rice juice, which was extremely hard. Later, the inner and outer walls and the top of the entire city wall were covered with blue bricks. At the top of the city wall, every 40-60 meters, there is a sink made of blue brick for drainage, which plays a very important role in the long-term protection of the ancient city wall of Xi’an.
The ancient weapons were backward, and the gates were the only access passages. Therefore, this is the defensive focus of the feudal rulers. The four gates of Xi’an City Wall have the main building, the arrow building and the gate building. The gate is at the outermost level. Its function is to lift the suspension bridge. The arrow tower is in the middle, and there are square windows on the front and sides for archery. The main building is in the middle, and the downstairs is the main entrance of the city. The arrow tower and the main building are connected by a wall, called Yucheng, which is the place where the soldiers are. There is also a horse road leading to the city head in the city, and there is no step in the city, so it is easy to fight immediately. There are also 11 horse trails in the city. The corners of the city wall have corners that stand out from the city. In addition to the southwest corner is a circle, it may be to maintain the original shape of the Tang Emperor City, the other is square. The turret, which is taller than the enemy, is on the corner, indicating its important position in the war.
Xi’an City Wall is very defensive, and the moat outside the city is the first line of defense. There is a suspension bridge on the river, which is the only access. The suspension bridge landed on both sides of the moat during the day and was accessible to people. At night, the suspension bridge was lifted in the air, and the road into the city was cut off. There is a building outside the city gate (also called the Loulou), which is used to fight and alarm, and is the second line of defense. Behind the gate is the arrow tower, which is more than 30 meters high. The outside wall is straight and the arrow holes are dense, which is convenient for viewing and shooting. This is the third line of defense. Between the Jianlou and the Zhenglou is the Yucheng City, with an area of 9,348 square meters. Its role is: If the enemy breaks in here, it will form a “catch-up”, which is the fourth line of defense. The fifth line of defense is naturally the right gate.
In addition to the tight security of the city gates, the corners of the four corners of the city wall are also equipped with turrets, which are used to assist the city gates to observe and defend the enemy from all sides. On the outside of the entire city wall, there is a horse face (also called enemy station) every 120 meters. Each horse is 20 meters wide and extends 12 meters from the city wall. The height and structure are the same as the wall. Xi’an City has a total of 98 horses and 5,984 mouths, making the outside of the city wall zigzag. There are 3 card houses (also called enemy buildings) that can be stationed in the army on each horse. There are daughter walls on the walls and horses. There are notches and square holes on the wall that can hide and see and shoot.
City gate introduction
Xi’an City Wall has 18 city gates, clockwise from Yongning Gate: Yongning Gate, Zhuquemen, Nomou Gate, Hanguangmen, Andingmen, Yuxiangmen, Shangwumen, Anyuanmen, Shangdemen, Jiefangmen Shangshangmen, Shangqinmen, Chaoyangmen, Zhongshan Gate, Changlemen, Jianguomen, Peace Gate, Wenchangmen. The formation time and specifications of these 18 gates vary.
Among them, Yongningmen, Anyuanmen, Changlemen and Andingmen have four gates. As the original city gate of Xi’an Mingcheng Wall, they were single-door caves because of the military defense needs at that time, and they all built three walls, between the two walls. Another formation of Yucheng. Except Yongning Gate, the remaining three doors now have only two walls left. During the Republic of China, the city gate gradually lost its original military defense needs. For the convenience of transportation, people opened new door openings on both sides of the original four gates. The remaining 14 new gates were later rebuilt on the wall of the city wall opened by the war. Some were new to the site of the Tang Imperial City gate, and some were to commemorate the new characters.
Nancheng Seven Gates
Yongningmen is commonly known as the South Gate. It is the oldest and most long-lasting one in Xi’an City Gate. It was built in the beginning of the year. It is one of the three east gates in the south of the Imperial City. It is called Anshang Gate. When the Han Dynasty was built in the late Tang Dynasty, it was reserved for the South Gate and renamed Yongning Gate in the Ming Dynasty. Yongningmen Arrow Tower was destroyed in the Xi’an Defence War (also known as Erhu Shouchang) and was rebuilt on the original site in 2013. Yongning door specifications are 6+1 door openings.
