Tianyi Pavilion

Tianyi Pavilion

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Geographic location:Haishu District, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province


Famous scenery:Ancient books and books

Opening hours: 8:30-17:30

Tianyi Pavilion is located in Haishu District, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province. It was built in the middle of the Ming Dynasty. It was built by Fan Qin, the right minister of the Ming Dynasty who was retired at that time. It covers an area of 26,000 square meters and has a history of more than 400 years. It is a Chinese collection culture. The representative of the work.

Tianyi Pavilion is the earliest private collection in China. It is also the oldest library in Asia and one of the world’s first three family libraries.

In 1982, Tianyi Pavilion was announced by the State Council as a national key cultural relics protection unit. It is now a national AAAAA level tourist attraction.

On October 17, 2018, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism announced that it would meet the national 5A-level tourist scenic spot standards and propose to make public announcements for the national 5A-level tourist attractions. Among them, Tianyi Pavilion is listed.

Tianyi Pavilion

Historical evolution


Tianyi Pavilion is located in Haishu District, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province. It is the earliest private library building in China. It is also the oldest library in Asia and one of the world’s first three family libraries.

Tianyi Pavilion covers an area of 26,000 square meters and was built in the middle of the Ming Dynasty. It was built by Fan Qin, the right minister of the retreat of the Ministry of War, and was declared a national key cultural relic protection unit by the State Council in 1982. There are nearly 300,000 volumes of ancient books in the collection, including 80,000 volumes of rare books, especially in the Ming Dynasty. The business of our library has developed rapidly. We have added the China Local History Museum, the Yintai Official House Museum, and the Mahjong Origin Exhibition Hall. The bookstore is a two-story hardtop building with wooden structure, with a height of 8.5 meters.

The ground floor is wide and six in depth, with front and back corridors. The second floor is a large one except the stairwell, separated by a bookcase.

In addition, we also cut the “Tianyichi” Tongyue Lake in front of the building, which can beautify the environment and store water for fire prevention. The architectural layout of Tianyi Pavilion was later emulated by other library buildings.

Tianyi Pavilion


Tianyi Pavilion was built in Mingjiajing forty years (1561) to forty-five years (1566). It was a private library building built by Fan Qin, the right minister of the Ming Dynasty. Fan Qin likes to read books and collect books. He has collected more than 70,000 volumes of books in his life.

Fan Qin’s collection of books features local chronicles, political books, scientific records, and poetry collections.

Due to the high degree of weight, Fan Qin’s collection of books is the internal information of the official office, which is difficult for ordinary collectors to obtain.

After he was dismissed and returned to the field, he built a library to keep these books.

Fan Qin’s earliest library building was named “Dongming Caotang”.

After resigning from the home, with the increase of collections, it is urgent to build a new library.

According to the words “Tianyishengshui…the place of six Chengzhi” in Zheng Xuan’s “Yi Jing Zhu”, Fan Qin named the new collection of books as “Tianyi Pavilion” and adopted “Tianyidi Liu” in the architectural pattern. The pattern of building a pool outside the building to prevent fire, “fire with water.”

At the same time, use various anti-mite and deworming measures to protect books.

