The Longmen Grottoes

The Longmen Grottoes

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Geographic location:Longmen Town, Luolong District, Luoyang City

Level:AAAAA

Famous scenery:Guyang Cave, Binyang Zhongdong, Lianhua Cave, Huangpu Cave

Suitable for the play season:Suitable for all seasons

Longmen Grottoes is one of the treasure trove of Chinese stone carving art. It is now a world cultural heritage, a national key cultural relics protection unit, and a national AAAAA-level tourist scenic spot. It is located on Longmen Mountain and Xiangshan Mountain on both sides of Yihe River in Luolong District, Luoyang City, Henan Province. Longmen Grottoes and Mogao Grottoes, Yungang Grottoes, and Maiji Mountain Grottoes are also known as the Four Great Grottoes in China.

The Longmen Grottoes were excavated in the Northern Wei Emperor Xiaowen, and then successively large-scale construction of the Eastern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Qi, Sui, Tang, Five Dynasties, Song and other dynasties for more than 400 years. The north and south are 1 km long, and there are 2345 holes in the present. More than 100,000 statues, more than 2,800 inscriptions. Among them, “The Longmen Twenty Products” is the essence of the calligraphy Weibei, and the “Islam Buddha Monument” written by Yan Liang is a model of the art of the early Tang Dynasty.

The Longmen Grottoes lasted for a long time, spanning the dynasty. With a large number of physical images and written materials, they reflected the development and changes of ancient Chinese politics, economy, religion, culture and other fields from different aspects, and made innovations and developments in Chinese grotto art. Significant contribution. In 2000, it was listed as a World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO.

The Longmen Grottoes

Main Attractions

The Longmen Grottoes began to be excavated in the north and west of Xiaowen Emperor Xiaoyang (AD 493). Later, after the Eastern and Western Wei, Northern Qi, and Northern Zhou Dynasty, the Sui and Tang Dynasties to the Song Dynasty and other dynasties continued to be mass-produced for more than 400 years. It is densely covered on the cliffs of Yishui East and West Mountain. It is 1 km long from north to south. There are more than 97,000 Buddha statues. The largest Buddha statue is 17.14 meters high and the smallest is only 2 centimeters.

There are more than 50 large and medium-sized caves in the Xishan Cliffs during the Northern Dynasties and Sui and Tang Dynasties. Guyang Cave, Binyang Zhongdong, Lianhua Cave, Huangpu Cave, Weizi Cave, Putai Cave, Huodong Cave, Cixiang Kiln, Ludong, etc., are the representative caves of the Northern Wei Dynasty; Qianxi Temple, Binyang South Cave Binyang North Cave (the caves and cave tops of the above two caves are completed in the Northern Wei Dynasty, the Buddha statues are completed in the Yi and the early Tang Dynasty), Jingshan Temple, the Three Cliffs of the Cliffs, the Wanfo Cave, the Huijian Cave, the Fengxian Temple, the Jingtu Hall, Longhua Temple and Jiaonan Cave are the representative caves of the Tang Dynasty. Dongshan is a hole in the Tang Dynasty. There are 20 large and medium-sized caves, such as the Second Lotus Cave, the Jingjing Temple Cave, the Dawanwu Buddha Cave (also known as the Drum Tower and the Three Caves), and the Gaoping County Wangdong.

The Longmen Grottoes

Fengxian Temple

Fengxian Temple is the largest and most exquisite group of cliff-shaped group sculptures in Longmen Grottoes. It belongs to the Fengxian Temple of the royal temple at that time and is commonly known as “Fangxian Temple”. This cave was built at the beginning of Tang Gaozong. In the three years of Xianxiang (AD 672), Empress Wu Zetian sponsored 20,000 yuan of fat powder. In the second year of Shangyuan (AD 675), the length and width were more than 30 meters. The Buddha statue in the cave clearly reflected. The characteristics of the Buddha statues in the Tang Dynasty are rich in flesh and fat, and the ears are drooping. The form is complete, serene, gentle, and intimate. The inscription on the north side of the main Buddha’s rosette is called “Large Lushen like a donkey”. There are nine large statues in the middle. The main Buddha in the middle is the Lushen Buddha, the Buddha of Sakyamuni. According to the Buddhist scriptures, Lu She is meant to be bright. The Buddha statue has a height of 17.14 meters, a head height of 4 meters and an ear length of 1.9 meters. The Buddha’s face is full and round, with a wavy hairline on the top of the head. The double eyebrows are like a new moon, and they are attached to a pair of eyes, gazing slightly below. High straight nose, small mouth, showing a peaceful smile. Both ears are long and slightly sag, and the lower jaw is round and slightly protrudes forward. Harmony and harmony, peace and quiet, wearing a shoulder-shoulder style, the clothes pattern is simple and simple, a circle of concentric circles of clothing, the head is very clear and holy. The whole Buddha statue is like a wise and kindly middle-aged woman who is respectful and fearful. Some people have commented that when shaping this statue, she combines noble sentiments, rich feelings, broad minds and elegant appearances. Therefore, she has great artistic charm.

The sorrowful and old-fashioned disciple, Kaye, the gentle and clever little disciple Ananda, the expression-ridden, the glory of the bodhisattva, the heroic and heroic king, the aggressive Lux and the Lord Buddha Lushen form a group of extremely erotic textures. The image of the art group.