Zhuquemen was originally the south gate of Tang Chang’an Imperial City, and the door was the Zhuque Street in the center of the city. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the emperor often held celebrations here. In the ninth year of the Emperor’s reign (589), the empire was unified in the world, and Emperor Wendi reviewed the triumphant army in the Zhuquemen Gate. When Han Jian rebuilt the new city at the end of the Tang Dynasty, Zhuquemen was closed. When the Xi’an City Wall was restored in 1985, the site of Zhuquemen wrapped in the Ming City Wall was discovered. As the literary figures of the Sui and Tang dynasties are magnificent and magnificent, the pillars of the city are made of marble. The sills made of bluestone are engraved with stalks of beautiful lines and the walls of the doors are thick and straight. Zhuquemen, opened in 1986, is located on the west side of the site. The Suzaku Gate is a 4-door hole.
No curtain door
The Doumen Gate is commonly known as Xiaonanmen. It was opened in the 28th year of the Republic of China (1939). In the thirty-sixth year of the Republic of China (1947), it was renamed as the No. Gate, in honor of the revolutionary martyrs in the Revolution of 1911. The well-being was the first member of the League, and the revolutionary who had a major influence during the democratic revolution. He died in the law-protection movement and was called the “Northwest Revolutionary Pillar” by Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing. In 19th year of the Republic of China (1946), the military and civilians in Shaanxi renamed Sifu Street, which was inhabited by Xi’an in Xi’an, as “Inoue Street” and named the southern gate of the street as “Inoue Gate”. In the thirty-sixth year of the Republic of China (1947), they were renamed as “No Silk Street” and “No Curtain Door”. The door to the door is a single door hole.
The Guangmen Gate is the westernmost gate of the South City Wall and is the west gate of the south of the Tang Dynasty. When Han Jian rebuilt the new city at the end of the Tang Dynasty, he closed the Zhongmen Cave and the Ximen Cave, and retained the Dongmen Cave. After the Northern Song Dynasty, it was completely closed. When the Xi’an City Wall was renovated in 1984, the ruins of the Guangmen Gate were excavated, and the pillar foundation made of granite and the threshold doorway of the carved stone were found. The newly built Budongdong Gate has been placed on both sides of the site, and the site is protected by frame structure, and the city bricks are outsourced to make the appearance consistent with the city wall. The artificial lighting and air conditioning system is installed inside for visitors to visit. The Tanghuang City Wall with the Guangmen Gate Museum can be accessed from the city wall. The light door specification is 4 door holes.
Jianguomen is the most east gate of the South City Wall. In order to commemorate the great historical event of the founding of New China, the south gate of the Jianguo Road section was newly opened, hence the name Jianguomen.
Although the streets of Jianguo Road are short, they carry a heavy history. According to the research of historical scholars, Sun Wuji, the famous minister of the Tang Dynasty, lived today’s Jianguo Road. During the Republic of China, the Xi’an Incident, which shocked China, was located here. Today, Zhang Xueliang’s residence has been listed as a national key cultural relics protection unit by the state. The Jianguomen specification is a 3-door hole.
The Peace Gate was opened on the same north-south axis as the Big Wild Goose Pagoda, Dacha City, Xi’an Railway Station and Daming Palace Hanyuan Hall. It opened in 1953. In order to express the desire of the war-torn Chinese people for world peace, the name of Peace was named. Inside the gate is Peace Road, outside the gate is Yanta Road. The Shuncheng Lane, which is paved by the bluestone slab between the Wenchangmen and the west of the Peace Gate, is the lower Ma Ling. More than 2,100 years ago, even if Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty took this place, he would have to walk down, because when the famous politician Dong Zhongshu was buried here, the lower Ma Ling was named. The Peace Gate is a 4-door door.
Wenchangmen is located on the north side of Beilin Museum and opened in 1986. The Kuixing Building is built on the wall here, and it is the only facility on the Xi’an wall that has nothing to do with military defense. Kuixing, also known as “Kui Xing” and “Quai Su”, is one of the twenty-eight stars. The legend is that the god who dominates the rise and fall of the literary movement is known as “Wenquxing” and “Wenchangxing”. If you are picked up by his Zhu pen, you can make a wonderful flower, even the middle three yuan, become the champion. Therefore, in the ancient Confucius Temple and the school, there was a Kuixing Building dedicated to incense. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Xi’an Fuxue and Confucius Temple were built next to the city wall (now the Forest of Monuments), and Kuixing Building was built on the wall. The Kuixing Building was restored in 1986, and the newly opened city gate downstairs was named Wenchangmen. Wenchangmen specifications are 4 door holes.