Tianyi Pavilion

Inheritance and development

Fan Yizhu’s “Tianyi Pavilion Collection”, mentioned in the preface that “the seven cabinets were built in Qianlong, and they used their styles, and they wrote more books into the four-stores, giving them book integration, and they were also honored.”
In 1585, Fan Qin passed away.
According to Quan Zuwang’s “Book of the Tianyi Pavilion”, before the death of Fan Qin, the family property was divided into two parts: the collection of books and other family products. The eldest son, Fan Dichong, voluntarily gave up the inheritance rights of other family members, and inherited the collection of more than 70,000 volumes of his father’s collection. This also formed the ancestral training of Tianyige, “there is no book, no book.”
While maintaining and supplementing the collection of Tianyige, Fan Dichong also established a family rule that maintains the collection of Tianyige. The book is reserved for the children and grandchildren.
These systems have been preserved during the private period of Tianyi Pavilion (the establishment of Tianyi Pavilion until 1949) and have been supplemented by successive generations.
In 1665, Fan Qin’s great-grandson Fan Guangwen built gardens in front of Tianyi Pavilion, and used fake rock to form animal forms such as “Nine Lions and Elephants”, which improved the environment around Tianyi Pavilion.
This period is also the most abundant period of Tianyi Pavilion. According to research, at that time, Tianyi Pavilion had more than 5,000 books and more than 70,000 volumes. Since then, the collection has not increased until 1949.
In 1676, Fan Qin’s descendant Fan Guangtao copied more than 100 kinds of books from Tianyi Pavilion for the scholars to read. Fan Guangyu made an exception to help the university’s Huang Zongqi to go to the building to read the Tianyi Pavilion, making Huang Zongxi the first foreigner to enter Tianyi Pavilion.
Huang Zongxi compiled a bibliography for Tianyige and wrote “Tianyige’s Collection of Secretaries”, praising the descendants of Fan’s “Fan’s family is able to live, the ceremony is not in Fan’s family? Fortunately, don’t wait for the clouds to pass, the world’s children and grandchildren are eye-catching “.
Tianyi Pavilion thus increased its popularity among scholars. Since then, Tianyi Pavilion has gradually ended its external closure and is open to famous scholars, although there are not many scholars who have obtained such opportunities.
In 1773, when Emperor Qianlong repaired the “Siku Quanshu”, Fan Qin VIII Sun Fanyuzhu entered the Tianyi Pavilion 641 species, ranking the second in the country, but the quality is first-class, including a large number of rare books, rare books. Among the books in the collection, five-fifths of the income was collected from the “Siku Quanshu Head”, and one-sixth of the total was copied, but all the books were not returned, which caused the Tianyige collection to drop to 4,819. In the 39th year of Qianlong’s thirteenth year, he gave a special award to the Tianyi Pavilion, an ancient and modern book integration, to show the award, and sent Hangzhou weaving to go to Tianyi Pavilion to understand the architectural pattern, and decreed the imitation of Tianyi Pavilion. The construction of Wenyuan Pavilion and other “inner courts”, “the system of the cabinet is like Fan’s Tianyi Pavilion”, I hope that the design of Tianyi Pavilion will enable the “Siku Quanshu” to be safely preserved. In the forty-fourth year of Qianlong’s forty-fourth year, he gave Fan Jialang Shi Ning an engraved sixteen pictures of the “flattened back to victory”. In February of the 52nd year of Emperor Qianlong, he gave 12 more pictures of the Pingding two Jinchuan war maps.
In 1829, Fan Li, Fan Bangyu and other descendants of the Fan family overhauled the library building, replaced the brick and tile steps, repaired the rockery, dredged the pool water, and revised the management system of Tianyige, and set up three kinds of forbidden monuments. Strictly guarantee that Tianyige’s book “No Books”.

Tianyi Pavilion

Late Qing Dynasty, the War of Resistance

In 1840, the Opium War broke out. In 1841, Ningbo Fucheng fell. The British occupying forces plundered dozens of books such as “Da Ming Yi Tong Zhi”.
By 1847, there were only 2,223 books in the Tianyi Pavilion.
In 1861, the Taiping army captured Ningbo, and the thieves sold the books in Tianyi Pavilion. The latter books were purchased by Fan Qinshi Sun Fanbang. According to Xue Fucheng’s “Tianyi Pavilion”, by 1884, Tianyi Pavilion had 2,152 original books, a total of 17,382 volumes, and “Establishment of Ancient and Modern Books”, 8462 volumes.
After the founding of the Republic of China in 1914, the thief Xue Jiyu sneaked into the Tianyi Pavilion and cooperated with the thieves outside the building. He sold the stolen Tianyige books to Shanghai and sold them in the bookstore. Later, he was redeemed by Zhang Yuanji of the Commercial Press. It was hidden in the Hanfen Building of the Oriental Library, but was burned in the Anti-Japanese War due to the bombing of the Eastern Library. This incident caused Tianyige to lose a thousand books.
On September 18, 1933, the typhoon caused the destruction of Tianyi Pavilion. With the support of Chen Baolin, the county magistrate, the local people including Feng Mengxuan and Yang Juting established the Tianyi Pavilion Committee, which included the descendants of Fan’s family, and moved the Zunjing Pavilion in Ningbo Fu School to Tianyi Pavilion, and moved more than 80 square inscriptions. In the backyard of Tianyi Pavilion, the “Mingzhou Beilin” was established. At the same time, Qianjinzhai was opened on the west side of the Zunjing Pavilion, and the bricks collected by the ancient scholars and the Ningbo City Walls collected by the Ningbo scholar Ma Lian were displayed.
When Tianyi Pavilion was rebuilt in 1933, the collection of Baoshulou was moved to Fan’s Valley, and the government sent troops to guard.
In 1937, the War of Resistance Against Japan broke out. In order to protect the collection of Tianyi Pavilion, Tianyi Pavilion experienced the first large-scale cabinet outbreak since its establishment in 370 years. The first three boxes of books left Tianyi Pavilion on August 17, 1937.
On January 5, 1939, the second batch of eight boxes of the previous version was also transported away from Tianyi Pavilion and transported to the countryside for temporary evasion.
On April 12, 1939, the two previous collections and the remaining collections in the library totaled 28 boxes and 9,080 books. They were sealed by the Jixian County Government and transported to the rear of Longquan County, temporarily stored in Lanshi Township, and the Zhejiang Provincial Library. The books are hidden together. After the end of the Anti-Japanese War, the collections were shipped to Hangzhou until December 16, 1946, when Tianyige’s collection was returned to the cabinet, and the first publicity since the establishment of Tianyi Pavilion was carried out from March 1st to 3rd of the following year. display.

