The classical gardens of Suzhou

The classical gardens of Suzhou

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Geographic location:Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province

Level:AAAAA

Famous scenery:Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden, Lion Forest, Nets Garden, Retreat Park.

Opening hours: 7:30-17:30

Suzhou Classical Garden, referred to as “Suzhou Garden”, is a world cultural heritage. The history of Suzhou classical gardens can be traced back to the garden of Wu Wang in the spring and autumn period of the 6th century BC. The private gardens were first recorded in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (4th century), and the gardens flourished in the past. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Suzhou became the most prosperous area in China, and private gardens were scattered throughout the ancient city. During the heyday of the 16th to 18th centuries, Suzhou had more than 200 gardens. Suzhou classical gardens are now preserved in more than 60 places. Among them, the classical gardens such as the Humble Administrator’s Garden, the Lingering Garden and the Lion Forest have been included in the World Cultural Heritage List.

Suzhou classical garden homes are one-of-a-kind, can be enjoyed, can swim, and can live. This kind of architectural form is formed in a city with dense population and lack of natural scenery. Human beings are attached to nature, pursuing harmony with nature, beautifying and perfecting themselves. A creation of the living environment. The four classical gardens of Humble Administrator’s Garden, Liuyuan Garden, Net Master’s Garden and Huanxiu Mountain Villa reflect the high living civilization of the Jiangnan area in China during this period. They have influenced the architectural style of the entire city of Jiangnan and promoted the design, conception and design of folk architecture. The layout, aesthetics and construction techniques are moving closer to each other, reflecting the scientific and technological level and artistic achievements of urban construction at that time.

On August 7, 2018, the fourth batch of “Suzhou Garden Directory” was officially announced. With 18 gardens including Duanyuan Garden, Quanjin Guild Hall and Moke Garden, the total number of Suzhou gardens reached 108, and Suzhou was the “city of gardens”. Formally became the “city of hundred gardens.”

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Development History

Suzhou is located in the water town, and the lake ditch is full of stars. It is very advantageous for water to build a garden. It is also rich in Taihu stone nearby. It is suitable for the exquisite and exquisite rockery. It is uniquely endowed by the city. The Suzhou area has flourished for generations, and the officials are rich and full of conditions. The living environment of Suzhou; coupled with the folk customs of Suzhou, has always advocated art, pursues perfection, inherits through the ages, and is prosperous. Whether it is a rural residence or a bureaucrat Jia Di, its design and construction are meticulous and unique. These basic factors have greatly promoted the development of Suzhou classical gardens.

The history of Suzhou classical gardens can be traced back to the garden of Wu Wang in the spring and autumn period of the 6th century BC. The private gardens were first seen in the existing texts of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (4th century), which was known as “the first in Wuzhong”. After the dynasties, the gardens flourished, the famous gardens were many, and the winds of the Ming Dynasty were especially prosperous. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, there were more than 170 gardens inside and outside the city. Suzhou won the title of “City of Gardens”.

During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Suzhou became one of the most prosperous areas in China, with private gardens all over the city. In the heyday of the 16th to 18th centuries, there were more than 200 gardens in Suzhou, and there were dozens of preserved houses. Therefore, Suzhou is known as the “paradise on earth”.

During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the development of Suzhou’s feudal economy and culture reached its peak stage, and the art of gardening became more mature. A number of garden artists appeared, which made the gardening activities reach a climax. In its peak, Suzhou’s private gardens and courtyards reached more than 280.

On December 4, 1997, the 21st Plenary Session of the United Nations World Heritage Committee approved the inclusion of Suzhou Classical Gardens, which are typical examples of the Humble Administrator’s Garden, the Lingering Garden, the Nets Garden and the Huanxiu Villa, on the World Heritage List.

On November 30, 2000, the 24th session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee approved the addition of Canglang Pavilion, Lion Forest, Geisha, Coupled Garden and Retreat Garden to the World Heritage List.

In 2003, Suzhou Classical Garden was named by the Central Civilization Committee as an advanced unit for the creation of civilized industry in the country.

On May 30th, 2017, the “World Heritage – Suzhou Classical Garden” Tourism Culture Promotion Conference was held on the 30th at the Cultural Office of the Chinese Embassy in France, through tourism videos, photo exhibitions, VR (Virtual Reality Technology) experience, etc. The form shows the French people the unique charm of Suzhou’s classical gardens, “multi-party scenery, and mountain forests”.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Main Attractions

Building scale

According to the statistics of “Suzhou Fuzhi”, Suzhou has 6 gardens in the Zhou Dynasty, 4 in the Han Dynasty, 14 in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 7 in the Tang Dynasty, 118 in the Song Dynasty, 48 in the Yuan Dynasty, 271 in the Ming Dynasty, and 130 in the Qing Dynasty. Most of the existing Suzhou classical gardens are buildings of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, including hundreds of classical gardens, large and small, and still preserved in dozens of places, representing the style of Jiangnan gardens in China.

Suzhou classical gardens are well preserved and open to the present, built in the Song Dynasty, the Canglang Pavilion, the Nets Garden, the Lion Forest in the Yuan Dynasty, the Humble Administrator’s Garden in the Ming Dynasty, the geisha, the Lingering Garden, the Coupled Garden, and the Yi Garden in the Qing Dynasty. , Qu Yuan, listening to the maple garden and so on. Among them, Humble Administrator’s Garden, Liuyuan Garden, Net Master Garden and Huanxiu Villa were listed as “World Cultural Heritage” by UNESCO at the end of 1997 due to their exquisite garden art and distinctive artistic features.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Canglang Pavilion

Canglang Pavilion is located in Sanyuan Square, south of Suzhou City. It is the oldest garden in Suzhou. Covers an area of 10,800 square meters. There is a clear water running through the park, and the waves are reflected. “Canglang Pavilion” began as the pool hall of Qian Yuanliang, the son of the five generations of Wu Yue Wang Qian. Su Shiqin, a famous poet of the Song Dynasty, bought the waste garden with 40,000 yuan of money, built it, and built a pavilion in the water. Because of the feeling that the water of the waves can be cleared, the water can be smashed, and the water of the waves can be smashed. The title of the book is “Canglang Pavilion”, which is called “Lang Langting”.

