Geographic location:Linyi District, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province
Opening hours:March 16th – November 15th 8:30-18:35; November 16th – March 15th: 8:30-18:05
Ticket price:120 yuan (different seasons)
Terracotta Warriors and Horses, World Cultural Heritage, one of the eight wonders of the world, the national AAAAA level tourist attraction, the national key cultural relics protection unit.
The Museum of Qin Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses is located in the east of Linyi District, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province. It is a large-scale burial pond in the cemetery of the first feudal emperor Qin Shihuang of Zhengzhou. The area of the cemetery is 2.18 million square meters. Based on the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of the Qin Dynasty, the museum is a museum of ruins built on the site of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses. It is also the largest ancient military museum in China.
The Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum has three terracotta warriors and horses on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd. The No. 1 pit is a main force array of chariots and infantry, with a total area of 14,260 square meters and about 6,000 life-size pottery figurines. The No. 2 pit is the essence of the Qin dynasty pit. It covers an area of 6,000 square meters and consists of four units. The four square arrays are composed of chariots, cavalry and squadrons. They are well organized and impeccable. The third pit is the command system of the military array, covering an area of 524 square meters.
Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses were discovered in 1974-1976. The Museum of Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang was open to the public at home and abroad in 1979. The discovery of Terracotta Warriors is known as the eighth wonder of the world and a great discovery in the history of archaeology in the twentieth century.
During the National Day of 2018, the sales of scenic spot tickets continued to rise during the Golden Week. The sales of ticket sales in the scenic spots of the Qin Shihuang Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum increased by 400% year-on-year, and the number of free-running and self-driving tourists increased significantly.
The Museum of Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang is a ruined museum built on the original site of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses. Since its opening on October 1, 1979, it has bathed in the spring breeze of the country’s reform and opening up. After hard work, it has achieved brilliant achievements and become a world-famous large-scale museum. Terracotta Warriors and Horses have been hailed as “the eighth wonder of the world” and “one of the great discoveries in the history of archaeology in the twentieth century.”
In December 1987, UNESCO has included the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (including the Terracotta Warriors and Horses) in the “World Cultural Heritage List”. It is not only a precious cultural treasure of the Chinese people but also all mankind. The establishment and development of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum of the First Qin Emperor has experienced many difficulties and hardships, which embodies the hard work and sweat of many people.
The Terracotta Warriors and Horses were discovered in March 1974. Local farmers accidentally discovered some pottery figurines while digging a well in a gravel piled up in graveyards. After more than a year of careful exploration and excavation by archaeologists, it was discovered that it is a large-scale large-scale terracotta warrior pit (the No. 1 crater), which is buried with Taoyuan and Taoma about 6000, which are similar in size to real people and real horses. Pieces. This huge discovery has caused a sensation and shock in China and the world. Due to the grand scale of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses, the number of pottery and pottery horses is huge, and the excavation work will last for several years or even decades. In this long period of time, how to protect this precious cultural heritage and protect it from the storms and frosts has become a major worrying issue. At that time, our archaeologists had planned to use bamboo poles and reeds to cover a temporary protective shed to solve the urgent need. On August 26, 1975, Wang Yeqiu, then the director of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, arrived in Xi’an and conveyed the decision of the State Council to establish the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum as a national special project.
The preparatory work for the museum began at the end of 1975. In February 1976, the personnel responsible for the preparatory work entered the construction site one after another, and officially broke ground in September. At the beginning of the establishment of the museum is a difficult period for the country’s disasters. The national economy is on the verge of collapse. Many large construction projects have been dismantled. The funds for building the museum are seriously insufficient, and building materials are difficult to raise. However, with the strong support of the state, the staff of the pavilion finally overcome various difficulties through unremitting efforts. At the end of September 1979, a magnificent hall of the No. 1 terracotta warriors and ruins site with an area of 16,000 square meters was completed. On October 1st, the 30th anniversary of the founding of New China, it will be open to the public at home and abroad.