Tianyi Pavilion

New China period

On the eve of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Zhou Enlai had instructed to protect Tianyi Pavilion. After the liberation of Ningbo, the People’s Liberation Army sent a special person to protect Tianyi Pavilion. On June 9, 1949, the Ningbo Military Control Commission took over Tianyi Pavilion and made it a public institution. Fan’s descendants Fan Yingxi and Fan Luqi became public officials. Many local book collectors in Ningbo donated their personal collections to Tianyi Pavilion, which greatly enriched the collection of Tianyige.
In 1982, Tianyi Pavilion was selected as the second batch of national key cultural relics protection units. Tianyi Pavilion already has 300,000 volumes of books, and it is still increasing. At the same time, it has a special ancient restoration department.
In 2003, it was rated as a national AAAA-level tourist attraction.
In 2007, it was announced as a national key ancient protection unit.
At the end of 2010, Tianyi Pavilion’s digital platform for ancient books was established. The 30,000 volumes of monuments based on rare books were digitized for online access.
On October 9, 2012, Tengwangge (Nanchang City), Yueyang Building (Yueyang City), Yellow Crane Tower (Wuhan City), Yuquelou (Yongji City, Shanxi Province) and Penglai Pavilion (Penglai City, Shandong Province) were confirmed from the Tengwangge Management Office of Nanchang City. Ten major Chinese historical and cultural buildings, such as Daguanlou (Kunming City), Yuejiang Building (Nanjing City), Tianxin Pavilion (Changsha City), Bell and Drum Tower (Xi’an City), Tianyi Pavilion (Ningbo City), will jointly declare the UN Material cultural heritage.

Tianyi Pavilion

Building style

The name of Tianyi Pavilion, taken from the words of Han Zhengxuan’s “Yi Jing Note”, the fire of Zhongtian, because fire is the biggest scourge of the library, and “the water of the sky” can be used as a water, so the name “day” One cabinet.” The bookstore is a hard-top, heavy-rise building with six wide and deep sides, with corridors communicating with each other. There is a “Tianyi Pool” in front of the building, diverting water into the pool and storing water for fire prevention. In the four years of Emperor Kangxi (1665), Fan Qin’s great-grandson Fan Guangwen built a rockery around the pool, built a bridge, planted flowers and planted grass, and made the whole pavilion and its surroundings begin to have the appearance of private gardens in Jiangnan. A large room upstairs, six downstairs, and named Tianyi Pavilion. The garden is based on the “Fu, Lu, Shou” overall shape, with mountains and rocks piled up into nine lions and other attractions. The scenery is beautiful and elegant, with unique features of Jiangnan courtyard garden.

The Tianyi Pavilion Museum is a comprehensive museum featuring a collection of books and culture, integrating social history and art. The Tianyi Pavilion Museum has a quiet environment, exquisite gardens, simple architecture and rich local characteristics. In addition to a rich collection of books, Tianyi Pavilion is also unique in terms of fire, ventilation and moisture.