Ouyang Xiu was invited to make a long poem of “Canglang Pavilion”, which was titled “There is no price in the Qing Dynasty and the moon is far from the mountains”. Since then, “Canglang Pavilion” has become famous. After the Su Shi, Canglang Pavilion was abandoned. In the early years of the Southern Song Dynasty (early 12th century), it was once the home of Han Shizhong, the anti-golden star. In the thirty-five years of Qing Emperor Kangxi (AD 1696), the governor Song Yu rebuilt the park and drowned the water. The pavilion was built on the top of the mountain, forming the layout basis of the current Canglang Pavilion, and the literary engraving of the book “Canglang Pavilion” as the plaque. In the 12th year of Tongzhi (AD 1873), it was rebuilt again and became the present. Although Canglangting has been revived in the past, it has not been the first appearance of the Song Dynasty, but its ancient wood and old Yusen has always maintained the old style, partly reflecting the style of the Song Dynasty garden.

The main scenic spot of Canglang Pavilion is centered on the mountain forest. The surrounding buildings, pavilions and undulating corridors use the water paintings outside the park to communicate the mountains and waters inside and outside the park through the leakage of the window. The water surface, the pool shore, the rockery, and the pavilion are integrated. In the middle of the garden, the stone path circling, the old trees are verdant, the bamboo is covered, the vines are hanging, the wild plants are clustered, the nature is simple, and the scenery is soaring.

The largest main building in the park is the “Mingdaotang” in the south of Shandong. Ming Daotang takes “watching without evil, then the road is clear” means the name of the church. For the Ming and Qing dynasties to teach the school. Under the shadow of the rockery and the ancient wood, the house is open and solemn. There are three pieces of stone carvings on the wall, which are astronomical maps, Song dynasty maps and Song Pingjiang maps (Suzhou city maps). According to legend, during the southern tour of Emperor Qianlong, Wang Zhoushi, a Suzhou commentator who once praised Jiangsu and Zhejiang, said in his book. In Tangnan, several places such as “Yaohua Realm”, “Indian Stone Layer” and “Looking at the Mountain Building” are all good at winning. To the north, there are three names in the museum, “Cui Lingling”, surrounded by bamboo, and the name “sunlight wears bamboo and green”.

Bamboo is the traditional plant of Canglang Pavilion since the construction of Su Yuqin. It is also one of the characteristics of Canglang Pavilion. More than 20 kinds of bamboo are planted. The “Cui Ling Fei” pavilion has several different side rooms, which make the small hall twists and turns, surrounded by greenery, and the bananas are covered with bamboo. The bamboo and cypresses are green, the wind is rising, the sky is shaken, the earth is dim, and the heart is spleen. Adjacent to the “Cui Ling Fei” is five hundred sages, and 594 pieces of flat-carved stone statues related to Suzhou history are embedded in the wall of the three flours in the middle of the Qing Dynasty. Five hundred sages are only in their integers. Every five images are engraved with one stone, and the above is engraved with four words. From these, we can know the generals of these ancient sages. They are characters related to Suzhou history from about 2,500 years from the Spring and Autumn Period to the Qing Dynasty. The vast majority of the famous people are Wu people, but also the names of foreign officials who come to the Soviet Union. Most of the famous figures are from the ancient books, and some are from descendants of famous people, which have documentary value.

There is a rock cave in the southwest of the park, named “Indian Stone House”. There is a small building named “Looking at the Mountain Building” on the mountain, and you can see the scenery in Suzhou. In addition, there are buildings such as Yangshou Pavilion and Yubei Pavilion. The famous building of Canglang Pavilion also has a fish watching place. There are also 34 stone carvings, more than 700 square meters.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Humble Administrator’s Garden

Humble Administrator’s Garden is the representative of Jiangnan Garden and the largest classical landscape garden in Suzhou classical garden. It is now listed as a national key cultural relic protection unit. This place was originally the residence of the Tang Dynasty poet Lu Guimeng. During the Yuan Dynasty, it was the Dahong (Hong) Temple. Ming Zhengde four years (AD 1509), the Ming Dynasty Hongzhi Jinshi, Ming Jiajing years, the royal history of Wang Xianchen officially lost his way to Suzhou after buying it, hired the famous painter, Wumen painting school representative Wen Zhengming to participate in the design blueprint, which lasted 16 years Borrowing the Western Jin Dynasty literati Pan Yue’s “Sleeping Fu” in the “Building a room to plant trees, happy and self-satisfied… Irrigation Garden (sound: yù, <书>卖) vegetables for the evening meal (feeding)… Zheng also,” the sentence takes the name of the garden. It is a metaphor for self-cultivation of watering the garden as a “political” thing for oneself. Not long after the park was built, Wang Xianchen passed away. His son gambled in the night and lost the entire garden to Xu. For more than 400 years, the Humble Administrator’s Garden has been changed to a gardener. It has been divided into three. The gardens have different names, or they are private gardens, or they are government houses or scattered houses. They were not completed until the 1950s. The first name was “Han Zheng Garden”. The Humble Administrator’s Garden covers an area of ​​62 acres (the other three materials are: 51,950 square meters, about 50,000 square meters, 52,000 square meters), divided into four parts: east, middle, west and residential. The residence is a typical Suzhou residence and is now furnished as a garden museum showroom.