The initial establishment of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum was drafted in October 1975 and approved by the state. At that time, only the No. 1 Terracotta Warriors were discovered, while the No. 2 and No. 3 Terracotta Warriors were discovered during the archaeological exploration in the summer of 1976. This determines that the first phase of the construction of the Terracotta Warriors Museum is incomplete. The Terracotta Warriors and Horses on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd are a group of burial pits in the Qin Shihuang cemetery. There are about 8,000 pottery pots and pottery horses in the three pits. It is like a huge underground army group and a treasure house of ancient sculpture art. After the opening of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum, it has had a great impact on the society and has aroused people’s strong interest.
Since the opening of the Museum of Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang, the audience has been in a throsh, and there has been a Qin terracotta warriors in the world. In this way, the original size of the Terracotta Warriors Museum and the relatively simple facilities can no longer meet the needs of the times. How to build the Museum of Terracotta Warriors and Horses of the Qin Shi Huang into a world museum has become a matter of great concern to the people and is an urgent desire of all the staff of the museum. Under the enthusiastic care and support of the Shaanxi Provincial Government and the National Tourism Administration, the second phase expansion project of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum was officially listed as a key project in Shaanxi Province in 1986. The main project of the expansion is the construction of the No. 2 and No. 3 Terracotta Warriors and Horses Site ruins, as well as more than 20 supporting facilities such as cultural relics and cultural relics exhibition halls. The total construction area is 45,000 square meters, with a total investment of 48.5 million yuan. Since then, the construction of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum has entered a new stage of rapid development.
As one of the key projects of the second phase expansion, the No. 3 Terracotta Warriors and Venues Hall was started in May 1987, and the main project was completed at the end of 1988. Following archaeological excavations, on September 27, 1989, the No. 3 Terracotta Warriors were opened to the public. The infrastructure of the No. 2 Terracotta Warriors and Horses Relics Hall was started in 1988. The main project was completed at the end of 1993. It was excavated and exhibited in 1994. At this point, as the core project in the construction of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum, the halls of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Sites No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 have been completed. The total construction area of the three ruins halls is 34,730 square meters. All three craters are covered in the ruins hall, and there are good ventilation, lighting, fire prevention, anti-theft and other facilities to ensure the safety of relics and relics.
The Terracotta Warriors and Horses Pit was about 1 km and a half east of the Qin Shihuang Mausoleum. Three pits of No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 were discovered. The No. 1 pit was discovered by local farmers when they drilled wells. After the drilling, the second and third pits were discovered. The No. 1 pit is the largest, with a length of 230 meters from east to west and a total area of 14,260 square meters with a width of 62 meters. About 6,000 life-size pottery figurines are buried in this pit, and more than 1,000 have been cleared. It’s incredible to find that the shape is so large and the number is so large that the shape is so realistic.
Pit No. 1
The No. 1 pit is the largest and rectangular, and is a main force array of chariots and infantry. Opened in 1979, it is 230 meters long and 62 meters wide. It is 4.5 meters deep and 6.5 meters deep from the original surface, with an area of 14260 square meters. There are 10 tunnels with a width of 2.5 meters in the pit, forming a wide area of 9 north and south, surrounded by a corridor. More than 1,000 excavations have been unearthed, 8 chariots, 32 horses, and nearly 10,000 bronzes. According to the arrangement density of the unearthed soldiers, it is estimated that more than 6,000 pieces of terracotta warriors and horses are buried in the No. 1 pit. Looking down on the railing, the three columns of infantry in the east face the east, each column of 68 is the striker of the military array; followed by the 38-way column between the chariot and the infantry to form the main body of the military array; the north and south sides of the pit have one column The cross-teams facing south, north, and west are the wing guards and guards of the military array. A good ancient military squadron 2000 years ago, they are strong and rigorous, the military capacity is rigorous, imposing and unstoppable. In an instant, you will feel the disappearance of historical distance. A mysterious force will bring you into the shouting and fighting. The ancient battlefield of Che Yuming is really “not seen before, but not seen later.”