Tianyi Pavilion

Fire prevention

The first thing to consider when building a library is the fire prevention problem. Once, when Fan Qin looked through the rubbings, he saw the “Dragon Tiger Mountain Tianyichi Ji” written by Jie Jusi. On the post, there was a sentence “Tian Yi Sheng Shui, Di Liu Sui Zhi”. Fan Qin was inspired by it and decided to follow The meaning of this sentence from the “Book of Changes” is to build a library, and the library is named “Tianyi Pavilion.”

In the Book of Changes, the odd numbers one, three, five, seven, and nine are called “days” and “born numbers”, and “even numbers” two, four, six, eight, and ten are called “grounds.” The number “and the number”, in the correspondence between the number and the five elements, one or six are water, two, seven are fire, three, eight are wood, four, nine are gold, five, ten are territories. Therefore, “the sky is alive, and the land is 60%.”

According to the meaning of “Yi Yi Sheng Shui” and “Five Life and Water”, Fan Qin is unique in design. He built the library building into a two-story building with six floors of brick and wood structure, and six rooms downstairs. Upstairs is one. The lower level is used for reading and collecting stone carvings, and the upper layer is classified into books according to the classics, history, sub-sets and episodes. The library building opens windows on both sides of the north and south, air convection, ventilation and moisture, and the volcanic walls are used for the east and west gables to prevent the neighboring houses from spreading. This kind of building pattern of the next six is one of the meanings of “the sky is alive, the land is 60%.” Not only that, but the height and depth of the room and the size of the bookcase also imply a “six” number.

When building the building, Fan Qin also opened a pool in front of the building, called “Tianyichi”. The pool is actually a fire pool, surrounded by bamboo and wood. The pool water is connected to the Yuehu Lake next to the library building through the dark ditch.

The library building thus constructed satisfies the need for fire prevention in both material and psychological aspects.

Tianyi Pavilion

Collection introduction

Early management system

There are many collectors in the past, and it is rare to have a collection of books for more than 100 years. Fan’s collection has been preserved to this day, which is inseparable from Fan Qin’s management system. Tianyige’s collection system stipulates: “Tobacco and alcohol should not be allowed to go to the building”, “there is no division of books, the book does not come out of the cabinet”, and it is also stipulated that the keys of the collection of bookcases are controlled by the descendants of the children and grandchildren, and the non-houses must not be unlocked, and the surnames are not allowed to enter the cabinet. You must not bring your relatives and friends into the cabinet privately, and you must not enter the cabinet for no reason. You must not borrow books and foreigners. His surnames are not allowed to enter the cabinet. Violators will be severely punished. Fire prevention, waterproofing, insect prevention, rodent prevention, and theft prevention are also formulated. . Because of this, the collection of Tianyige was preserved to this day. “The surname is not allowed to enter the cabinet”, so that the collection of Tianyige is not known to outsiders. Until 1673 (the 12th year of Emperor Kangxi of Qing Dynasty), the thinker Huang Zongxi was lucky to be the first person to be the surname. It is Fan Qin’s descendants (four generations) Fan Guangwei who allowed Huang Zongxi to take the board. Since then, Tianyi Pavilion has entered a relatively open era, but only some real university students will be allowed to visit the Tianyi Pavilion. The Qing Dynasty thinker, historian Huang Zongxi was allowed to read all the books in Tianyi Pavilion, and compiled the books whose circulation was not widely published, and wrote the “Tianyige Collection Secretary” to stay in the world.

Tianyi Pavilion

Main collection

As one of the oldest collections in China, Ningbo Tianyi Pavilion has an indissoluble bond with the university scholars and great writers. Huang Zongxi, Wan Sitong, Quan Zuwang, Yuan Mei and other cultural celebrities have once boarded Tianyi Pavilion. He wrote poems and confessed his admiration. In the mid-1990s, the famous essayist Yu Qiuyu wrote “A Stormy Sky and a Pavilion”, which made Tianyi Pavilion famous.