Most of the existing buildings in the Humble Administrator’s Garden were rebuilt in the 10th year of Qing Xianfeng (AD 1860) when the Humble Administrator’s Garden became the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom’s Zhongwang Garden. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, three relatively independent small gardens were formed in the east, middle and west.

The central part is the main scenic spot of the Humble Administrator’s Garden. The area is about 18.5 acres. The overall layout is centered on the pool, and the pavilions are built on the waterfront. Some pavilions are straight out of the water and have the characteristics of the Jiangnan water town. The pool water area accounts for 3/5 of the total garden area (another data: 1/3). The pool is full of trees and the scenery is natural. The waters are arranged with different shapes and heights, and the main and secondary buildings are distinct. The overall pattern still maintains the artistic style of the Ming Dynasty gardens that are rich, simple and elegant. The “Xuanxiangtang”, which is a symbol of the character of the lotus, is the main building of the central scenic spot of the Central Government Park. It is located on the south bank of the pool. The pool is opposite to the east and west mountain islands. The pool is clear and vast, with lotus flowers and trees on the island. Daddy, water shore vines and rags, there are small bridges between the two mountains and valleys, one pavilion on the island, the west is “Snow Xiangyun Weiting”, the east is “waiting for frost pavilion”, the scenery of the four seasons varies from time to time. The “Yi Yu Xuan” in the west of Yuanxiangtang is opposite to the “Xiangzhou” in the shape of the West Boat (“Xiangzhou” is famous for its temperament and arrogance), and the two sides are in a three-legged position with the “Hefeng Four-faced Pavilion” in the north. , can be rewarded with the potential. In the west of Yi Yuxuan, there is a water bay that goes deep into the southern residence. There are three water pavilions, “Little Xiaolang”, which separates the space from the bridge “Xiaofeihong” in the north to form a quiet water courtyard.

Judging from the names of the buildings in the Humble Administrator’s Garden, most of them are related to lotus flowers. The reason why Wang Xianchen wants to promote the lotus flower so strongly is mainly to express his high-quality character. The central scenic spot also has micro-buildings, Yulan Hall, Jianshan Building and other buildings as well as the exquisite garden in the garden – Gion.

The western part was originally a “buy garden” with an area of ​​about 12.5 mu. Its water surface is roundabout and its layout is compact. It is built with pavilions. Because of the large-scale reconstruction, the style of craftsmanship and art created after Qianlong prevailed, but the waterstone part is still close to the central scenic spot, while the undulating, tortuous, and lingering water corridors and streams are Suzhou classical. The masterpiece of garden gardening art. The main building in the west is the 36-inch pavilion near the side of the house. It was the place where the owner of the garden greeted guests and listened to the music. The hall was well-organized. On a sunny day, watching the outdoor scenery through the blue glass windows is like a snow scene. The pool of the 36th Pavilion has a curved shape, which is characterized by the branch of the Taiwan Pavilion and is beautifully decorated. The cloisters are ups and downs, the waves are reflected, and there is no fun. Another major building in the west, “Who is sitting with Xuan” is a fan pavilion. There are two fan-shaped empty windows on the real walls on both sides of the fan, one facing the “reflection building” and the other facing the “36-inch pavilion”. And the window in the back is just reflected in the pavilion on the mountain, and the top cover of the pavilion is just a complete fan. “Who is sitting with you” is taken from Su Dongpo’s words “Who is sitting with you, Mingyue, Qingfeng, I”. Therefore, when you see the plaque, you will think of Su Dongpo, and immediately feel that you can enjoy the moon in the water, you can be refreshed by the breeze. Other buildings in the west include the listening hall, the Yiting Pavilion, the reflection building, and the water gallery.

The eastern part was originally called “the return to the pastoral residence” because Ming Chongzhen was named after the four-year-old (AD 1631). About 31 acres, because the return to the park has long been ridiculous, all new, the layout is mainly Pinggang Yuanshan, pine forest lawn, Zhuwu Qushui. With the mountain pool pavilion, it still maintains a sleek and bright style. The main buildings include Lanxuetang, Furongyu, Tianquan Pavilion, and Yunfeng.

The buildings of the Humble Administrator’s Garden include Chengguanlou, Fucui Pavilion, Linglong Pavilion and the Eighteen Mandala Flower Hall. The layout of the Humble Administrator’s Garden is sparse and natural. Its characteristics are water-based, the water surface is vast, and the scenery is plain, innocent and natural. It is centered on the pool water. The pavilion is built around the pool. There are leaking windows and corridors. The mountains, ancient woods, green bamboos and flowers in the garden form a quiet and tranquil picture, representing the Ming Dynasty garden architecture.

The different scenic spots such as lakes, ponds and hustle formed by the Humble Administrator’s Garden reproduce the artistic conception of landscape poetry, landscape painting and natural environment in the garden, full of poetry and painting. Dianchi Lake is known for its leisure, far-reaching, elegant and calm atmosphere. The Quanwanwan head comes to endless flowing water, twists and turns, deep and fascinating and fascinating; through the Pingqiao trail, its corridors fill the void The island’s mountains and rocks reflect the left and right sides, making the landscaped buildings with a fascinating look. The whole garden architecture seems to float on the surface of the water, plus the wood-flowered flowers, which produce different artistic interests in different realms, such as the summer banana gallery, the winter plum shadow snow moon, the spring flower blooming day, the autumn red gourd pond, all without At four o’clock, it creates a place where there is love, face poetry, subtleties and twists, and the aftertaste is endless. It is a typical representative of Jiangnan gardens.