On the north side of the No. 1 pit, the plane is slightly curved. It was found in 1976 and is located about 20 meters to the north side of the No. 1 pit. It is the essence of the Qin dynasty pit. The discovery of the second pit unveiled the ancient army array. mystery of. The longest part of the east and west is 96 meters, the widest part of the north and south is 84 meters, the depth is about 5 meters, and the area is about 6,000 square meters. The four units are composed of: the first unit, the east part, is composed of a bow-shaped raft and a vertical 驽 驽. The second unit, the southern half of the squat pit, consists of the Hummer tanks. The third unit is the middle of the squat pit, which is composed of a mixture of cars, steps and cavalry. The fourth unit is the 单元 The northern part of the pit is a long square composed of numerous cavalry. The organic combination of the four squares is composed of chariots, cavalry, and squadrons. Retreat can be guarded, rigorous and orderly, impeccable.
The No. 3 pit is in the northwest of the No. 1 pit. It is in the shape of a concave shape. The samurai warriors are arranged in the shape of a sanitation guard, which symbolizes the ancient military curtain and is the command system of the military array. Founded in 1976, it was opened in 1987, the smallest scale, 25 meters away from the No. 1 pit, and about 120 meters east of the No. 2 pit. The three pits are arranged in a “good” shape. It is 17.6 meters wide and 21.4 meters long from north to south. The plane structure is “concave”, with a depth of 5.2–5.4 meters and an area of 524 square meters, which is only 3.6% of the area of the No. 1 pit and 6.7% of the area of the No. 2 pit.
The senior military sergeant, commonly known as the general sergeant, has a very small number in the Qin dynasty pit. It is less than ten unearthed. It is divided into two categories: the jersey robes and the armor generals. The common feature is the wearing of the crown, the tall and burly, the temperament. Outstanding and superior, with great demeanor. The generals of the jerseys are plain and simple, but the chest is decorated with flowers, and the front chest, back and shoulders of the armor generals are decorated with eight colored knots, which are gorgeous and elegant, and set off their ranks and identities. Prestige in the army.
Chess, the soldier on the chariot except the hand (driver). There are two chariots on the chariot, which are left and right. The left side of the car is wearing a long squat, wearing a armor, squatting on the leg, wearing a lieutenant, holding a long weapon such as a spear, a scorpion, a scorpion, and a right hand. The dress on the right side of the car is the same as the left car, and the posture is reversed. They are the main force of combat vehicles, but according to the literature, they have certain differences in weapon configuration and operational responsibilities. From the weapons found around the remains of the Qinxie pit chariot, the left and right sides of the Qin Dynasty chariot are armed with long weapons and bows, such as Ge, spears, etc., indicating that the chariot is on the left and right. The division of labor is not very clear. In the chariot, in addition to the spears and the left and right sides of the car, they also found military commanders. The military squad has a high and low score and is responsible for combat command.
Lijing was a relatively special unit in the Qin dynasty. It was unearthed in the eastern part of the No. 2 pit. The weapon was a bow, and together with the 跪 俑 弩 formed a squadron. The erection is located in the volleyball table, dressed in a light-filled robes, with a shackle, a leather belt, and a slanted foot. The attire is light and flexible. This gesture is as described in “Wu Yue Chun Qiu”, “The way of shooting, the left foot is vertical, the right foot is horizontal, the left hand is the branch, and the right hand is holding the child. This is the way to hold the squat.” The gesture of the singer is consistent with the documentary record. It shows that the skills of shooting in the Qin Shihuang era have developed to a very high level, and various actions have formed a set of normative patterns, which are inherited by future generations.
Gui she yong
Like the rifle, it was unearthed in the eastern part of the second pit, and the weapon it held was a bow, and together with the erection, it formed a squadron. The 俑 俑 is located in the array, and the 跪 俑 is located in the center of the circle. Wearing a robes, wearing a armor, the top left of the head is pulling a hairpin, the feet are slanted and pointed, the left leg is twisted, the right knee is on the ground, the upper body is slightly turned to the left, and the hands are on the right side of the body. Take a bow on the top and show a single-handed drill with a bow. In the art of sculpture, it is very valuable, that is, their soles, the dense stitches are meticulously portrayed by the craftsmen, reflecting the extremely strict realistic spirit, so that the viewers of later generations from the Qin warriors Feel a very strong sense of life.