Tianyige now collects nearly 300,000 volumes of ancient books, including most of the historical books such as local chronicles and Dengkelu. The collection of modern authors Tie Ning, Huang Ya, Ye Xin, Gao Hongbo, Radar, Wang Hongjia, Wang Jianbing, Han Zuorong, Chen Yuanbin, Wang Xufeng, Ye Wenling, Chen Zufen and other 12 writers, with 14 volumes and 23 volumes, is the first in Tianyige. The second batch collects contemporary popular literary works. Xu Liangxiong believes that this is the need for the ancient library to go open, modern, and increase social participation.

The Tianyige Museum accepted a box of ten volumes of the “Tianwang Wang’s Genealogy” presented by Wang Shichao and Wang Shiheng, the villagers of Hengshan Village, Dufu Town, Xinchang County. Tianyi Pavilion has accepted 10 donations from the public, including: Lu’s Genealogy, donated by Lv’s descendants, and Shi’s Genealogy (Baihangtang) donated by descendants of Dongyang Shi. Ministry of Science and Technology, Zhengzhou, Jiangsu Province, Zheng Zhengjun, a donation by Zheng Zaijun, a section of the “Zhang’s Family of the Wild”, a piece of “Zhang’s Genealogy” donated by Ninghai Zhang Linguang; and a “Lanfeng Shaw Clan” donated by Yuyao Shao Jiuhua; Henan Luyi Ding’s Genealogy One; Guangxi “Fanyang Lu’s Genealogy”; Xiangshan “Wallhead Chiang’s Genealogy”; Yueqing Wang Dingguang donated “Zuoyuan Wangshi Historical Collection (general class) “Zhangjiang Zhang’s Genealogy” donated by Hangzhou Zhang Quangen; “Pengcheng Shooting Jin’s Genealogy” donated by Xinchang Jin Yuxing.

The donation of genealogy greatly enriched the number of such collections in Tianyige, making it another highlight of the collection of Tianyige outside the disciplines and local chronicles. With the establishment of the “Four Centers” of Tianyige Museum, Tianyi Pavilion has vigorously developed the collection of Chinese-Chinese literature and continuously enriched its collection resources. The number of new and old genealogy of Tianyi Pavilion is close to 550. The content covers more than one hundred surnames and has become the first collection center of Zhedong.

Tianyi Pavilion

Book culture

“The richness of the book, A is in the world”, the first Tianyige China Book Culture Festival opened in 2003 shows the “cultural signboard” of the city that Ningbo people take pride in: the book culture.

Ningbo has always been the focus of the Chinese collection culture. Especially since the Song Dynasty, private collections have become popular, and famous buildings have been built. There are more than 80 famous collections in the past. Tianyi Pavilion, which has been in 430 years, is a model of Ningbo’s collection of books and a vivid symbol of Chinese collection culture. It has now been called “Ningbo’s study”.

The exhibition is divided into four parts according to the times, namely, “the library building of the Ming Dynasty”, “the library building of the Qing Dynasty”, “the library building of the Republic of China” and “the new memorial library building”. In addition to the use of photos and Chinese and English texts, some of the library’s introductions are also equipped with scenes.

In the exhibition hall, the visitors were delighted to see that the ice cracked lattice window fainted through the corner of the desk, and the dark book version appeared to be randomly discharged. Some of the wire-bound books in the book box were opened and turned over. Page… Such a scene display consisting of a book version, a book box, and a desk has about 10 groups. Together with the 64 scroll-type giant images and the ancient architectural environment, they form an ingenious open display that allows viewers. Produce an immersive feeling.

At the Book Collection Cultural Festival, 70-year-old Qin Bingnian is an important news person. He once again donated the precious cultural relics of his family to the Tianyige Museum, and the donated 171 pieces of exquisite Ming and Qing porcelain will be exhibited at Tianyi Pavilion.

Mr. Qin Bingnian was born in Ningbo in 1933 and is now a lifelong researcher at Tianyige Museum. His Gaozu Qin Zuan, Zeng Zu Qin Ji and his grandfather Qin Weichu, the three generations are the “Ningbo Gang” businessmen who have become rich in business. The Qin’s branch built by Qin Zu’an is now a national key cultural relics protection unit in China. His father, Qin Kangxiang, is a famous seal engraver and collector in modern Shanghai. He is famous for his collection of famous bamboo carvings and enamel printing.

