Geographic location:Southern Beijing
Famous scenery:Qiuqiu, Huang Yuyu
Suitable for the play season:Best in spring and autumn
Temple of Heaven, World Cultural Heritage, National Key Cultural Relics Protection Unit, National AAAAA Level Scenic Spot, National Civilized Scenic Area Demonstration Site.
Temple of Heaven, in the south of Beijing, east of Yongdingmennei Street, Dongcheng District. Covers an area of about 2.73 million square meters. The Temple of Heaven was built in the 18th year of Ming Yongle (1420). It was rebuilt in the Qing Emperor Qianlong and Guangxu. It is the place where the emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties worshipped the Emperor and prayed for the harvest of the grain. The Temple of Heaven is the general name of the two altars of Qiuqiu and Qiugu. There are two walls of the altar, forming the inner and outer altars, and the south wall of the altar wall symbolizes the heaven and earth. The main building is in the inner altar, the altar is in the south, the praying altar is in the north, and the second altar is on a north-south axis with a wall in between. The main buildings in the Qiuqiu altar are the Qiuqiu Temple, Huangfuyu, etc. The main buildings in the Qigutan are the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, the Emperor’s Hall, and the Year of the Prayer.
On July 12, 2018, Tiantan Park will increase the open area by 2.24 hectares. In September 2018, the maximum daily carrying capacity of the park was lowered, and 58,000 people were transferred to 50,000.
According to historical records, there are activities that officially worship the heavens and the earth, dating back to the second millennium BC, still in the summer of the slavery society. The ancient Chinese emperors claimed to be “the Son of Heaven” and they were very revered for the heavens and the earth. The Temple of Heaven was the 18th year of Ming Yongle (1420). It was built in the shape of a temple in Nanjing. It was a memorial to the Emperor of Heaven. In the 9th year of Jiajing (1530), the Emperor Jiajing listened to the Minister: “The ancients squatted in the hills and squatted in the square hills. The people in the hills, the hills in the southern suburbs, the hills are high, and the elephants are also high. In the northern suburbs, the hills in the middle of the mountain, the hills are down, and the elephants are also in the same place.” So I decided to sacrifice the heavens and the earth. In the south of the Datun Temple, I built a temple to worship the heavens. In the thirteenth year of Jiajing (1534), Qiuqiu was renamed the Temple of Heaven, and Fang Ze was renamed the altar. After the Datun Temple was abandoned, it was changed to the pagoda. In the seventeenth year of Jiajing (1538), the pagoda was abandoned. In the 19th year, another hall was built on the altar, which was completed in twenty-four years. In the 16th year of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1751), it was renamed the Hall of Prayer. It will be repaired and expanded several times in the future.
In 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces set up a headquarters in the Temple of Heaven, and placed guns on the hills. Cultural relics and rituals were swept away, and buildings and trees were destroyed. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the government invested a large amount of money in the cultural relics of the Temple of Heaven for protection and maintenance. It has undergone many repairs and large-scale greening to make the ancient Temple of Heaven more magnificent. The park covers an area of 200 hectares and has one on each side. There are more than 2,500 ancient cypresses in the park for more than two hundred years. There are also hundreds of gardens planting a lot of flowers.
In 1961, the State Council announced the Temple of Heaven as a “national key cultural relics protection unit.” In 1998, it was recognized by UNESCO as a “World Cultural Heritage”. On May 8, 2007, Tiantan Park was officially approved by the National Tourism Administration as a national 5A-level tourist attraction.
On July 12, 2018, Li Gao, director of the Temple of Heaven Park, introduced that Tiantan Park will increase the green area by nearly 20,000 square meters and expand the open area for tourists by 2.24 hectares.
The Temple of Heaven Park is the place where the emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties worshipped the heavens and prayed for the harvest every year. The Temple of Heaven is known for its rigorous architectural layout, peculiar architectural structure and magnificent architectural decoration. The total area is about 2.7 million square meters, divided into inner altar and outer altar. The main buildings are in the inner altar, the south is the Qiuqiu altar, the emperor Yuyu, the north has the Hall of Prayer for Good and the Emperor Gan, and the two groups of buildings are connected by a ramp that runs through the north and south. The outer altar of cypress is surrounded by the inner altar, making the main architectural group more solemn and grand. The whispering wall, the three-tone stone, the dialogue stone, etc., which are cleverly constructed using acoustic principles, fully demonstrate the developed level of ancient Chinese architectural techniques. Tiantan Park is the largest altar complex preserved in China.