Humble Administrator’s Garden, this large-scale garden-style classical luxury garden, has been hailed as the “mother of the world garden” with its layout of mountain island, bamboo dock, Songgang and Qushui.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Lingering Garden

The Lingering Garden is the same as the Beijing Summer Palace, Chengde Mountain Resort and Suzhou Humble Administrator’s Garden. It is located outside the gate of Suzhou City, and was built in the Ming Jiajing Period (AD 1522~1566). Another information: The Garden was built in the next four years (AD 1460). Originally the Dongyuan of Xu Shitai in the Ming Dynasty, it was owned by Liu Rongfeng in the Qing Dynasty and renamed Hanbi Mountain Villa, commonly known as “Liu Yuan”. In the second year of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty, he was also the source of the Shengxu people.

The park covers an area of about 30 mu (the other two materials: 2 hectares, about 30,000 square meters). The number of buildings in the Lingering Garden is crowned in the Suzhou Garden, halls, corridors, powder walls, caves and other buildings and rockeries, pools, flowers and trees. It is combined into dozens of garden pieces of varying sizes. Its outstanding treatment in space fully reflects the artistic style and characteristics of the ancient gardeners’ superb skills, excellent wisdom and Jiangnan garden architecture.

The building divides the park into several sections. Each building has a variety of doors and windows that can communicate with each other’s scenery. When people view indoor scenery indoors, they can view all kinds of pictures composed of landscapes and flowers, and the space of vision is greatly expanded. .

The Garden of the Garden is divided into four parts. In a garden, you can enjoy four different views of mountains, waters, pastures, mountains, and gardens: the central part is famous for its water features, and it is the essence of the whole park; the east is the building of the Quyuan corridor. In the east of the park, there are the famous Jiaqing Yuyu Fish Hall, Linquan Yicai Pavilion, and my reading office, Guanyuntai, Guanyunlou and other dozens of Zhai and Xuan. There are three pinnacles in the courtyard. It is named Shiguan Yunfeng, with two peaks on both sides: Ruiyun and Jinyun; the north has rural scenery and there is a new bonsai garden; the west is the highest point of the whole park, with wild interest, and the rockery is strange, earth and stone, and natural. Chinan Hanbi Mountain House and Mingser Building are the main viewing buildings of the Lingering Garden.

The reserve garden is centered on the pool, and the north of the park is a rockery pavilion. The Wenmu Xiangxiang Xuan on the Chixi Rockery is the best place to overlook the entire park and has a gallery that communicates with the rest.

The architectural landscape in the Lingering Garden is also known as the “Little Taoyuan (Little Penglai)” and the Yuancui Pavilion, Quxi Building and Qingfengchi Pavilion.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Netmaster Park

Net Master Garden is a representative work of Suzhou’s medium-sized classical landscape garden. It is located in the south of the city of Suzhou near the drug gate of Nankuajiao Lane (another information: located in the southeast of Suzhou City, Shiquan Street, and Suzhou, Nanzhou and other restaurants are only a few tens of meters away), the site was originally the Southern Song Dynasty Shi Zhengzhi’s former site of “Wanjuantang”, also known as “Yue Yin”, was built during the reign of Emperor Xixi (AD 1174~1189). In the Qing Dynasty, the Guanglu Temple Shaoqing Song Zongyuan purchased the land in the middle of the Qianlong (about 1770 AD). Because the garden is adjacent to Wang Sixiang, it is called “Net Master Garden”. At the end of the Qianlong Year, the village was returned to the village, and the pavilion was repaired and built according to the original scale, commonly known as the “Gengyuan”. The scale of this “net teacher garden” and the scenery of the building are the relics of the garden, maintaining a complete set of residential buildings and medium-sized classical landscape gardens of the old family. The net teacher garden covers an area of about 8 acres (the other two materials: about 5333 square meters, about 5400 square meters), is the representative of small and medium-sized classical gardens in Jiangnan, China.

The layout of the Nets Garden is exquisite and compact, and is known for its architectural precision and spatial scale. The park is divided into three parts, and the realm is different. The east is a residential area and the central part is a main garden. The net teacher’s garden is used according to the stone division. The main garden area uses Huangshi, and the other courts use lake stone, which is not mixed. Highlighting the water as the center, the ring pool pavilion also faces the landscape, the elegant and elegant, the corridors and the loops, the shifting scenery, the poetic nature. The ancient trees and flowers are also seen in ancient, strange, elegant, color, fragrance, and posture, and they are in harmony with the architecture and the mountain ponds, forming a closed water courtyard of the main garden. The pool is clear, the ducks in the east, south and north directions, the Lishui Pavilion, the moon to the wind to the pavilion and the pine paintings Xuan Xuan, Zhuwai Yizhi Xuan. The scenes of the four seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter and the changes of the scenery in the morning, afternoon, evening and evening are concentrated. Therefore, when visiting the park, it is advisable to sit, stay, and focus on tranquility. A week around the pool, you can fish in front of the pool, but you can wait for the wind in the pavilion. The shadow of the flower moves to the wall, and the peak of the window is like a natural picture, so I don’t think it’s small. In addition to savoring the garden night scene, the Night Tour Masters Park can also enjoy performances such as Pingtan and Kunqu.