Mr. Qin Bingnian has donated 101 pieces of precious Ming and Qing dynasty bamboo carvings from his father to the Tianyi Pavilion Museum in his hometown. The porcelain he donated this time included 6 national second-class cultural relics and 31 third-class cultural relics. For example, Ming Chongzhen blue-and-white figures lotus seed pots, Qing dynasty 豇 red beans, and Qinglongquan kiln stalks are extremely precious cultural relics.

In addition to the above two activities, the first Tianyige China Book and Culture Festival also arranged “China Book Collection Culture Seminar”, “China Book Collection Ticket Exhibition”, “Chinese Book Collection Knowledge Lecture”, “Book Collection Cultural Knowledge Garden Quiz”, etc. High academic and extensive mass participation activities.

On the occasion of the 6th “Historical City Protection Day” in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, the oldest existing library in China, Ningbo Tianyi Pavilion, will be held on December 7th to ask for the roots of the tree. The exhibition, including the genealogy of celebrities such as Fan Qin, Zhang Xuecheng, Quan Zuwang, Sun Xingyan, Chiang Kai-shek, and Bao Yugang, was exhibited together.

Tianyi Pavilion

Main Attractions

Covering an area of ​​2.6 hectares, Tianyi Pavilion is a thematic museum with the collection of books as the core, research, protection, management, display, social education and tourism. There are more than 300,000 volumes of ancient books in the collection. Among them, there are more than 80,000 volumes of rare books, and in addition, a large number of calligraphy and paintings, rubbings and exquisite local crafts are also collected. It has exhibition halls such as “Tianyi Pavilion Development History Exhibition”, “China Local History Collection”, “China’s Existing Library Exhibition”, “Ming and Qing Dynasties Exhibition”, etc. The calligraphy and painting hall conducts various temporary exhibitions and cultural exchange activities throughout the year. Tianyi Pavilion is divided into a library culture area, a garden leisure area, and an exhibition exhibition area. The collection of book culture centers centered on Baoshulou has Dongming Caotang, Fan’s Former Residence, Zunjing Pavilion, Mingzhou Beilin, Qianjinzhai and a new collection of books. The garden leisure area centered on the East Park has Mingchi, Rockery, Promenade, Beilin, Baige Pavilion, Ninghui Hall and other attractions. The exhibition area centered on the Qin Dynasty branch of modern residential buildings, including Furong Chau, Wen’s Ancestral Hall and the newly built painting and calligraphy hall. The painting and calligraphy hall is on the west side of Qinhuang, the powder wall 黛 tile, the black column brown beam, and there are six houses, 曰: “Cloud in the building, Boya Hall, 昼金堂, painting curtain hall, champion hall, Nanxuan.” The Qin dynasty reflected.

Since the 1990s, the Ningbo Municipal People’s Government has successively placed Chen’s Ancestral Hall, Wenjia Temple and Qin’s Branch in Tianyi Pavilion, as well as cultural protection units such as Baiyunzhuang, Yintai, Drum Tower, Tianfeng Tower and Fuxi Room. (Point) Incorporate the unified management of Tianyi Pavilion, and add “Mahjong Origin Exhibition” in Chen’s Ancestral Hall, “Zhedong Academic Culture Exhibition” in Baiyunzhuang, and Yintai’s Official House Museum; Qin’s Branch, Baiyun Zhuang has been included in the fifth and sixth batch of national key cultural relics protection units.

Tianyi Pavilion


Baoshulou is the Tianyi Pavilion collection. The building is a two-storey building with a hard top and a north facing south. Fan Qin took Zheng Xuan’s “Yi Jing Note” in the “Tian Yi Sheng Shui … the six Chengzhizhi” meaning, built the library building up and down two floors. The upper floor is a single room, and the lower floor is composed of a standard five-open room and a stair room, forming a pattern of “Tianyidi Six”.

The surrounding design of Baoshulou reflects many details of fire protection. The west side living area and the library building are separated by a firewall, keeping a certain distance and staggering the doors of the two. There are a large number of safe exits around the library. It is necessary to build a pool in front of the library building and store it for fire. According to legend, the water in this pool is connected to the lake, and the water is flowing.