The Temple of Heaven has two walls of the altar, forming an inner and outer altar, all of which are north and south. At the beginning, in order to express the image of the heavens and the earth on the wall, it symbolizes the “round place”. There are no gates on the southeast and north sides of the outer altar wall. There are only two gates facing Yongdingmen Inner Street in the west: the north gate is the old one in the Ming Dynasty, and it is called the “Qigutan Gate”; the south gate is the seventeenth year of Emperor Qianlong (1752). ) The addition of the building, called “圜丘坛门”. Both doors are three-arched voucher-style, green glazed Jane Wache mountain top. The North Gate and the East Gate of the outer altar are now built after 1975. There is also an east-west wall in the middle of the inner altar, which counts as the northern wall of the altar. The partition wall protrudes northward in a curved shape on both axes, bypassing the outer wall of Huangfuyu and connecting with the wall of the inner and outer walls, and separating the two altars of the valley and the hills into two areas.
The inner altar of the altar is located in the south, and the north of the valley is located on the north-south axis. The middle is made up of a 360-meter long and 30-meter-wide Shendao (Danyu Bridge). The main buildings in the Qiuqiu altar are Qiuqiutai (Tiantiantai), Huangfuyu (Feng Shen Dian, Shenku and Shencai, Zaiyan Pavilion), etc.; the main buildings in the Qigutan are the Prayer Gate and the Daxie Hall (Praying Hall) , the East and West Hall, the Emperor’s Palace, the promenade (with seven stars), the Shenku and the God Chef, the Zai She Pavilion.
The Temple of Heaven is the general name for the two altars of the valley and the Qiuqiu. There are two walls of the altar, and the altar is divided into two parts: the inner and the outer altar. The altarpieces in the altar are concentrated in the inner altar, and the inner altar has doors on all sides. The axis connecting the two altars is a masonry platform with a length of 360 meters, a width of 28 meters and a height of 2.5 meters. It is called “Shendao” or “Haicang Avenue”, also known as “Danyu Bridge”. It implies that the heavens will go through a long road. The Qiuqiu altar complex is located at the southern end of the central axis and is the altar of the Emperor of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The north of the Qiuqiu Temple is Huang Yuyu. The Qigutan is located at the northern end of the central axis. The main building is the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests. There are also the buildings of the Prayer Gate, the Emperor’s Palace, the East-West Hall, the Weichai Furnace, the Qiangkan and the Brick Gate. The annex building has 72 rooms and kitchens. , Zai She Pavilion, etc. The annexes of Qiuqiu and Qigutan are mostly in the east. This layout makes the western altar of the Temple of Heaven open. In the south side of the inner gate of Xitianmen, there is a palace city surrounded by a city. The name is “Zhai Palace”, which is the palace where the emperor sacrificed to live during the “fasting” period.
The Temple of Heaven is the largest festival building in the world. The Temple of Heaven has two walls, divided into two parts: the inner altar and the outer altar. The main building is concentrated in the inner altar. The main building of the Temple of Heaven is on the north-south axis of the inner altar. The Qiuqiu altar is in the south, offering sacrifices to the heavens, including Qiuqiu and Huangfuyu. The Qigutan is in the north, the valley, the temple of the praying, the emperor’s palace, the praying gate, etc. There are walls in the middle. The two altars are connected by a 300-meter-long, nearly 30-meter-wide, low-lying north-high Dan-Ban Bridge (also known as Haitang Avenue or Shinto). On both sides of the Tanjung Bridge is a large area of ancient Berlin. Inside the inner wall of the inner altar is the Zhai Palace, which is the residence of the emperor’s fasting. There are the Kagura Department and the Sacrifice House in the Western Wall of the outer altar. The main buildings in the altar include the Hall of Prayer, the Emperor’s Palace, the Qiuqiu, the Huangpuyu, the Zhaigong, the Wuliang Temple, the Promenade, the Double Ring Wanshou Pavilion, and other places of interest such as the Echo Wall, the Sanyin Stone and the Qixing Stone.