Warrior 俑 is an ordinary soldier. As the main body of the military squad, the number of unearthed in the Qin dynasty pit is the most, and it can be divided into two categories according to the possession, namely, the warrior warrior and the armored warrior. They are distributed throughout the military array as the main combat force. The warrior warriors are mostly distributed in the array, flexible and maneuverable; the armored warriors are distributed in the array. Both types of warriors are armed with real weapons, temperament, and quiet.
The military sergeant is lower than the generals in terms of identity, and has intermediate and subordinate points. In appearance, wearing a double-length long crown or a single-length long crown, there are several different forms of clothing. In addition to the different costumes and military sergeants, the military squad is slightly different in spirit. The military squad is generally not as tall and sturdy as the generals, but overall it is taller, with wide shoulders, standing tall and solemn. More shows that they are diligent in thinking and brave.
The cavalry was unearthed in the second pit, with 116 pieces, which were mostly used for wartime attacks. Due to the speciality of the arms, the costumes of the cavalry are obviously different from the infantry and the soldiers. They wore round caps, wearing tight-fitting sleeves, collared right-handed cloaks covering their chests, wearing tight-fitting trousers, short boots, short and small armor, and no shawl on their shoulders. No, armor on the hand. The clothes are short and light, with one hand holding the horse and one holding the bow. From this particular attire, we can clearly see that the knight’s agility is a basic requirement from the ancient cavalry tactics. The image of the cavalry unearthed in the No. 2 Square is the earliest cavalry found in the archaeological history of China. Therefore, it provided very valuable archaeological materials for studying the cavalry costumes and equipment at that time.
The imperial handcuffs are driven by the chariots. They are unearthed in three squat pits. They are wearing long scorpions, armor, arm lengths and wrists. They have handguards on their hands, leggings and necks. A, with a scarf and a long crown on the head, and the front of the arms is used as a driving posture for pulling the reins. Due to the strong lethality of the chariots in ancient warfare, the position of the royal hand in ancient warfare, especially in the car warfare, was particularly important, and even directly related to the outcome of the war.
Copper Car Show
In December 1980, two large-scale painted copper cars were excavated 20 meters west of the Qin Shihuang Mausoleum. After being repaired, it was exhibited on October 1, 1983. Both rides are four horses. It is assembled from 3,400 parts. The second car has a length of 3.17 meters, a height of 1.06 meters, a copper horse height of 65-67 centimeters, a length of 1.2 meters and a total weight of 1234 kilograms. The main body is bronze casting, 1720 pieces of gold and silver jewelry, and the total weight of gold and silver is 7 kg. The craftsmanship is fine and the shape is realistic. It is the earliest era in China’s unearthed cultural relics, the most complete, the highest level, the most refined bronze ware, and the largest bronze ware found in the world.
Cultural relic protection
The Museum of Qin Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses is located in Linyi District of Xi’an City, about 35 kilometers from the urban area. It is the tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Zhengzheng (the first emperor of China, passed the historical investigation.). In 1987, it was included in the World Cultural Heritage Protection List. The cemetery was built from the time of the reign of Emperor Qin Shihuang to the death of 37 years. The mausoleum is large in scale and majestic. There are two cities inside and outside, and the south is the center of the cemetery. The inner city square, with a circumference of 2525.4 meters, is rectangular in the outer city and has a circumference of 6294 meters. The tomb is a square pyramid, the bottom is 515 meters long from north to south, and the east and west are 485 meters wide and 55 meters high. The total area of the cemetery is 2.18 million square meters. There are large-scale palace buildings in the cemetery. Since the mausoleum has not yet been discovered, the live situation in the tomb is still a mystery. According to the “Historical Records”, after Qin II was enthroned, he had ordered the craftsmen to use the mercury as the sea of the river in the tomb of his father Qin Shihuang. The machine was infused with astronomy and geography… The relevant departments carried out the tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuang. Initial detection, it was found that a strong mercury anomaly. In 1982, within the range of 152,000 square meters in the middle of the sealing soil, 12,000 square meters of mercury anomaly area was circled, thus confirming the relevant records of the Chinese history books.