Tianyi Pavilion

Dongming Caotang

Dongming Caotang was built by Tian Qin Pavilion before the establishment of Fan Qin’s library, named after Fan Qin, also known as “One Wu.” There is a relief in front of the main entrance. Fan Qinzi Yuqing, No. Dongming, hence the title of his book room is “Dongming Caotang”, also known as “一吾庐”, now Dongming Caotang was rebuilt in 1980.

Tianyi Pavilion

Former Residence of Fan

The former residence of Fan’s House was originally the Fan Zhai East Hall, which was the residence of Fan’s descendants. The existing building was built in 1829.

Tianyi Pavilion


Sima Di is the residence of Fan Qin, named after Fan Qin’s official position, and has a copy of Fan Qin’s official uniform and Fan Jiashi’s watch. The environment is elegant and located in the depths of the Yuehu Lake. The trees are shaded and the scale is very wide. In 1996, the renovation and restoration of the Simadi door and ear room were completed.

Tianyi Pavilion

Mahjong Origin Exhibition Hall

The museum of the origin of Mahjong is the family ancestral hall of Mr. Chen Zhengkey, showing the history of mahjong and the history of relations with Ningbo, and showing the types of mahjong tiles around the world.

Tianyi Pavilion

Zunjing Pavilion

Zunjinge was originally located in the school of Ningbo, built in the Guangxu period. In 1935, when Tianyi Pavilion was rebuilt, it moved into Tianyi Pavilion. The architectural pattern is to rest on the top of the mountain. Built-in royal books and Confucian classics. The Zunjing Pavilion was originally rebuilt for the Qing Dynasty, and still maintains the original structure of the top of the mountain. It is magnificent and solemn.

Tianyi Pavilion

Mingzhou Beilin

Mingzhou Beilin has a total of 173 squares. The earliest was the Song Monument, which consisted of 8 parties, accounting for 8.7%. Among them, the “Zhong Le Ting Poetry” was the earliest in the first year of the Northern Song Dynasty Xining (1068). The monument was originally held in Yuehu, and moved in after liberation. On the tablet, there are 20 poems of 15 people including Qian Gongfu, Wang Anshi and Sima Guang. Most of the forests are monuments of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, each accounting for 36% and 40%, becoming the main body of the Minglin Beilin. The latest is the “Tianyi Pavilion East Garden” in 1988. It is written by Chen Congzhou, written by Shen Yuankui, Gu Tinglong, and Zhang Genfang. The inscription describes the construction of Tianyige East Park.

Tianyi Pavilion

East Park

Located in the southeast of Tianyi Pavilion, it covers an area of about 6,000 square meters. Since 1959, the land has been leveled, bamboo and wood have been planted, and Shiting, Tieniu and Shihu have been relocated, and the garden has taken shape. In 1974, the 69 stone tablets collected were embedded in the wall. In 1982, the East Park was expanded, excavated into a pool, piled up the soil as a mountain, built a corridor around the garden, and moved to build two buildings in the late Qing Dynasty. It was warned and opened to the public in 1986.

Tianyi Pavilion

South Building

Located in the south of Tianyi Pavilion, it covers an area of 3,400 square meters. It is an important part of Tianyi Pavilion’s first phase of expansion. It was launched in 1996 and lasted for two years. The park is dominated by water, and the waterfront is not divided. The pool shore is exquisite. The poolside is the main building of the waterfront “Shuibei Pavilion”; the south of the pool is built with the “Holding Hall”. The whole garden is simple and clear, giving people a sense of leisure, elegance and calm.

Tianyi Pavilion

Qin’s branch

The Qin’s branch was built between 1923 and 1925. It was built by the Qin clan for the ancestors. It was funded by the Shangshang merchant Qu Junjun and consumed more than 200,000 yuan.

The ancestral hall takes the wall, the platform and the stage as the central axis, five rooms and two lanes, three front and back, and two sides with a hall and a viewing tower. It covers an area of two acres and six points, with a construction area of over 1,400 square meters. The ancestral hall is a combination of wood carving, brick carving, stone carving, gold paste, and copying. It is a masterpiece of Ningbo residential architecture.