The Qiuqiu altar is the place where the Winter Solstice Festival is held. The main buildings are Qiuqiu, Huangyuyu and the temple, the kitchen, the Sanku and the Zaibo Pavilion. The attached buildings have service desks and lights. During the Qiuqiu Ming Dynasty, it was a three-layered blue glazed round altar. The Qing Emperor Qianlong was expanded in the 14th year (1749), and the blue glazed glass was changed to the Ai Ye Qingshi countertop, the white marble column and the column. The dome-shaped circle is like a sky, a three-layered altar, with a height of 5.17 meters, a lower layer diameter of 54.92 meters, and an upper layer diameter of 23.65 meters. Each layer has nine steps on each side. The center of the upper layer is a round stone, with nine rounds of fan-shaped stones and nine blocks of inner ring, which are extended to the extent of nine times. The fence and the column are also used in multiples of nine or nine, which symbolizes the number of “days”.
The number of slabs, slabs and steps of the Qiuqiu countertops are all multiples of odd nine or nine. For example, the center round stone above the countertop slab is the starting point, the first circle is nine pieces, the second circle is 18 pieces, and the surrounding circles are successively up to the bottom layer, all increasing by a multiple of nine. The same is true for the number of white marble jade panels in each layer. The chopping wood stove is located in the southeast of the outer hills of the Qiuqiu Temple. It faces south and has a cylindrical shape and green glazed bricks. It has nine steps on the east and west sides. The chopping wood stove is used for the worship of the sacred ritual (the Emperor God) when the winter solstice ceremonies are held.
The Huangfu Yuyuan is located on the north side of the Qiuqiu Temple. It faces the south and faces the circular wall. There are three glass doors on the south side. The main building is Huangfuyu and the East-West Hall. It is a place dedicated to the worship of the Qiuqiu altar. Huang Yuyu is supported by 16 pillars, 8 pillars in the outer layer and 8 gold pillars in the middle. There are common golden arches on the two pillars to support the ceiling and algae in the arch. The temple is full of dragons and phoenixes. The color painting, the ceiling pattern is the gold two dragon play beads, and the algae well is the golden dragon algae well. The arches and algae spans in the Huangpu Yudian are unique in China’s ancient construction. Huangfu Yu with the temple, the top of the temple, the blue glazed tile roof, the front step is six levels, decorated with swirling color paintings, exquisite shape. The Temple of the East Temple is dedicated to the gods of the Great God (Sun), the Big Dipper, the five stars of Jinmushui, and the stars of Zhoutianxing. The West Temple is the god of the night (month), and the cloud rain and thunder gods are dedicated to the gods. From the north side, the first three slabs are the “three-tone stone”. When you stand on the first stone slab and hit the palm, you can only hear an echo; when you stand on the second stone slab, you can hear two echoes when you hit the palm; when you stand on the third stone slab, you can hear it. Three consecutive echoes. This is the reason why these three slate are called three-tone stone, and some people specifically refer to the third slate as the “three-tone stone.”
The circular wall around the Huangpuyu Courtyard is about 3.72 meters high and 0.9 meters thick. The wall is covered with Shandong Linqing brick and brick, and the blue glazed tile roof. This is the famous “Echo Wall”. The wall of Huang Yuyu’s circular courtyard naturally forms a sound wave refractor. The wall-wall structure is very close. The surface of the wall is 651 meters in diameter and the wall is 3.27 meters high. When people stand at the back of the temple and walk near the wall, they talk softly. Although the two sides are far apart, they can hear the voice of the other party very clearly. This is because the circle is very smooth and reflects the sound waves.
It is the place where the Mengchun Qiugu Grand Ceremony was held. It was built in the 18th year of the Ming Dynasty Yongle (1420). The main buildings include the Hall of Prayer, the Emperor’s Hall, the East-West Hall, the Prayer Gate, the Kitchen, the Sacrifice Pavilion, and the Gallery. Inside and outside the wall, with the service platform, Tanjung Bridge, the inner wall of the inner wall is set up in the southeast and northwest, and the outer wall of the outer wall is set up with the Qigutan Gate. There is a seven-star stone in the eastern part of the inner altar. The altar of the altar of the altar is a circular building combined with the altar and is built according to the ancient saying that “the emperor under the house”. The altar is three floors, 5.6 meters high, the lower layer is 91 meters in diameter, the middle layer is 80 meters in diameter, and the upper layer is 68 meters. The temple is round, 38 meters high, 32.7 meters in diameter, triple blue glazed tile, round eaves, 攒 apex, Baoding 鎏 gold.