There are many rectangular small plaques behind the statue of the nine-body of Fengxian Temple. This is about the Song and Jin dynasties. In order to protect the big elephants, people built wooden-framed eaves, which influenced the ventilation of the Buddha statues. It accelerated the weathering of the Buddha statue and was later dismantled.

The large-scale art group carvings of Fengxian Temple, with its grand scale and exquisite carvings, culminate in the peak of Chinese stone carving art, become the model of Chinese stone carving art, and also become the symbol of this great era of the Tang Dynasty.

The Longmen Grottoes

Qianxi Temple

Qianxi Temple is the first large cave at the northern end of Longmen Xishan. It is more than nine meters high and wide, and is nearly seven meters deep. It was built around the early Tang Dynasty more than 1,300 years ago. The cave top algae is a shallow carved lotus flower. The main Buddha, Amitabha, sits on the Sumi, and has a full face, a chest bulge, and a slanted dress in front of the body. The body is proportioned and wise, and the whole posture gives a sense of quietness and kindness. On the left side of the main Buddha is the big disciple Jia Ya, and on the right is the young disciple Ananda. Next to the two disciples are Guanyin Bodhisattva and the Great Bodhisattva. In particular, the south wall’s general trend to the Bodhisattva, the shape is full and honest, the manner is quiet, there is a 1:1 replica display in the Palace Museum. Amitabha and the two bodhisattvas on both sides are collectively known as the Western Three Sacred, the three saints who rule the Western Paradise, and are the objects of the Buddhist Pure Land Buddhism.

The Longmen Grottoes

Binyang Cave

Binyang Zhongdong is a representative cave in the Northern Wei Dynasty. “Binyang” means to welcome the birth of the sun. The three holes of Binyang were excavated in the Northern Wei Dynasty. It was built by Emperor Xuanwu of the Northern Wei Dynasty for his father Xiaowendi. It started in 500 AD and lasted for 24 years. It used 800,366 jobs. After the court coup and the host Liu Teng’s illness, the three caves planned (Binyang Zhongdong, Nandong, Beidong) only Completed a Binyang Zhongdong, Nandong and Beidong were completed in the early Tang Dynasty.

Inside the Binyang Cave, there is a horseshoe-shaped plane, a dome, and a central lotus carving of a large lotus flower. The Lotus is surrounded by eight Lotte and two feeding heavens. They fluttered in the air, swaying in the wind around the lotus treasure cover, and the posture was beautiful and moving. Sakyamuni. He was the founder of Buddhism, formerly known as Gautama Siddhartha, who was the son of the ancient Indian king. He lived in the same era as Confucius in China and was 12 years older than Confucius. He went to practice at the age of 29, and after six years, he became a Buddha and founded Buddhism. Because of the beauty of the Northern Wei Dynasty, the Lord Buddha Sakyamuni has a thin cheek, a slender neck and a slender posture. The clothing pattern is dense, and the carving method uses the flat knife method of the Northern Wei Dynasty. Since the Northern Wei Emperor Xiaowen moved to Luoyang and implemented a series of Chinese policies, the costumes of the Lord Buddha in the cave changed the style of the Yungang Grottoes and the right shoulder-shoulders, while wearing large robes and large sleeves. Sakyamuni has two disciples and two bodhisattvas. The two bodhisattvas contain a smile, and they are thick and elegant. There are also statues on the left and right walls. They are all Buddhas and two bodhisattvas. They are set on the rosettes.

On the north and south sides of the front wall of the cave, there are four beautiful reliefs from top to bottom. The first layer is a relief based on the story of the Vimalaki Sutra, called Vimo. The second layer is two stories of Buddha’s life. The third floor is the famous emperor Buddha figure. The fourth layer is the floating statue of the Ten Gods. In particular, the emperor’s buddha figure on the third floor reflects the Buddhist activities of the court. It depicts the devout, serious and serene mood of the Buddhists. The shape is accurate and beautifully produced, which represents the high level of development of the genre paintings at that time. Has important artistic and historical value. It is a pity that it was stolen abroad in the 1930s and 1940s. They are displayed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the Nelson Art Museum in Kansas, USA.

The caves in Binyang South Cave were excavated during the Northern Wei Dynasty, but several of the main Buddha statues in the cave were completed in the early Tang Dynasty. The main Buddha in the cave is Amitabha, full of face, wide shoulders and full body, reflecting the style of the Tang Dynasty with fat. Binyang Nandong is the fourth son of Emperor Taizong Li Shimin. Wei Wang Li Tai continued to build on the basis of the abandonment of the Northern Wei Dynasty. He built his mother and grandfather, and was a work of the transition period.

The Longmen Grottoes

Wanfo Cave

Wanfo Cave is named after the 15,000 small Buddhas neatly arranged on both sides of the cave. The cave is in front and rear chamber structure. The front chamber is made of two Lux and two lions. The back room is made of two Buddhas and two Bodhisattvas. It is the most complete cave of the Longmen Grottoes. At the top of the cave, there is a beautiful lotus flower. Around the lotus is a inscription on the inscription: “Da Tang Yonglong was born on November 30, the grand prince Yao Shen, the inner Taoist martial artist, 15,000 statues like a glimpse” . It shows that the cave was excavated under the auspices of the two female directors in the palace, Yao Shenbiao and the inner Taoist Zen master. It was completed in the first year of Emperor Gaozong Yonglong, 680 AD. The main Buddha in the cave is Amitabha, sitting on the double-layer lotus seat, the face is full and round, the shoulders are wide, and the simple and smooth clothes pattern uses the carving technique of the Tang Dynasty round knife. The Lord Buddha Shi “Fearless Print” means that there is no fear between heaven and earth, but I am the only one. Sitting on the throne of the lotus, the Lord Buddha carved four diamonds in the waist, and the struggling upward posture formed a sharp contrast with the calmness of the Lord Buddha, and also brought out the serenity of the Lord Buddha. There are fifty-two lotus flowers behind the main Buddha. Each lotus flower sits on a lotus flower. They sit or side, or hold a lotus flower, or whisper, and look different like a group of different girls. Fifty-two represents the order of the Buddha from the beginning of the practice to the final Buddha, that is, ten letters, ten lives, ten lines, ten times, ten places, equal feelings, and wonderful feelings.