The burial pit of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of the Qin Shi Emperor was discovered in 1974 and is located 1.5 kilometers east of the Mausoleum of the Qin Shi Emperor. After many years of large-scale drilling and research by archaeologists, this is a large-scale burial pit in the cemetery of the first feudal emperor Qin Shihuang. In 1975, the state decided to establish a museum on the original site of the pit. After more than four years of preparation, by the end of September 1979, the majestic No. 1 crater ruins exhibition hall and some auxiliary buildings were completed and completed on October 1 of the same year.
Scientific research results
The cooperation between the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum and the University of London’s Archaeological Institute was included in one of the most prominent archaeological studies in 2012. The British BBC website was the first to be reported on December 26th.
In 2006, under the strong support of the State Cultural Relics Bureau of China and the Cultural Relics Bureau of Shaanxi Province, the Qin Shihuang Mausoleum Museum and the University of London began to collaborate on research. The collaborative project was the standardization of labor production in the Qin Dynasty and the study of the labor organization model.
As is known to all, thousands of terracotta warriors and horses and more than 40,000 bronze weapons were unearthed in the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of the Qin Shi Emperor’s Mausoleum. What kind of production and processing techniques were used in the large-scale production and production of these pottery figurines and weapons? How are artisans organized and managed? Is it production line? This research topic has not been able to conduct in-depth systematic research due to the lack of scientific and technological research methods, and the cooperation between China and the UK provides an opportunity for this.
After five years of Sino-British collaborative research, a multidisciplinary analysis was used, including traditional typology, quantitative archaeology, X-ray fluorescence non-destructive analysis, silicone rubber overmolding, scanning electron microscopy, energy spectrum analysis, and spatial statistical analysis.
The results show that the bronze weapons have undergone manual honing and mechanical grinding after molding, and some weapons have engraved inscriptions, and these processing marks are clearly visible under the microscope; the analysis results show that whether it is bronze weapons or The terracotta warriors and horses do not seem to be production lines, and the craftsmen are organized in groups, or called modular production. Compared with the production mode in the modern automobile manufacturing industry, the weapons production and ceramics production in the Qin Dynasty is not a large-scale assembly line like the “Ford Company”, but closer to the “Toyota” module production.
In the peak season, the adult price is 150 yuan/person, and the discount ticket is 75 yuan/person.
In the off-season, the total ticket is 120 yuan/person, and the discount ticket is 60 yuan/person.
The following parts of the staff will be given preferential travel tickets, the coupon is 35 yuan / person:
Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum
Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum
Active military personnel (including armed police) rely on their military officer’s card and soldier’s card;
Persons with disabilities rely on their own disability certificate;
Older people over the age of 65 (including 65 years old), with their ID card;
Free tour under 16 years old;
Older people over the age of 70 (including 70 years old), with their ID cards, are free to visit;
Adult colleges and universities do not enjoy discounts;
The troops and workers do not enjoy the concessions;
Non-steel printed documents are considered invalid documents;
Enjoy the discounted personnel after the valid ticket verification at the ticket gate.
The Museum of Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang is open 365 days a year and does not rest on holidays.
Ticket sales time: March 16th – November 14th, 8:30 am – 5:30 pm; November 15th – (the following year) March 15th, 8:30 am – 5:00 pm.
The best tourist season for the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum is April-June, September-October. Because the area is a warm temperate semi-humid monsoon climate zone, the rainfall is moderate and the four seasons are distinct. The frost-free period averages 219-233 days. The coldest in January, the average temperature is -0.5 °C – 1.3 °C; the hottest in July, the average temperature of 26.4 °C – 26.9 °C; the annual average temperature of 13.3 °C. The annual precipitation averages 507.7 mm – 719.8 mm. The annual average humidity is 69.6%. The average annual snowfall day is 13.8 days.