The western part is the inner garden (wind garden), covering an area of ​​about 1 mu. There are three small Xuanxuan on the north side, named “Yuan Chunxi (sound: yí, the cottage next to the pavilion, used as the name of the study)”. In the old days, it was famous for the cultivation of peony. “Dianchunyu” is an old study, a simple and clean building in the Ming Dynasty. Xuanbei slightly sets the lake stone, with plum, bamboo, banana and bamboo stone into a small scene. The rectangular window frame framed by the red forest is framed by a frame, full of green bamboo, green and tall, and the rocky mountains around the green, the red bamboo and the rocky peaks of the Qifeng. It seems to be an elegant Chinese painting, and people are here. It seems to be outdoors, full of poetry and painting. The Xuanxi side suite was originally the studio of the famous painter Zhang Daqian and his brother Zhang Shanzi. The Zhang brothers once raised a tiger in the garden. The western wall of the south courtyard of this temple is embedded with a gravel. The engraving of the tomb of the first son of the son of the son of the son of the son of Zhang Daqian in Taipei, sent a monument. The courtyard rockery adopts the layout of the surrounding rockery, and the east wall peak cave is surrounded by curved flower stands, and the pine maple is uneven. The flower table in the south is twisted and twisted, interspersed with peak stones, and it is rich in fun by the white powder wall. It is in harmony with the “Dianchun Temple”. The southwest of Huatai is the natural spring water “Chan Biquan”. The cave is deep and cold, and the coldness is compelling. It is connected with the water in the main garden. This spring water is like a dragon, and the waterless “Dianchunyu” does not deviate from the water-centered theme of the Net Master Garden. “Named for “Han Biquan”. In the pavilion, there is a huge wall stone, which is shaped like a goshawk that spreads its wings. It is dark and smooth, and it is like a golden jade. It is a treasure in the stone wall. In the pavilion, “Sit on the stone, you can see the flowers on the fence”, which is pleasing to the eye.

In 1980, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York was broadcasted overseas because of the classic courtyard “Ming Xuan”.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Huanxiu Villa

Huanxiu Villa is located in Jingde Road, Suzhou. The whole park covers an area of 2,000 square meters. It was built in the last years of the Tang Dynasty. It was originally the site of the Jingu Garden in the Tang Dynasty. It was Jingde Temple in the Song Dynasty. It was the residence of the Prime Minister Shen Shixing in the Ming Dynasty. In the Qing Dynasty, the Chiang dynasty lived here, and built the “seeking self-building” to collect the collections. Also on the back of the building is a stack of rockeries, named “Huanxiu Villa”. Digging a well in the ground, the well has a spring spouting into a pool, named “Flying Snow Spring”. The above constitutes the prototype of the Huaxiu Mountain, pool, spring and stone. Its garden style “has a real fake, fake to come true”, close to nature, rich in change.

The overall layout is dominated by rockeries, supplemented by pools and mountains and rivers. The front is the hall, the courtyard, and the back is the pool water and the rockery. Huanxiu Villa is famous for its stacking of Qiqiao in the mountains. It is also known as one of the “Three Musts in Suzhou” and is also known as “Independence”.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Lion forest

Lion Forest is located in the northeastern part of Suzhou City and was built in the second year of Yuanzhizheng (AD 1342). Because the stone peaks in the garden are many, like a lion, it is called “Lion Forest.” The lion forest has a rectangular plane with an area of about 15 mu. The lake and rockery in the forest are many and beautiful. The buildings are scattered and scattered. The main buildings include Yan Yutang, Jianshanlou, Feiyue Pavilion and Qimei Pavilion. The park is full of rockeries, surrounded by promenades, looming on the stairs, and winding paths, with a feeling of infatuation. The walls of the promenade are embedded with the calligraphy of the four famous Song dynasties Su Shi, Mi Fu, Huang Tingjian, Cai Wei and the inscriptions of the Southern Song Wen Tianxiang’s “Meihua Poetry”. The Lion Lin was the back garden of the Bodhi Orthodox Temple. In 1341, Gao Tiantian came to Suzhou to teach the scriptures and was embraced by his disciples. In the Jubilee Year (the last emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, Shun Emperor to Zhengzheng two years), the disciples bought the house to build a house for the Zen Master. Tianru Zen Master was named “Lion Forest” in honor of his master, because of the master Zhongfeng and Shangshang. It is also named because of the word “lion lion” in the Buddha’s book, and many rockeries resemble lions.

After the completion of the park, many poet painters came to participate in the meditation, and the poems and paintings were included in the “Lion Lin Ji Sheng Ji”. After Tian Shi’s death, the disciples dispersed and the temple was gradually ridiculous. In the seventeenth year of Ming Wanli (AD 1589), the Ming surnamed monk was relegated to Chang’an, rebuilding the Lion Lin Shengen Temple and the Buddhist Temple to reproduce the prosperous scene. During the Kangxi period, the temple and the garden were separated. Later, they were bought by Huang Xingzu, the father of Huang Xi, and the prefect of Huangzhou. On February 11th, 1703, the Qing Emperor Kangxi cruised to this place, giving the amount of “Lion Forest Temple”. After the Emperor Qianlong’s six visits to the Lion Grove, he gave the “Jingzhi Yuanzhao”, “Drawing Zen Temple” and the existing “True Fun”. . In the thirty-sixth year of Qing Emperor Qianlong (AD 1771), Huang Xi was the champion of the high school, refining the government, reorganizing the courtyard, and named it “Five Pine Garden.” In the middle of the Qing dynasty, the Huang family’s home was declining, and the garden was already ruined.

The lion forest has a rectangular plane and an area of about 10,000 square meters. It is one of the representatives of Suzhou classical gardens. It has the largest surviving ancient rockery group in the country and has the reputation of the rockery kingdom. The inside and outside of the rockery are winding up and down. The hole in the valley is in the labyrinth. You can’t wait between the feet. Only the mountain road can make a hole. Look up and down, overlooking the slopes on all sides, such as into the mountains and mountains, fascinated. Because it was originally the garden behind the temple, the Lion Forest Rockery is a symbol of the Buddha, which cannot be compared with the average rockery. The hills are hollow and twisted, like a labyrinth cave that symbolizes the Buddha’s mana.