In the cave, the north and south walls are engraved with 15,000 small Buddha statues, each of which is only four centimeters tall. On the wall of the north and south walls, there are six singers, and the maiko dances in the melodious music, and the body is light and graceful.

The whole cave is magnificent, showing people the ideal land of the western bliss world, and creating an atmosphere of warmth and joy and prosperity.

There is also a statue of Bodhisattva on the south side of Dongkou. She is a beautiful example of many Bodhisattva statues in the Tang Dynasty. The Buddha is 85 cm high, the head is tilted to the right, and the body is in an “s” shape. The whole posture is very beautiful and dignified. When Mei Lanfang, a famous Chinese drama master, visited Longmen in his early years, he was attracted by her beautiful image and greatly appreciated. After that, he was successfully applied to his performance through artistic processing.

The Longmen Grottoes

Lotus hole

The lotus cave is named after a large lotus flower with a high relief on the top of the cave. It was about to be carved in the Northern Wei Dynasty. Lotus is a famous symbol of Buddhism, meaning sludge is not dyed. Therefore, the top of the Buddhist grottoes is mostly decorated with lotus flowers, but the large and beautiful high-relief lotus flowers like the top of the lotus cave are rare in the Longmen Grottoes. The flying sky around the lotus is light, with a thin waist and a long skirt. The lotus top of the Great Hall of the People is based on this lotus design.

In the inner wall of the cave, a Buddha and two disciples and two bodhisattvas are built. The main image is the statue of Sakyamuni, and the robes are sturdy and sleek. This is the image of Sakyamuni’s lobbying, that is, the image of Sakyamuni when he goes out to speak the scriptures. The second disciple is a bas-relief. The left-hand disciple, Jiaye, has a deep and high nose, and the chest and bones are abrupt, holding a tin cane. It seems to be a Western-style ascetic monk. Unfortunately, his head was stolen in his early years and he is now in the Jigme Museum in France. The smallest Buddha statue in the Longmen Grottoes is only 2 cm high. These high-intensity Xiaochan Buddhas are located above the south wall of the Lotus Cave, vivid and meticulous.

The Longmen Grottoes

Guyangdong

In the southern section of Longmen Mountain, Guyang Cave was excavated in 493 AD. It is the earliest cavern of the Longmen Grottoes, the most abundant Buddhist content and the highest calligraphy art. It is grand and magnificent. The north wall of the cave is engraved with the words “Guyangdong”. During the Guangxu period of the late Qing Dynasty, Taoism rose in the Longmen area. The Taoist priest saw that Guyangdong had no owner and could not bear to be ruined, so he changed the image of Sakyamuni into the Taoist statue of Taishang Laojun. Because it is said that Laojun used to practice Taoism here, and Guyang Cave was called Laojun Cave.

Guyang Cave was built from a natural limestone cave. There is no lotus algae at the top of the cave, and the ground is horseshoe-shaped. The main character, Sakyamuni, with a double-necked drooping squat, with a thin face and a smile on his face, sat quietly on the square, standing on the left side of the main Buddha, the Guanyin Bodhisattva with a hand-held bottle, and the right side was taken The general trend of Mani Baozhu to Bodhisattva, their expressions are quiet and calm.

There are hundreds of Buddhas in the Guyang Cave, and the carvings are very gorgeous. Especially in the design of the shape, the cymbals and the plaques of the hustle and bustle, they are colorful and varied. Some are pointed arches and some are house-shaped. Buildings, some are scorpions and tassels, and there are Buddhist stories on the rafts, such as: the ancient wall of the ancient wall of the Sakyamuni, the birth of a tree, the step of the lotus, the Kowloon irrigation, etc. Siddhartha was born from the right arm of his mother, Maya. When he was born, he walked seven steps. Each step gave birth to a lotus flower. This is called step by step lotus. He stood on the square and there are nine dragons in the sky. Spray water for him.

Guyang Cave is the most concentrated place for the royal family of the Northern Wei Dynasty. These dignitaries and nobles have spent huge sums of money to drill holes, in order to cultivate merits, pray for relief, and left the calligraphy treasures – Longmen 20 products. The Guyang Cave occupies 19 products, and the other is in the Cixiang Kiln. The Longmen 20th article refers to the selection of 20 different figurative inscriptions from the Northern Wei Dynasty. They record the time, characters and purposes of the Buddhist monk. The characteristics of the twenty products are: the font is square and generous, the momentum is strong and simple, the body and the pen are between Han Li and Tang Yu. Kang Youwei, a scholar of the Qing Dynasty, once strongly advocated the use of the Weibei body in the writing of the whole society. The Longmen 20 products still have infinite artistic charm, attracting countless overseas friends every year, crossing the ocean, in order to witness this calligraphy.