The Emperor’s Palace, located in the north of the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, is surrounded by three glass doors and the altar.
This is a temple-style hall covered with blue glazed tiles and a base with white marble railings. It is a temple dedicated to the “God of Heaven” and the Emperor’s ancestral gods. The gods are enshrined in the gods that are shaped like a house. On the first and fifteenth day of the lunar calendar, the officials who manage the burnt offerings regularly dispatch officials to sweep dust and incense. The day before the sacrifice, after the emperor went to the incense ceremony, the ritual Shang Shang was fragrant, and the three To the corresponding gods in the Hall of Prayer for the Advance, to be sacrificed, is the main hall dedicated to the worship of the praying altar and the matching version of God.
On the east side of the inner wall of the Hall of Prayer, there are 72 corridors, which are ancillary buildings of the Temple of the Gods. For the side of the ridge-style porch, the north side of the brick building is equipped with a large window door, the common name is “seventy-two rooms.” To the north of the promenade, there are five “Shenku”, which are collections of ritual supplies. On the west side of the “Shenku” is the “God Chef”, where you will make glutinous rice cakes and pastries. The gods kitchen, the Shenku and the Zaiyin Pavilion of the Qigutan are connected by the promenade, and the eaves from the east brick gate to the northeast side of the Zai-Yin Pavilion are curved, with a total of 72 rooms, and the 36-pillars with the size of the Hall of Prayer Correspondingly, it symbolizes the seventy-two mantle.
Hall of Prayer
Supported by 28 large columns of golden nanmu, the columns are arranged in a ring, and the middle four “longjing columns” are 19.2 meters high and 1.2 meters in diameter, supporting the upper eaves; the middle 12 gold columns supporting the second floor eaves, at the vermilion bottom The paint is painted with a fine pattern by leaching powder and gold; the outer 12 pillars support the third floor eaves; the corresponding three-layered ceiling is set up, and the dragon and phoenix wells are set in the middle; The four “Longjingzhu” in the middle of the Hall of Prayer for the Year symbolize the four seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter. The middle 12 layers are slightly thinner than the Longjing column, named Jinzhu, which symbolizes 12 months of the year; the outer 12 pillars Called the pillar, symbolizing the 12 hours of the day. There are 24 pillars in both Chinese and foreign, which symbolize 24 solar terms.
It is the ramp connecting the brick gate of the Qigutan and its southern Tianmen (Chengdumen). It is also the axis connecting the prayer altar and the Qiuqiu altar. It is 360 meters long and 30 meters wide. There are three stone roads on the Tanjung Bridge. The middle is Shendao, Dongyu Road, Xiwang Road, north high and low south. The north end is 4 meters high and the south end is 1 meter. The north line is step by step, such as Lintianting.
It was the place where the emperor held a fasting before the ceremony to celebrate the fasting. The palace has built ceremonial, residential, service, and guard-only buildings such as the Liang Dian Temple, the Sleeping Hall, the Bell Tower, the Guard House, and the Guarding Walkway. They are all made of green glazed tiles, surrounded by two palace walls and two royal ditch. The elegant layout of the palace and the elegant environment are the masterpieces of the ancient Chinese rituals. There is no Liangdian Temple, the main hall of the palace, the roof of the green glazed tile, the brick vault in the temple, the crested stone column on the platform of the temple, the three outs, the 13th grade, and the 15th level. The Wuliang Temple is the place where the emperor is fasting during the day. The temple is furnished with simplicity. The Ming Dynasty’s “Kin Ruo Tian” is the Emperor of the Qianlong Emperor, expressing the devout heart of the Emperor of God.
Located in Qiuqiu East, the north facing south, the south of the courtyard is open. The main buildings are Shenku, Shenchi, and Jingting. It is the place where the Qiuqiu altars are made before the Qiuqiu winter solstice ceremony. Outside the courtyard, there is a walking road connected to the Xingqiu Gate of the Qiuqiu Mountain. The festival is temporarily set up to transport the sacrifices. The building is solemn and solemn, and it is one of the few remaining chefs in the Chinese sacrificial architecture.