The rocky and rocky mountains in the Lion Forest are many and exquisite, and the buildings are scattered and scattered. The highest peak in the park is the “Lion Peak”, and there are other famous peaks such as “Hui Hui” and “Tian Yue”. There are many bamboos in the garden, and the abbots of the bamboos are built with “curling into”, “Yujianchi” and “Xiaofeihong (bridge)”. The main buildings include Li Xue Tang, Yan Yu Tang, Wo Yun Room, Jian Shan Lou, Zhi Bai Xuan, Fei Waterfall Pavilion, Reality Pavilion and Qi Mei Ge.

The theme of the Lion Forest is clear, the depth of field is rich, and the personality is distinct. The rockery cave is wonderful, superb, and unique. There is no charm in the grass and trees. The corridor in the park is surrounded by four sides. The gallery is engraved with stone carvings, all of which are famous calligraphy. excellent work.

In 1917, Shanghai pigment giant Beirunsheng (the world’s leading architect, Bei Yuming’s uncle) bought Lion Rock from the civil affairs chief Li Zhongyu, spent 800,000 silver dollars, and spent nearly seven years renovating, adding some new parts. The scenic spot is crowned with the old name of “Lion Forest”, and the Lion Forest crowns the city. Beirun was originally prepared to open up, but failed to do so because of the outbreak of the war of resistance. After the death of Behrun in 1945, Lion Grove was managed by its Sun Beihuan. After the liberation, the descendants of the Bayes donated the garden to the country. After the Suzhou Classical Garden Management Office took over the renovation, it was opened to the public in 1954.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Geisha

Geisha is located in Tuen Mun, Suzhou, and was built in the Ming Dynasty. Originally known as the medicine, the name was changed in the early Qing Dynasty, also known as Jingting Mountain House. The medicine is a residential garden with an area of more than 3,330 square meters (another material: about 3,000 square meters). In the Suzhou Garden, the garden is wide and natural and simple. There are mountains and wild fun, and more of the old look of the late Ming and early Qing dynasties.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Coupled garden

The coupling park is located in the east of Suzhou City and east of the moat. The whole house is in the middle of the house, there are two gardens, so it is called the coupling garden (“couple” and “even” sound). The cultivation of two people is also called coupling, which means that the husband and wife live in seclusion. The coupling garden is small in size, with a glimpse of the city bay, three sides of the river, and a street facing it, with a strong water features. In the concept of architectural art, it also reflects the idea that the owner of the garden is returning to the field.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Retreat

Retreat Garden is located in Tongli Town, Wujiang City. It was built in the Qing Dynasty and is the nearest garden in the garden. The owner of the garden was resigned to his hometown, and the name of the park was “retreat”. The park covers an area of 6,600 square meters, with residential buildings in the west and gardens in the east. The eastern garden covers an area of about 2,500 square meters and is divided into two parts: the courtyard and the inner garden. The buildings in the park are simple, fresh and elegant, and all the mountains, pavilions, pavilions and profiles are close to the water surface, which is a unique water garden.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Building style

Artistic features

According to local records, the large and small gardens in Suzhou have their own artistic features in layout, structure and style. They are produced in the four classical gardens of Humble Administrator’s Garden, Liuyuan Garden, Net Master Garden and Huanxiu Villa in the heyday of Suzhou classical gardens. It fully reflects the national characteristics and level of Chinese garden art. They are fully furnished and well preserved. These four gardens are not widely occupied, but cleverly use various gardening techniques and techniques to combine pavilions, springs and flowers, to simulate natural scenery, to create “urban forests” and “to live in the city and close to nature”. “The ideal space.”

They systematically and comprehensively display the layout, structure, shape, style, color and decoration, furniture, furnishings and other aspects of Suzhou classical garden architecture. It is the representative of traditional folk architecture in Jiangnan area during the Ming and Qing Dynasties (14th to early 20th centuries). The works reflect the high living civilization of Jiangnan in China during this period. It has influenced the architectural style of the entire city of Jiangnan, and promoted the design, conception, layout, aesthetics and construction technology of folk architecture to move closer to it, reflecting the science and technology of urban construction at that time. Level and artistic achievement. In the beautification of the living environment, the beauty of architecture, natural beauty, humanity and beauty have reached a historical height, and it has an irreplaceable position in the history of garden art development in China and the world.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Artistic thinking

China’s garden art and Chinese literature and painting art have far-reaching historical origins, especially influenced by the freehand landscape paintings of the Tang and Song Dynasties. It is a model for the literati’s freehand landscape simulation. In the course of its development, Chinese gardens have formed two series including royal gardens and private gardens. The former is concentrated in Beijing and the latter is represented by Suzhou. Due to the differences in political, economic, cultural status and natural and geographical conditions, the two have significant differences in scale, layout, volume, style, color, etc. The royal gardens are grand, strict, grand, and rich, and Suzhou Classical gardens are small, free, refined, elegant, and written. Because the latter pays more attention to the harmonious unity of culture and art, it has developed into the late royal gardens. In the artistic conception, creative thinking, architectural skills, and humanities, it has also taken a lot of “freehand” techniques from private gardens.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Cultural meaning

Suzhou’s gardeners use unique gardening techniques to plant trees and plants in a limited space, planting flowers and trees, and arranging garden buildings, using a large number of plaques, couplets, paintings, sculptures, stone tablets, furniture and various ornaments. To reflect the ancient philosophical concepts, cultural awareness and aesthetic taste, thus forming a literati freehand landscape garden full of poetry and painting, so that people can get the beauty of the mountains and rivers without leaving the city, and live in the city and get the interest of Linquan. The art of doing things is like heaven.