The Longmen Grottoes

Medicinal cavity

Yao Fangdong is named after the cave door is engraved with many prescriptions from the Tang Dynasty. It began in the late Northern Wei Dynasty, and was still engraved in the Eastern Wei and Northern Qi Dynasty. Five Buddha statues in the cave, the body is hard and straight, the neck is short and thick, and the body is strong. The belt on both sides of the Buddha’s head is very long and hangs down to the upper part of the arm. This is a feature of the Northern Qi statue. There are more than 150 prescriptions on both sides of the cave door. The drugs used are mostly plants, animals and mineral medicines. The prescription involves internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, ENT, etc. The medicines involved can be found in the public, which is very convenient for the people. The prescription of Yaofangdong is the earliest stone carving prescription in China, which plays an important role in the study of Chinese medicine.

The Longmen Grottoes

Old dragon cave

The old dragon cave is carved from a natural cave. Its plane is long horseshoe-shaped and the top is similar to the dome. The hole was not made by a special person, so it did not create a major shop. There are 54 small plaques in the whole cave, of which the larger ones are 12, 32, 33, and 50, all of which have the inscriptions of the first year of Yonghui. Because of the multi-person excavation, Laolongdong is mainly based on praying for blessings and seeking merits. It has no prominent theme, so it is accompanied by a strong sense of life, which provides a powerful research for the study of the folk style and characteristics of the early Tang Dynasty.

The Longmen Grottoes

Huijian Cave

Located on the south side of Wanfo Cave, Huijian Cave is an open medium-sized cave with a height of 4.25 meters and a depth of 2.70 meters. Datang Xianheng four years, on November 7, Xijing Fahai Temple Yu Hui Jian made this cave, so this hole is also known as “Xijing Fahai Temple Hui Jiandong.” The first half of the cave should be the original cave door, which has collapsed. The plane inside the cave is similar to the horseshoe shape, the west wall is rounded, and is slightly concave at the north and south ends. * The lower part of the west wall is cut into a semicircular base. In the middle of the west, the Maitreya, who sits in the middle of a chisel, sits on a rectangular high seat and steps on a rectangular table. Two disciples and two bodhisattvas are carved on both sides of Maitreya. They are all standing on the altar and stepping on the round lotus platform. The left assistant disciple does not exist, and the image of Ananda on the right is very similar to the Ananda of Fengxian Temple. The head of the Buddha has been damaged, leaving only the flaming head light. The main statue of Maitreya is fat, the right hand is on the right knee, the left hand is placed on the left knee, the palm is up, and the chest is raised. After the head, the circular head light and the back screen are carved in a bas-relief manner, and the upper ridge is triangular, and a faucet is extended outward at both ends. This type of back-screen Dawanwu Buddha Cave and some of the excellent filling kings also have similar shapes. Flat top, no decoration on the surface. In addition, there are some small scorpions that are later added in the cave, and their era should also be in the Tang Dynasty.

There is a small cave on the lower side of Huijiandong, which has statues of several eras. In the upper part of the outer wall of the cave door, the eaves are carved out, and the golden-winged birds and the kisses are decorated on the raft. The cave door is round and arched, and each side of the door is engraved with a Lux. Among them, the north side of the Lux has been disabled, leaving only the lower rectangular low platform, the south side of the Lux is basically complete, the right leg is arched, the left leg is sloping, the right arm is drooping, the left arm is bent on the chest, the head is sideways In the direction, the long skirt of the lower body hangs under the feet. Footsteps on a rectangular table, this kind of force is a typical image of the Northern Wei Dynasty. On the north side of the door, there are two small rafts, which are about to be cut in the Tang Gaozong period. A lower part of the south wall of the cave is cut out. The upper part of the cave is cut up and down. The upper part has a multi-faceted surface. The lower part is a round arched urn. The lower base of the altar is engraved with two lions on the surface of the altar. Smoked stove. The main image of the main body is a standing Buddha, with two disciples and two bodhisattvas. The bodhisattva (zeng) hangs down to the ground, and the lower skirt is close to the legs, the abdomen is suffocating, and the clothing pattern is scarce. The disciple’s hands are arched in front of the abdomen and hidden in the sleeves. These five body parts have been damaged, and this style is more like a North Qi carved.

The plane is in the shape of a horseshoe in the plane, and the lower part is cut into an inverted concave altar. The main wall is engraved with a Buddha, two disciples, and two bodhisattvas. The disciples make a water pattern, and the clothes pattern is a diagonal check pattern. The bodhisattva has a low crown, a narrow neck collar, and the shawl is thick and heavy, and the skirt is drooping. The image of the statue is wide, and the lower part of the shape is round and round, because it is carved by the Sui Dynasty. In the north wall, there is a Buddha, two disciples, two bodhisattvas, and two statues of Lishi. On the west side of the outer wall, there are male supporters wearing cage crowns and waiters holding umbrellas. This image is unique to the Northern Wei Dynasty. In the middle of the south wall, a half-baked Buddha statue is engraved, and the Buddha statue is attached. The Buddha’s face has been damaged. The Buddha’s head is spirally twisted, and the shawl is placed on the chest, and then rolled up on the elbow. The Buddha was set up in front of the two lions, and this group of statues was carved by Tang. In addition, on the surface of the outer gate of the cave, five square and semi-circular monuments were engraved with the inscriptions on the surface of the cave. The times are all the inscriptions of the Ming Dynasty Wanli in March 31, in order to donate money for road repairs.