It is one of the Temple of Heaven architecture. It is located in the outer altar of the Temple of Heaven. It is a place for rituals and rituals during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. It is known as the highest literary and music institution in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The Kagura Department was first seen in the 18th year of Ming Yongle (1420). It was originally called God’s optimism. There are many temples and beautiful environments. There are tea pots and drug shops, also known as the Temple of Heaven Taoist Temple. In the 8th year of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1743), God changed his optimism to the Temple of God. In the 19th year of Emperor Qianlong (1754), it was named the Kagura Department. The main hall of the Temple of Heaven Kagura Department was originally a temple dedicated to the ceremonies of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. It is a single-story ancient building on the top of the mountain. It sits west to the east, and opens between the east and the west. The area is 600 square meters. . It is now opened as a “Zhonghe Yule” exhibition area, holding an ancient festival of music and dance performances, and also serves as the main exhibition hall for Zhonghe music instruments and bells.
In the original Tiantan Park, there is a mountain in the southwest of the altar of the Qigutan, west of the Tanjung Bridge, which caused great damage to the overall landscape of the Temple of Heaven. In 1990, the municipal government organized the removal of Tushan and restored the landscape connection between Zhaigong and Tanjung Bridge. Plant configuration is an important part of the Temple of Heaven. The Temple of Heaven is wide and magnificent, and the buildings are concentrated. The pines and cypresses are densely planted around the main building, making the center altar surrounded by greenery, forming a solemn, solemn, quiet and pure altar atmosphere. On the west side of Xibai Forest, the temple is the largest piece of lilac forest in Beijing. It covers an area of 6,300 square meters and is planted with 240 clumps of cloves. It is nearly 50 years old and is very rare in Beijing. Tiantan chrysanthemum is famous for its variety and high level of conservation. The famous ones include “Rui Xue Praying Year” and “Dan Yu Golden Lion”.
As a kind of cultural act that human beings prayed for the blessing of the gods, it was once an important part of the life of ancient Chinese ancestors. From the legendary “Three Emperors and Five Emperors” to the end of the Qing Dynasty, China has been holding a ceremony to celebrate the ceremonies of the ceremonies. It lasts for more than 5,000 years and can be described as far-reaching.
The Temple of Heaven was built in the Ming Yongle period (1403 – 1420) and is a national altar established in accordance with the traditional Chinese etiquette system. Since the 19th year of Ming Yongle, a total of 22 emperors have worshipped the Temple of Heaven and worshipped the Emperor God. After the outbreak of the Revolution of 1911, the Government of the Republic of China announced the abolition of the Sacrifice of Heaven and the change of the Temple of Heaven into a park in 1918. The ceremonial ceremony lasted for about five thousand years. The ceremonial rituals introduce the ancient Chinese ceremonies from the historical perspective and show the history of Chinese rituals, that is, the ancient Chinese ritual culture.
Yale originated from the ancient ancestors’ production and living, and the original ritual activities. With its oriental music and dance form, it integrates ritual, music, song and dance into one, uses music to talk with the heavens, dances to the heavens, and creates a heavenly person. The more magical the artistic conception, the pursuit of the supreme ideal of harmony between man and nature.
Opening and closing time
First, the park gate
Opening hours: 6:00-21:00 in the peak season and 6:30-21:00 in the off season
2, the door ticket sales time: peak season 6:00-20:00 off-season 6:30-20:00
3, joint ticket sales time: peak season 8:00-16:00 off season 8:00-15:30
4, Jingyuan time: 22:00
Second, the attractions: (including the Hall of Prayer, Echo Wall, Qiuqiu, Kagura Department)
1, ticketing time: peak season 8:00-16:30 off-season 8:00-16:00
2, joint ticket sales time: peak season 8:00-16:00 off season 8:00-15:30
3, North God Chef, North Zai She Pavilion, Zhai Palace: Tuesday to Sunday 9:00-12:00 13:00-16:00
Tickets for Zhaigong, Beishen Kitchen, and North Zaiyan Pavilion will be exchanged at the corresponding ticket exchange office with your ID card.