The ancient gardens have their own natural, historical, cultural and artistic characteristics. Since the Song Dynasty, through the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, Suzhou has been a famous historical and cultural city in China. Today, there are still many unique private gardens. All these classical gardens, their architectural layout, structure, shape and style, skillfully use contrast, set off, contrast to the scenery, the scale of the relics, the level of cooperation, and the small and medium-sized, the small and the more various gardening art skills. And the combination of pavilions, terraces, buildings, pavilions, springs, stones, flowers and woods creates a harmonious living environment between man and nature in the city. It constitutes the overall characteristics of Suzhou classical gardens. There are more than ten existing famous gardens, such as Canglang Pavilion, Lion Forest, Humble Administrator’s Garden, Liuyuan Garden, Net Master Park, and Yi Garden. Suzhou classical garden covers a small area, adopting an infinite and eclectic artistic approach, with the taste of Chinese landscapes and flowers, and the artistic conception of Tang poetry and Song poetry. It is dotted with rockery and trees in a limited space, and arranges pavilions and pond bridges. In order to make Suzhou classical gardens win with scenery, the scenery is different because of the garden, giving people the artistic effect of seeing small and medium. Humble Administrator’s Garden enjoys the reputation of “the essence of Jiangnan Famous Garden”.

Suzhou classical gardens have always been called “literary gardens”. Bai Juyi said in “Cao Tang Ji”: “The cover of the earth is the Taiwan, the boxing stone is the mountain, and the water is the pool.” This is the paradigm of the literati garden. Suzhou classical garden fully embodies the main theme of “natural beauty”. In the design and construction, it adopts local conditions, borrowing scenes, focusing on scenes, separating scenes, and separating scenes to organize space, resulting in twists and turns in the garden, small and medium-sized, and virtual. The effect of landscape art. Through the stacking of mountains and waters, planting flowers and trees, and arranging garden buildings to form a literati freehand landscape garden full of poetry and painting, creating a “urban forest” where people and nature live in harmony in the city. The use of engineering techniques and artistic means in a certain area, through the transformation of the terrain (or further building mountains, stacked stones, water), planting trees and flowers, creating buildings and arranging garden roads, etc., create a beautiful natural environment and a recreational environment. It is called a garden. Unique in traditional Chinese architecture, there are major achievements in classical garden architecture.

The history of Suzhou classical gardens has lasted for more than 2,000 years. It has its unique historical status and value in the history of world gardening. She uses the superb artistic techniques of freehand landscapes, contains profound Chinese traditional thoughts and cultural connotations, and displays the model of gardening art of oriental civilization. Suzhou classical gardens are “urban forests” full of natural interest in the city. People who are in the downtown area can enjoy the “landscape of mountains and rivers” when they enter the garden. In this condensed “nature world”, “a spoon of water, a fist to replace the mountain”, the four seasons of the park in the morning, the change of the seasons and the spring and autumn grasses and the seasons of landscapes and flowers, so that people can “get out of the city and get the forest Yi, who lives in the downtown area and has the joy of Linquan.”

Suzhou Classical Garden is a culturally meaningful “literary freehand landscape garden”. The ancient gardeners have a high cultural accomplishment, can poetry and good painting, and draw more on painting, and use poetry as the title to create a landscape with poetic and artistic meaning by burying the mountains, planting flowers and planting trees. It is called “silent poetry, three-dimensional painting”. Enjoying in the garden is like poetry and painting. In order to express the taste, ideals and pursuit of the garden owner, the landscape architecture and the landscape have inscriptions such as plaques and couplets, and there is a quiet and fragrant self-characteristic character (Zizhengyuan “Yuanxiangtang”). With the elegant vanilla, the self-telling temperament is high (the “Xiangzheng” “Xiangzheng”), which has the admiration of the ancients like a boat drifting freely (Yiyuan “painting 舫 舫”), as well as the performance of the garden owner’s faint four garden life. (The net teacher garden “true meaning”, the park “Little Taoyuan”) and so on, and so on. These poems and engravings filled with books are in harmony with the architecture, landscapes, and flowers in the garden, so that the mountains, the water, the grass and the trees can produce a far-reaching artistic conception. Get the cultivation of the soul and the enjoyment of beauty. Although the classical gardens in Suzhou are small, the ancient gardeners have created a rich and varied landscape through various artistic techniques. They traveled in the garden, or saw “the courtyard is deep and deep”, or see “Liu Huaming Mingyou Village”. Or see the small bridge flowing water, the powder wall and the tile, or see the winding path through the secluded, the peak circuit turns, or step by step, easy to change. As for the flower windows of various forms and exquisite patterns, those drapes that are stretched under the feet like brocades, those that seem to be inadvertently scattered in the corners of the corners are more endless and endless. .

Suzhou classical gardens are the art of time and the art of history. A large number of plaques, couplets, paintings, sculptures, stone tablets, furniture furnishings, various ornaments, etc. in the gardens, all of which are beautiful works of art that embellish the gardens, all contain ancient Chinese philosophical concepts, cultural awareness and aesthetic appeal. Suzhou classical garden homes can be combined, can be enjoyed, can swim, can live, can experience a comfortable life, this architectural form is formed in a densely populated and lack of natural scenery, human attachment, nature, pursuit and Natural harmony, a landscaping and perfection of a living environment.