The Longmen Grottoes

Reading the temple

The temple is carved by the Wu Zetian period. The double-chamber structure has dozens of small statues on the front wall. The main room is 1170 cm deep, 1116 cm wide, 825 cm high, flat top, square plane, four walls vertical, three In the lower part of the wall, the twenty-nine ancestors of the Fahan in the height of 180 cm (the eleventh body of the main wall and the nine bodies of the two walls) are carved. It is the most exquisite image of the Luohan group in the Tang Dynasty of China. It is based on the longevity of the dynasty. “Inscribed.” This large cave, which does not engrave the Buddha’s image, is like a large meditation hall, which may be excavated by Zen. The Temple of the Bible is the largest cave in the East Gate of Longmen. The 29 statues are well preserved.

The Longmen Grottoes

Xiangshan Temple

Xiangshan Temple is located in the west of Xiangshan Mountain, 13 kilometers south of Luoyang City, the ancient capital of the 13th Dynasty. It is connected with the world cultural heritage – Longmen Grottoes Xishan Grottoes, across the river, and is connected to the Longmen Grottoes Dongshan Grottoes and Baiyuan. Standing. Named for the richness of the fragrant fruit.

Xiangshan Temple was built in the first year of the Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 516). In the three years of Tang Dynasties (AD 687), India’s pilgrimage to China (Rizhao) was buried here to rebuild its Buddhist temple. In the first year of the reign of Emperor (AD 690), Wu Zetian called the emperor in Luoyang, established the Wu Zhou Dynasty, Liang Wangwu three thoughts, and renamed the “Xiangshan Temple”, and rebuilt the temple. At that time, the Xiangshan Temple was in danger of cutting the Han, flying the pavilion, and spectacular. Wu Zetian often drives a pro-tour, and Yushishan Temple is sitting in the stone building. I left the story of “Xiangshan Fu Shizhao Jinpao”. In the year of Tang Dahe and the sixth year (AD 832), Henan Yin Baijuyi donated 670,000 yuan to rebuild Xiushan Temple, and wrote “Xiuxiangshan Temple”. The name of the temple was greatly enhanced. The first sentence of this article is about Xiangshan Temple. The admiration of “the victory of the four suburbs of Luodu, the first gate of Longmen, the Tenth Temple of Longmen, the victory of the tour, the first of Xiangshan”, in addition, Bai Juyi also collected more than 5,000 volumes of Buddhist scriptures into the temple. Bai Juyi’s self-titled “Xiangshanjushi” and the Manchu monk and other people formed the “Xiangshan Jiu Laohui” in the temple under the forest, Huichang six years (AD 846) Bai Juyi died, the fate was buried in Xiangshan Temple Tower side.

During the Song and Jin Dynasties, Xiangshan Temple still existed. It was abandoned at the end of the Yuan Dynasty. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Qianlong once patrolled the Xiangshan Temple and praised the “Longmen Fanshi Temple, the first number of Xiangshan”. This poem was taken from his poem “Xiangshan Temple II”. The first one was engraved on the stone tablet. The stone monument of Qianlong Temple in Xiangshan Temple stood for more than two hundred years. In the early years of the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, Xiangshan Temple became ridiculous. In 1936, Xiangshan Temple proceeded. After the re-construction, a two-story building was built in the temple for Chiang Kai-shek to celebrate the 50th birthday. Chiang Kai-shek and Song Meiling have repeatedly taken a summer break here. This small building is located on the southeast side of Xiangshan Temple and is known as the “Jiang Song Villa”. After the liberation, Xiangshan Temple was repaired several times. The renovation project was completed from the end of 2002 to the beginning of April 2003. It lasted for 100 days and created the highest speed of Chinese temples. This is also the fifth restoration in the history of Xiangshan Temple. The Xinxiangshan Temple draws on the Tang Dynasty style and repairs, preserves and protects the historical relics such as Jiang Songlou, Qianlong Yubei Pavilion and Yizhao Tower. On the original site, the bell tower, the drum tower, the Daxiong Hall, and the Tianwang Hall, Luohan Hall, and the Touring Road were renovated.

The Longmen Grottoes

White garden

Baiyuan, located at the foot of Dongshan Mountain in Longmen Scenic Spot, Luoyang, is the cemetery of the poet Bai Juyi of the Tang Dynasty. It covers an area of 30,000 square meters and was declared a national key cultural relic protection unit by the State Council in 1961.

Bai Juyi, the word Lotte, lived in Luoyang for 18 years in his later years. Although respected as “less Fu”, but a lifetime of poverty, good wine and good poetry, in the Longmen Xiu Xiangshan Temple, open eight beaches, very close to the Longmen landscape, after the death of the burial.

The main attractions in the White Park include more than 10 places including Qinggu District, Le Paradise, Poetry Gallery, Tomb Area, Japanese Calligraphy Gallery and Taoist Book House. Qinggu District is located between the two mountains, with Baichi, Yiting, Shibanqiao, Songzhu and Bailian. Entering the Qinggu District waterfalls, the pools are rippling, the bamboo forests are breeze, the white lotuses are fragrant, making people feel good and happy; Le Paradise is surrounded by mountains and waters, facing the Qinggu, is a place where poets make poetry, indoor natural mountains and bare rocks, white marble statues are natural, Above the rock, it gives people a deep sense of the world. Standing in front of Le Paradise, you can deeply appreciate the poet’s original work, “The water is always flowing in front of the door, the trees are high, the bamboo path is around the lotus pond, and the backsteps are more than a hundred steps.” The poem is standing on the stone, 38 pieces, written by famous domestic experts. Grass, shackles, and complete literacy can not only appreciate the masterpieces of Bai Juyi, but also appreciate the beauty of calligraphy art. The Japanese Calligraphy Gallery was built for the exchange of Chinese and Japanese calligraphy. It is mostly a masterpiece of contemporary Japanese calligraphy and was opened to the public in March 2000. The burial area is located at the top of the peak, which can be reached from the Peony altar. There are Bai Juyi’s tomb, lying stone monument, Wutoumen and Chinese and foreign guests who admire Bai Juyi and the standing stone of the ethnicity. The stone paved in front of the tomb, the lawn behind the tomb is like a blanket, surrounded by cypresses, giving a sense of solemnity.