Xicheng Second Gate
Andingmen is commonly known as Ximen. It is the southernmost gate of the West Wall. It was originally the middle gate of the west of Tanghuangcheng. When the wall was expanded in the Ming Dynasty, the position moved slightly southward, named Anding Gate, which symbolizes the western frontier Antai Kangding. The original three-door building of the city gate: the city tower, the arrow tower, the gate building. Three walls, the tower, the arrow tower is centered, and the gate is outward. There are arched door openings under the door, and the height of the hole is 6 meters. There is a square city between the tower and the arrow tower. It is usually a passageway, and the wartime is a defensive ground. On the north side of the tower, there is a watchtower built by the Japanese Emperor when visiting Xi’an for tourists to visit. It is a national key cultural relics protection unit. Ximen Arrow Tower is the most complete preserved ancient castle in China. Inside the city gate is West Street, outside the gate is Xiguanzheng Street. The stability of the door is a 6+1 door hole.
In the fifteenth year of the Republic of China (1926), Wu Peihua, the Henan warlord of Wu Peifu, surrounded Xi’an City for eight months, causing the Xi’an people to die of more than 40,000 people. Until General Feng Yuxiang led the national coalition forces to defeat Liu Zhenhua, Xi’an was able to Resolve.
In the seventeenth year of the Republic of China (1928), the gate built on the opening of the war wall opened by the war, in order to commemorate the historical achievements of General Feng, who entered the city, named Yuxiangmen, the northernmost gate of the West Wall. Yuxiang door specifications are 5 door holes.
Beicheng Six Gates
Shangwumen is the westernmost gate of Xi’an North City Wall, which was opened after the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
Inside the city gate is the northwest three roads, outside the city gate is the Gongnong Road.
The Shangwumen specification is a 4-door hole.
Anyuan Gate is commonly known as the North Gate. The North Gate was built when the city wall was built in the Ming Dynasty. The official name is Anyuan Gate.
The word “An Yuan” is a policy of softening and appeasement adopted by the Han Chinese courts of the Central Plains against the remote ethnic minorities. It is hoped that the ethnic minorities will return to the court.
During the Revolution of 1911, the insurgents attacked the Qing Dynasty, and the Anyuan Gate war was fierce. The Beimen Gate was burned down during the war. When the city wall was renovated in 1983, the original arrow tower was restored. Anyuan door specifications are 4+1 door holes.
Shangdemen is located east of Anyuan Gate and opened after the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
In the 16th year of the Republic of China (1927), the “new life movement” advocated “four-dimensional, eight virtues”, and the north-south vertical street took the “four-dimensional” “diligence, envy, benevolence, virtue” from east to west, and crowned Named after the word “尚”, namely Shangqin Road, Shangyi Road, Shangren Road (later changed to Zhongzheng Road, now Jiefang Road), Shangde Road. After the founding of New China in 1949, three gates were opened at Shangqin Road, Shangqi Road and Shangde Road in the North City Wall, named Shangqinmen, Shangyumen and Shangdemen. Suntech’s specification is a 3-door hole.
In the 21st year of the Republic of China (1932), the Longhai Railway was opened to traffic, and the gate was opened at Shangren Road, North City Wall, named Shangrenmen. In the thirty-fourth year of the Republic of China (1945), Shangren Road was renamed Zhongzheng Road, and the city gate was renamed Zhongzhengmen. In 1950, Zhongzheng Road was renamed Jiefang Road and the city gate was renamed Jiefangmen. In 1952, due to the expansion of the railway station square, it was demolished and became a gap in the Xi’an city wall. In 2005, it was reconnected to form a large-span bridge-arch city gate, which enabled the entire Xi’an city wall to pass through. The liberation door is a 3-span arched bridge with a large span.
Shangyumen is located between the Jiefangmen and Shangshangmen of the North Wall, and opened after the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the city gate was opened on the Shangcheng Road of the North City Wall.
Inside the city gate is Shangyu Road, outside the city gate is the east plate of the railway station.
The size of the Shangyumen is 3 holes.
Shangqin Gate is the easternmost gate of the North City Wall, which was opened after the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
In 1949, after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, three gates were opened on Shangqin Road, the north wall, and the name was Shangqin.
Inside the city gate is Shangqin Road, outside the city gate and the Ring Road North Road into a T-junction.