“Yu Jing Shi Yu Meng stayed banana leaves”, this is a vivid portrayal of Suzhou classical gardens; “the wind cuts the book out of the flowers”, this is the best description of the garden artistic conception. On one side of the classical window, the door of the years, leading us into the “Suzhou Classical Garden”. In April 1978, Mrs. Thatcher, then the leader of the British Conservative Party, came to Suzhou to visit the Humble Administrator’s Garden. After passing through the “Don’t Have a Hole”, she left a classic moment: the deep moon gate is like a time-space tunnel connecting the east and the west. The friendship has opened up the “window” of China’s opening to the outside world.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Honors

As a typical example of Suzhou classical gardens, Humble Administrator’s Garden, Liuyuan Garden, Net Master Garden, Huanxiu Villa, Canglang Pavilion, Lion Forest, Coupled Garden, Geisha and Retreat Garden were born in the heyday of the development of private gardens in Suzhou. Its artistic conception is profound, its architecture is exquisite, its art is elegant, and its cultural connotation is rich. It has become a model and representative of many classical gardens in Suzhou.

In 1985, Suzhou Classical Garden was named one of China’s top ten scenic spots. According to records, there are nearly 200 large and small gardens in Suzhou. Among them, Canglang Pavilion, Lion Forest, Humble Administrator’s Garden and Liuyuan Park represent Song (AD 948 ~ 1264), Yuan (1271 ~ 1368 AD), Ming (AD 1369 ~ 1644), and Qing (AD 1644 ~ 1911). Years) The artistic style of the four dynasties is known as the “Four Famous Gardens” in Suzhou. The “Four Famous Gardens” together with the Net Masters, Huanxiu Villa, Geisha, Coupler Park and Retreat Park, which are listed as “World Heritage List”, constitute an outstanding representative of Suzhou classical gardens.

In 1997, Humble Administrator’s Garden, Liuyuan Garden, Net Master Garden and Huanxiu Villa were listed as world cultural heritages as representatives of Suzhou classical gardens. In 2000, Canglang Pavilion, Lion Forest, Couple Garden, Geisha and Retreat Park were also listed as World Cultural Heritage as an extension of Suzhou Classical Gardens. “Chinese gardens are the mother of the world’s gardens, and Suzhou classical gardens are the outstanding representatives of Chinese gardens.” This is the 21st plenary meeting of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee to evaluate Suzhou classical gardens. The World Heritage Committee evaluates Suzhou classical gardens in this way: no gardens reflect the ideal quality of Chinese classical garden design than the historical gardens of Suzhou, and recreate the world. Suzhou classical gardens are recognized as a model for realizing this design idea. These gardens, built in the 11th to 19th centuries, reflect the profound artistic conception of Chinese culture and transcend nature with its finely crafted design.

For more than 20 years, Suzhou classical garden art has been exported to the Ming Dynasty courtyard of the Metropolitan Museum of New York in the United States in 1980. The “brand” effect has emerged. It has been designed, built and won many honors: “Chifang Pavilion” in Ikeda, Japan. “Yiyuan”, Singapore’s “Yuxiu Garden”, Japan’s Kanazawa “Golden Pavilion”, Florida’s “Jinxiu China” miniature scenic spot, Hong Kong Kowloon Walled City Park, Bird Park, and New York’s Stanton Island’s “Send Garden” 99 Kunming World Expo “Dongwu Xiaozhu” (acquired comprehensive award), Portland, USA “Lansu Garden”, etc., so that the Suzhou brand gardens settled in the five lakes and four seas, promoted cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries, and attracted experts and scholars from Europe, Asia and the United States. Come to Suzhou to inspect classical gardens.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Travel Information

With its characteristics of fineness, exquisiteness, skillfulness and nature, Suzhou Classical Garden enjoys the reputation of “Jiangnan Garden A World, Suzhou Classical Garden A Jiangnan” and is a unique tourism resource in Suzhou.

The four gardens of Suzhou Classical Garden, Canglang Pavilion, Lion Forest, Humble Administrator’s Garden and Liuyuan Garden, represent Song (960-1278), Yuan (1277-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644), The artistic styles of the four dynasties in the Qing Dynasty (AD 1644-1911) were known as the “Four Famous Gardens” in Suzhou, and the Net Master Garden was also quite famous.

The Humble Administrator’s Garden is the largest and most well-known garden. It is located at No. 178, Dongbei Street, Tuen Mun. The Lion Forest has the largest surviving ancient rock group, and is known as the “Mountain Kingdom”. It is located at No. 23 Garden Road in the northeast of the city. The Lingering Garden is one of the four famous gardens in China. It is famous for its exquisite architectural layout and numerous strange stones. It is located at No. 338, Liuyuan Road. It is the oldest garden in Suzhou. It is a quiet place in Suzhou. City near the Sanyuan Square.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

Safeguard

In accordance with the regulations of the Suzhou Garden Protection and Management Regulations, Suzhou City has continuously improved the Suzhou Garden List Protection System. From 2015 to August 2018, Suzhou City has published four batches of “Suzhou Garden Directory”. 108 gardens have been included in the legal protection system, and all listed gardens have been listed for protection, which clarifies the scope of protection and protection content. Protect the object.

Suzhou City has also formulated the “Measures for the Use of Suzhou Garden Protection Funds” to provide subsidies, incentives and subsidies for the renovation of ancient buildings, the management of outstanding units and the opening of gardens with government financial funds, effectively solving many practical problems of garden protection.

The Suzhou Garden and Greening Management Department has formulated a special plan for the restoration and restoration of gardens in Suzhou. According to the three modes of “Comprehensive Protection, Restoration and Protection, and Site Protection”, we will systematically promote 12 key garden protection and restoration work, so that more gardens will be colored. Now, the flow is in the world.

The classical gardens of Suzhou

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