The Longmen Grottoes

Inscription

“Longmen 20” refers to the 20-party inscription from the period of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Longmen Grottoes, which is the representative of Weibei calligraphy. Wei Bei was in charge of Han Li, and he opened the Tang Dynasty, and he also had the charm of the two bodies. Nineteen of them are in Guyang Cave, and one is in Cixiang Cave. The title of the 20th article was first seen in the “Guangyi Zhou Shuangyu” written by Kang Youwei in the Qing Dynasty and the “School Essays” by Fang Ruo. The content is generally expressed by the imager to pray for disaster relief. Its calligraphy art is developed and evolved on the basis of Hanli and Jinci, thus forming a unique style of dignified and generous, rigid and simple, both Lishu and the factors of pregnancy, and is the essence of calligraphy art in the Northern Wei Dynasty. Wei Bei” is the representative of the body.

“The 20th Longmen” counts: “Biqiu Hui became the father of the father, and the statue of the dynasty”, “The music of Changle Wangqiu Muling Liang, the late death of the ox,” and “Stephan Lang Zhang Yuanzu’s wife and wife” “”, “Beiyang Wang Yuan’s detailed image”, “Yunyang Bo Zheng Chang’s statue for the dead father”, “Xincheng County Gong Cao Sun Qiusheng 200 people and other statues”, “The Lord Gao Shu and Wei Na Jie Bo Du “Human and other statues”, “Biqiu Hui senses the image of the dead parents”, “Guangchuan Wang grandmother Tai Yu Hou for the death of Guangchuan Wang Helan Khan”, “The Lord Ma Zhenbai and Wei Na Zhang Zicheng” four statues for the emperor “”, “Guangchuan Wang Grandma Taihou Hou is a portrait of a young grandson”, “Beiqiu Fasheng is the Emperor Xiaowen and the statue of the mother of the North Sea”, “The North Sea Kingdom is too high for the death of the Sun Bao statue”, “Beiqiu Road” “The artisan for the teacher and the parents”, “The auxiliary country general Yang Dayan is the image of the Emperor Xiaowen”, “Lu Yixian Gong Cao Wei Lingzang statue”, “An Ding Wang Yuanzhang for the death of the dead and the death of the statue”, “Qijun Wang Yuanyou’s Statue”, “Bhikuni Cixiang, Huizheng Statue” . “

The Longmen Grottoes

Jiang Song Villa

In 1936, for Chiang Kai-shek to celebrate the 50th birthday, the local government chose a small two-story building on the south side of Xiangshan Temple, known as Jiang Song Villa. At that time, Chiang Kai-shek arrived in Luoyang by train from Xi’an on October 29, 1936. Station) came to Luoyang in the name of “avoiding life”, but in fact deployed the “Northwestern Communist Party” plan. He celebrated his 50th birthday in the villa on October 31. The participants included Zhang Xueliang, Yan Xishan, etc. Inspected the Luoyang Military Academy and Luoyang Power Plant and reviewed the heavy artillery units. And with his wife Song Meiling reciprocated Luoyang three times, to appease Wuxishan of Taiyuan, a non-family unit, Han Fuqu of Jinan, Fu Zuoyi of Suiyuan. In early December, he left Luo to Xi’an and stayed in Luoyang for 36 days. He basically lived in Xiangshan Temple in Xiangshan Temple.

In 1936, the “luxury villa” became the “prison” of General Yang Chengwu in 30 years. At the end of March 1968, General Yang Chengwu, chief of the PLA General Staff, was secretly detained at Xiangshan Temple for being persecuted by the Lin Biao Group. It was not until January 1971 that General Yang Chengwu was detained for more than two years. He did not go down the building once, and the prisoners were trying their best.

The Longmen Grottoes

Three drums

Before the road at the foot of Dongshan was not opened, the top of the boulder was originally a platform. Legend has it that when Fengxian Temple was completed, Wu Zetian personally led the Baiguan to the Longmen to preside over the grand opening ceremony of this grand scale. The huge band played on this platform, so the descendants called it the Drum Tower. The three holes that meet the Drum Tower are called the Three Drums of Drum Tower.

The Drum Tower in Zhongdong, also known as Dawanwu Buddha Cave. It is a Buddhist temple in Wu Zhou. The Zen of Chinese Buddhism is a sect that specializes in meditation. “Meditation” means to stabilize and stop killing. The top of the cave is dome-shaped and has a beautifully decorated lotus algae. The statue is a Buddha and a Bodhisattva. The main Buddha is a Maitreya Buddha sitting on his knees. There are twenty-five high-relief Luohan groups on the wall. Go to the north wall. The Luohan group image constitutes a semi-circular decorative belt, and the Luohan group statues are engraved with a passage from the excerpts from the “Falun Gong Yinyuan Biography” to introduce the life and characteristics of the Luohan. The verses in the journal are mixed with Wu Zhou Xin Zi, which is the cave operated by the Zen Buddhism in the Wu Zhou period.