Shangqin door specifications are 3 door holes.
Chaoyangmen is the northernmost gate of the Dongcheng Wall, which was opened after the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Because the gate is facing the sun, it is the first city gate to see the sun every day, so it is named Chaoyangmen.
Inside the city gate is Dongwu Road, and outside the door is Changle Road.
The Chaoyang Gate is a 5-door hole.
Zhongshan Gate is commonly known as Xiaodongmen. At the beginning of the 16th year of the Republic of China (1927), the Zhongshan Gate opened under the initiative of General Feng Yuxiang, named after the National Revolutionary Leader Sun Yat-sen. On May 1, 1927, General Feng Yuxiang led the army to the east and left the city from Zhongshan.
Zhongshan Gate is juxtaposed with two door openings. Feng named them “East Zhengmen” and “Arc de Triomphe” respectively. On the day of the teacher, Feng Yuxiang sent a speech to the public in the city, saying that he would wait for the Northern Expedition to win, and then open the Arc de Triomphe to welcome him. However, after the change of the situation, he did not return to Xi’an. The Zhongshan Gate is a double door.
Changlemen is commonly known as the East Gate. It is the main entrance of the Dongcheng Wall and the southernmost gate. Built in the construction of the Ming City Wall, the official name is Changlemen. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, Li Zicheng was attacked by Ximen. Li Zicheng saw the “Changlemen” plaque hanging on the gate of the city and said to the soldiers around him: “If the emperor is happy, the people will suffer a lot.” The subordinates immediately set fire to the tower until the Qing Dynasty rebuilt.
Before the “Xi’an Incident”, General Zhang Xueliang once set up a teaching team and a military corps on the East Gate City Building. The old site was restored as a memorial site for the Xi’an Incident. The Changle door is a 6+1 door hole.
Cultural relic protection
In the early days of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the repair and protection of Xi’an City Wall had gone through a tortuous course. Due to the limitations of history and the influence of the “Left” trend, Xi’an City Wall has experienced the danger of being completely dismantled. Fortunately, the national leaders and provincial and municipal leaders, experts and scholars, and people from all walks of life who attach great importance to historical and cultural protection work. Under the insistence, Xi’an City Wall was relieved of the fate of being demolished, ushered in the turning point of fate after the reform and opening up.
The ancient city wall of Xi’an embodies the wisdom of the working people of ancient China, and provides rare material materials for studying the history, military and architecture of the Ming Dynasty. It is very high for studying the urban construction, history, military and architectural art of the feudal society. the value of.
On April 13, 2018, Xi’an City Wall was shortlisted for “Magic Northwest 100 Scenes”.
On September 17, 2019, won the “2019 China Travel and Tourism Brand Influential Conference, Great Country Tour Scenic Spot Selection” comprehensive award.
Address: Xi’an City Wall is located in the downtown area of Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, across the Beilin District, Xincheng District and Lianhu District.
Time: South Gate (8:00-22:00), including Guangmen (8:00-17:30), and the remaining gates (April 1st – April 30th, 8:00-18) :00; May 1st – October 31st, 8:00-19:00; November 1st – March 31st, 8:00 – 18:00).
South Gate Performance: South Gate Antique Opening Ceremony (9:30 Nanmen Suspension Bridge Square), Samurai Army Performance (10:30 am, 16:30 pm).
Transportation: Bus 4, 7, 10, 15, 18, 21, 23, 31, 43, 45, 201, 107, 202, etc. can reach Ximen, 6, 9, 26, 28, 33, 36, 37, etc. Line 2 can reach the North Gate, 11, 12, 16, 23, 26, 31, etc. and Metro Line 2 can reach the South Gate, 8, 22, 27, 29, 33, 37 and other roads can reach the East Gate.
Tickets: 54 yuan for adults, 1.2-1.4 meters for children, student ID (except for student certificates of master’s degree or above, student card for foreign colleges and universities), 27-year-olds aged 65-70. Bicycle rentals can be rented on the city wall, with a single bicycle for 45 yuan, a double bicycle for 90 yuan, and a deposit of 200 yuan.
Dengcheng Point: Xi’an City Wall has 8 Dengcheng points, namely Dongmen, Nanmen, Ximen, Beimen, Hepingmen, Wenchangmen, Hanguangmen, Shangdemen, and you can choose to buy tickets to the city.