The stage of the ancestral hall, the collection of carvings, gold ornaments, and paints, is full of brilliance. The roof of the stage is supported by sixteen arches, which are the top of the mountain. The scorpion-shaped algae well consists of thousands of pieces of carved slabs, which are hovering upwards and firm and ingenious, which is a major feature of Ningbo craftsmanship. The story of the brick-carved characters embedded in the wall is vivid and realistic, the knife is fine and round, and the large-scale clear water mills the brick wall. The seams are tight and the whole body is smooth, which shows the fine craftsmanship. The tile roof is widely applied, and there are characters, Xiangxian birds, and beasts. They are all lifelike and unique.

The Qin’s branch has experienced seventy years of wind and frost, and several people have burned the piano. Fortunately, the prosperity of the world was announced by the Ningbo Municipal People’s Government in 1981 as a city cultural relics protection unit. In 1991, it was placed under the management of the cultural relics department. The National Cultural Relics Bureau allocated 1.1 million yuan for maintenance. It lasted for three years and was repaired as it was. It was opened to the public in May 1994, making the folk art brilliant. The stagnation of the scorpion remains.

Tianyi Pavilion

Fan Qin

The owner of the cabinet, Fan Qin (1505 – 1585), the word Qi Qing, No. Dongming, Jiajing Jinshi, Zhejiang Yixian people, Jiajing eleven years (1532) Jinshi. Fan Qin is interested in reading books. When he travels around the country, he carefully collects all kinds of classics. After resigning from the office, he has collected many books. After years of accumulation, he has collected 70,000 volumes of books.

He served as the right minister of the Ministry of Military Affairs. His life is eager to learn, and his collection of books is for collecting books, visiting famous book collectors and localities. Fan Qin collects the rich, and because of the famous generation of books, the library is destroyed by fire, and he is determined to repair this day. Before Fan Qin’s death, he divided the family property into two parts, one was “Tianyige” and his collection; one was 10,000 yuan, and the two sons were selected. The eldest son, Fan Dichong, chose the “Tianyi Pavilion” and the collection of books, and followed the father’s “inseparable book, the book does not come out of the cabinet”, there are many rules. In addition to a rich collection of books, Tianyi Pavilion is unique in terms of ventilation, moisture protection and fire prevention. The bookstore is a two-storey building. It is actually a three-storey building. The dark layer is a collection of books. The light is dark and the sunlight cannot be directly injected into the room. This fully reflects the designer’s concept of collecting books. There are six rooms downstairs, which should be divided into the meaning of “dividing into six places.” In addition, between the west and the west, the east is biased into the wall, and the walls are not stored, so as not to invade the outside, and the second is to ventilate. In the back of the middle cabinet, there are two small cabinets, and the other ones are arranged in the west. The cabinets are placed under the cabinets to achieve moisture absorption.

When Fan Qin died at the age of 80, Tianyi Pavilion had collected more than 70,000 volumes. Among them, the local history of the Ming Dynasty and the Dengke record are the most rare. After the collection of books gradually lost, and in the forties, only 13,000 volumes of books were stored, only about one-fifth of the original books. After Tianyi Pavilion was listed as a national key cultural relics protection unit, the government allocated funds for renovation. After the liberation, under the care of Comrade Zhou Enlai, Tianyi Pavilion collected more than 3,000 volumes of the original collection of Tianyi Pavilion lost in various places. Many collectors have also donated their collections to Tianyi Pavilion. By the end of 1995, the ancient books of the library had increased to more than 300,000 volumes, including more than 50,000 volumes of good books. Among the existing collections, there are 271 species of Ming dynasty, including 379 species in the Ming Dynasty, the trials, and the township trials. Most of them are only the only ones. They are the first-hand materials for studying the Ming Dynasty figures and the imperial examination system.

Tianyi Pavilion

Practical information

Tianyi Pavilion Museum Charges

Full ticket: 30 yuan Adult
Half-ticket: 15 yuan Full-time undergraduate and below students holding student ID cards
(excluding graduate students, short-term trainees, adult continuing education students)
60-69 year olds hold ID cards or other valid documents
Tourism team: 24 yuan (with a tour guide card, a group order, and 10 or more people)

Opening hours

Summer time: May 1st – October 31st 8:30-17:30 (17:00 stop ticket sales,
No entry into the park)
Winter opening hours: November 1st – April 30th 8:30-17:00 (16:30 stop ticket sales, no admission)
Closed every Monday morning (except for statutory holidays, not postponed), opened at 13:30 pm.

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