The Drum Tower Taipei Cave is the earliest and largest Mizong statue grotto in the Longmen Grottoes. Tantric is one of the Chinese Buddhist factions. It originated in India and was born in the seventh century. Buddhism is the last faction in Buddhism. The introduction of secret education into China, the promotion in China, and even the spread of Japan, North Korea, as well as the Tantric leaders and their religious activities, have a very close relationship with Luoyang and Longmen Grottoes.

The gongs and drums of the Taipei Cave are the domes of the dome. The horseshoe-shaped plane is 4 meters high and 4.9 meters wide. The top of the cave is a lotus algae well surrounded by four flying clouds. It is still unclear due to weathering and erosion. It is said that the main image of the North Cave, the three Buddha statues of the Central Cave and a Buddha statue of the South Cave were moved from elsewhere during the Republic of China. Among the three large sitting Buddhas in the cave, the main Buddha on the east wall is the Vishnu Buddha, meaning the sun, that is, the meaning of the darkness, so it is also called “the big day,” with a crown on the head and an arm on the arm. The image of the sly Buddha is 2.45 meters high, and the knot sits on the 0.9 meter high Shoutai.

On the south side of the front wall of the North Cave, there is a statue of eight-armed Guanyin, like a height of 1.83 meters. Sitting on a circular table barefoot, and on the north side of the front wall, there are four-armed and eleven-faced Guanyin, with a height of 1.9 meters. Stand barefoot on the round table.

The Longmen Grottoes

Cliff Three Buddhas

There are seven statues in the Three Cliffs of the Cliff. Three of them are sitting Buddhas and four are standing Buddhas. This combination of statues is extremely rare in Chinese cave temples. The main Buddha in the middle is Maitreya, sitting on the square pedestal, the top of the head is destroyed, only the outline is carved, without polishing. According to the Buddhist scriptures, Maitreya Buddha is a “future Buddha” and appeared as a successor to Buddha Sakyamuni. Wu Zetian used the Maitreya belief to create a paradox for his ascension. After he ascended the throne, he claimed to be “Cai Shi” (ie Maitreya) and promoted the popularity of Maitreya. The excavation of the Three Buddhas of the Cliffs appeared in such a historical background. With the collapse of the Wu Zhou regime, the Three Buddhas of the Cliffs were also suspended. Although this group of statues is a semi-finished product, it provides a valuable material for people to understand the excavation process of the grotto statue.

The Longmen Grottoes

Historical evolution

Cutting history

According to the “Wei Shu” records, the Longmen Grottoes were excavated after the Yungang Grottoes. Since ancient times, Longmen Mountain has been included in the crown of the Eight Great Scenes of Luoyang. Bai Juyi, a great poet of the Tang Dynasty, once said: “The northern suburbs of Luodu, the victory of mountains and rivers, the first of the Longmen.” The Longmen Grottoes are excavated between the cliffs where the mountains and rivers depend. It began in the Northern Wei Dynasty Xiaowen Emperor Pingcheng (now Shanxi Datong City) moved to Luoyang before and after. At that time, Emperor Xiaowen deeply felt that the country was not favored by the north, and Luoyang, which is located in the Central Plains, had superior natural conditions. So he moved to Luoyang in 493 AD and opened the prelude to the construction of the Longmen Grottoes. During this period, the Northern Wei Dynasty unified the north, and foreign religious Buddhism became the spiritual pillar of ideological rule. In order to control the Central Plains region, Taihe 18 years (494 years), Emperor Xiaowen moved the capital of Pingdu (now Shanxi Datong) to Luoyang. The Longmen Grottoes were built in the years before the Northern Wei Dynasty and the Luoyang. Since then, it has been repaired and sequeled in the Eastern Wei and Western Wei, Northern Qi and Bei Zhou, Sui, Tang, Five Dynasties, Northern Song and Ming Dynasties. Among them, the Northern Wei and Tang Dynasties had the largest excavation activities, which lasted for 150 years. Among all the caves in Longmen, the Northern Wei Caves accounted for about 30%, the Tang Dynasty accounted for 60%, and other dynasties only accounted for about 10%.

The Longmen Grottoes

Pirate destruction

The man-made pirate damage suffered by the Longmen Grottoes since its construction is very serious. The Buddhist campaign in the Tang Wuzong period made it difficult to make the caves. The historical records of the late Qing Dynasty and the early years of the Republic of China recorded that the statues of the grottoes were stolen. In addition, the government of the Republic of China also blew up a large number of mountain buddhas when it built the Longmen Xishan road from Luoyang, Nanjing. Due to the emptiness of war management, the Longmen Grottoes in the 1930s and 1940s were madly stolen, and many avatars, inscriptions, and reliefs were acquired by Japanese and American cultural relics.

The Longmen Grottoes

Protection and repair

In 1961, the State Council announced that Longmen Grottoes was the first batch of key cultural relics protection units in the country.
In 1982, the Longmen Scenic Area [13] was announced as the first batch of national-level scenic spots in China.
In November 2000, UNESCO listed Longmen Grottoes in the World Cultural Heritage List. The World Heritage Committee commented: “The grottoes and Buddhist monks in the Longmen area show the period from the late Northern Wei Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty (AD 493-907). The most large-scale and most outstanding plastic arts. These works of art depicting Buddhist religious subjects represent the highest peak of Chinese stone carving art.” In January 2006, the Longmen Grottoes were jointly awarded by the Central Civilization Office, the Ministry of Construction and the National Tourism Administration. National Civilized Scenic Area.”
In April 2007, it was rated as the first batch of “5A-level tourist scenic spots” by the National Tourism Administration.
In 2009, the Longmen Grottoes were included in the China World Record Association as the most numerous grottoes in China, creating the largest number of existing holes in China.
The Lushen Buddha of Longmen Grottoes ended the face repair project on March 28, 2007. The protection personnel did not carry out major repairs on the Buddha. It only removed the dirt and decontamination of the Buddha’s surface and blocked the Buddha’s own and surrounding seams.

The Longmen Grottoes

Attraction value

Calligraphy

As of 2014, there are 2,345 existing caves in the East and West Mountains and more than 80 stupas. The Longmen Grottoes are the most ancient inscriptions in China. They are known as the ancient monuments. There are more than 2,860 inscriptions on the inscriptions. Among them, the long-established Longmen 20 and the Yiliang Buddha monuments are the model of Weibei and Tang. It is a superior work of Chinese calligraphy art. The Longmen Quanshan statue is more than 110,000. The largest Buddha statue is the Lushen Buddha. The height is 17.14 meters, the head height is 4 meters, and the ear length is 1.9 meters. The smallest Buddha statue is in the lotus cave, each only 2 centimeters, called micro-carving.

The Longmen Grottoes are also a treasure trove of calligraphy art history. The famous calligraphy boutique Longmen 20 is the best of calligraphy selected by the descendants of the monuments from the numerous stone inscriptions of the Longmen Grottoes. These inscriptions not only record the motives and purposes of the artificial images, but also provide the basis for the archaeological period of the grotto. Kang Youwei, a scholar of the Qing Dynasty, once strongly advocated the use of the Weibei body in the writing of the whole society. He also praised the Weibei for its beauty, such as: brushstroke jumping, natural structure, and flesh and blood. Today, Weibei is also widely used as a slogan and decoration word. It can be seen that the twenty products occupy a pivotal position in calligraphy.

The Longmen Grottoes

Buddhist culture

The Longmen Grottoes are an artistic expression of Buddhist culture, but it also reflects the political, economic and cultural fashions of the time. The grottoes retain a large amount of physical materials such as religion, art, architecture, calligraphy, music, costumes, medicine, etc. Therefore, it is a large stone carving art museum.

The Longmen Grottoes

Cultural significance

The Longmen Grottoes are the most concentrated places of the Northern Wei and Tang Dynasty royal aristocrats. They are the embodiment of the royal will and behavior, and have a strong national religious color. The statues of the two dynasties reflect a different style of the times. The statues of the Northern Wei Dynasty lost the characteristics of the rough, majestic and heroic statues of Yungang Grottoes, and the atmosphere of life gradually became thicker, tending to be lively, delicate and gentle. These Northern Wei statues have long, thin faces, thin shoulders, and straight chest. The carving of the clothing pattern uses a straight knife method, which is firm and simple. Among the many caves carved in the Northern Wei Dynasty, the caves of Guyang Cave, Binyang Zhongdong, Lianhua Cave and Cave Temple are the most representative. Among them, Guyangdong concentrated on the statues of a group of royal aristocrats and court ministers in the early period of Luoyang in the Northern Wei Dynasty, which typically reflected the historical modality of the Northern Wei Dynasty. These magnificent and colorful stone carvings are a precious record of the integration of Chinese traditional culture and extraterritorial civilization.

In the Northern Wei Dynasty, people advocated skinny beauty, so the Buddha statues also pursued the art style of Xiu bone clear image. In the Tang Dynasty, people used fat as their beauty. Therefore, the face of the Buddha statue in the Tang Dynasty was round and round, and the shoulders were wide and the chest was raised. The carving of the clothing pattern was round and knife-shaped, which was natural and smooth. The Tang Dynasty statues of the Longmen Grottoes inherited the fine traditions of the Northern Wei Dynasty, and they also captured the culture of the Han nationality, creating a realistic, vivid and simple realistic style that reached the peak of the art of Buddha carving. Among the key caves of the Longmen Grottoes in the Tang Dynasty, the large-scale and magnificent Grand Lushen statue is the most famous. This cliff-shaped Buddhist buddha, carved in accordance with the “Hua Yan Jing”, is centered on the Lushen Buddha, which is graceful and extraordinary, and is full of peace and harmony in the image of the art world. The ideal artistic conception of color is vividly expressed. This group of statues reflects the powerful material and spiritual power of the Tang Empire, showing the highest achievements of the Tang Dynasty sculpture art.

The Longmen Grottoes

Travel Information

Ticket price

From September 20, 2018, the ticket price of the Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang dropped from 100 yuan/person to 90 yuan/person.

Opening hours

High season: April 01 – October 07 Opening hours: 07:30-22:00
October 08-October 31 07:30-18:00
Low season: February 01 – March 31 Opening hours: 08:00-18:00
November 01 – January 31 of the following year 08:00-17:30

Scenic traffic

The grotto is located 12 kilometers south of Luoyang City. It can be reached by bus No. 81 from Luoyang Railway Station. The journey takes about 40 minutes.
It is also possible to take the 53rd, 81st and 60th roads from other parts of the city. There is also a shuttle bus between Longmen Grottoes and Shaolin Temple.

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