Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

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Geographic location:Haiding district, Beijing

Level:AAAAA

Famous scenery:Wanshou Mountain, Kunming Lake, 17-hole Bridge

Suitable for the play season:Suitable for all seasons

The Summer Palace, the Chinese imperial garden of the Qing Dynasty, formerly known as the Qingyi Garden, is located in the western suburbs of Beijing, 15 kilometers from the urban area, covering an area of about 290 hectares, adjacent to Yuanmingyuan. It is based on Kunming Lake and Wanshou Mountain, and is based on Hangzhou West Lake. It is a large-scale landscape garden built by the design method of Jiangnan Garden. It is also the most preserved royal palace, known as the “Royal Garden Museum”. It is also a national key tourist attraction.

Before the reign of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty, four large royal gardens were built in the western suburbs of Beijing. In the fifteenth year of Emperor Qianlong (1750), Emperor Qianlong used the 4.48 million two silvers to transform the Qing Emperor into a Qingyuan Garden, forming a royal garden area from the present Qinghua Garden to Xiangshan for 20 kilometers. In the 10th year of Xianfeng (1860), the Qingyi Garden was burned down by the British and French forces. In the 14th year of Guangxu (1888) reconstruction, it was renamed the Summer Palace, and it was used as a summer amusement. In the twenty-sixth year of Guangxu (1900), the Summer Palace was destroyed by the “eight-nation coalition forces”, and the treasures were looted. After the demise of the Qing Dynasty, the Summer Palace was destroyed during the war of warlords and the Kuomintang rule.

On March 4, 1961, the Summer Palace was announced as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units. It was also listed as the four famous gardens of China in Chengde Mountain Resort, Humble Administrator’s Garden and Lingering Garden. It was included in November 1998. “World Heritage List”. On May 8, 2007, the Summer Palace was officially approved by the National Tourism Administration as a national 5A-level tourist attraction. In 2009, the Summer Palace was selected as the largest existing royal garden in China by the China World Record Association.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Historical evolution

The original Laoshan Mountain in the northwestern part of Beijing is the Yanshan Mountains. There are lakes under the mountain, called Qilitun, Dabohu, Lushanpo and Xihu. In the first year of the Jin Dynasty (1153), the gold master, Yan Yanliang, set up the Jinshan Palace. After the Yuan Dynasty settled in Beijing, in order to meet the needs of water supply, the water conservancy scientist Guo Shoujing opened up the upstream water source, and introduced the spring water of Shenfuping Baifu Village and the water flowing into the lake along the way, so that the water potential increased and became a reservoir for the court to use water and support the transportation.

In the 7th year of the Hongzhi Period of the Ming Dynasty (1494), Ming Xiaozong’s mother-in-law helped the wife of Luo, who built the Yuanjing Temple in front of Mount Lu, and was abandoned. Since then, the gardens around Lushan have gradually increased. Ming Wuzong built a palace on the lakeside, called “good mountain garden”, which is a royal garden. Ming Wuzong and Ming Shenzong once played boating here. During the Ming Emperor’s reign, Wei Zhongxian once regarded the good mountain garden as his own.

In the early years of the Qing Emperor Qianlong, the gardens in the western suburbs of Beijing increased, and a large amount of garden water used to increase the water consumption. At that time, in addition to the Wanquan River water system with a small flow, garden water came from the source of Yuquan Mountain and the water flowing into the West Lake. It is also the source of the Tonghui River since the Ming Dynasty. In the fifteenth year of Emperor Qianlong (1750), in order to prepare for the 60th birthday of Emperor Chongde Empress (Emperor Xiaoxian), Emperor Qianlong ordered the West Lake to excavate the West Lake and intercept the Xishan, Yuquanshan and Shou’an mountains. And excavating high-water lakes and water-cultivated lakes in the west of the West Lake, using the three lakes as reservoirs to ensure the water supply of the court gardens and provide irrigation water for the surrounding farmland. Emperor Qianlong changed the name of the West Lake to Kunming Lake by the Hanwu Emperor’s allusion to dig the Kunming Pool and practice the water army. He dug the lake earthwork in Lushan Mountain in Hubei and renamed Lushan Mountain as Wanshou Mountain.

In the twenty-ninth year of Qianlong (1764), the Qing Dynasty was built, which consumed more than 4.8 million tons of silver. In the Qingyi Garden, three small islands were built in Kunming Lake and the two lakes on the west side of the ancient Chinese mythology: Nanhu Island, Tuancheng Island, and Algaotang Island, to compare the three mountains at sea: Penglai , Abbot, Pazhou. The overall planning of Qingyi Garden is based on Hangzhou West Lake. At the same time, it is widely used to emulate Jiangnan gardens and scenic spots, such as Fenghuang Dun Imitation Taihu Lake, Jingming Tower Imitation Yueyang Tower, Wangjing Pavilion Imitation Yellow Crane Tower, Houxi Lake Trading Street Imitation Suzhou Water Street The West Street is like the Yangzhou Fourth Bridge and so on. The main building in the park is the Dafaen Yanshou Temple, and there is a promenade with a length of more than 700 meters. The architecture and decorative paintings are quite wonderful and have artistic value and many tour buildings. There are very few buildings in the Qingshui Garden of the Longevity Garden in the Summer Palace. The Qianlong Emperor visited the Qingyi Garden and went back and forth. They never lived in the garden.

During the heyday of the Summer Palace, the scale was grand, covering an area of 2.97 square kilometers (293 hectares), mainly composed of Wanshou Mountain and Kunming Lake, of which three-quarters (about 220 hectares) of water surface. The building in the park is centered on Foxiang Pavilion. There are more than 100 scenic spots and buildings, more than 20 large and small courtyards, and 3555 ancient buildings with an area of more than 70,000 square meters. There are different pavilions, terraces, buildings, pavilions, corridors, and plaques. More than 3,000 buildings in the form. Among them, Foxiangge, Promenade, Shijie, Suzhou Street, 17-hole Bridge, Harmony Garden and Grand Stage are representative buildings. There are more than 1600 ancient and famous trees.

After the light years of the Qing dynasty, due to the weak national power, it was announced that the Sanshan furnishings were withdrawn, and the Qingyuan Garden was gradually abandoned. In the 10th year of Xianfeng (1860), the Qingyi Garden was destroyed by the British and French coalition forces. In the tenth to twenty-first year of Guangxu (1884 to 1895), the Empress Dowager Cixi retired and retired, and in the name of Emperor Guangxu ordered the reconstruction of the Qingyuan Garden. Due to limited funds, it was concentrated on repairing the Qianshan complex, and adding a wall around Kunming Lake, which was renamed the Summer Palace and became a palace. In the twenty-sixth year of Guangxu (1900), the buildings and cultural relics in the park were destroyed by the Eight-Power Allied Forces, and the Guangxu twenty-eight years (1902) were restored. Although the Summer Palace has largely restored the landscape of the Qingyuan Garden, many of its quality has declined. Many high-rise buildings have been forced to reduce their shortage due to funding, and the scale has also been reduced. For example, the Wenchangge Tower has been reduced from three floors to two floors. Le Shoutang has changed from heavy to single, and there are also elevated buildings, such as the Grand Theatre. After Suzhou Street was burned down, it has not recovered. Because Cixi prefers Su-style paintings, the paintings of many houses and pavilions have also changed from enamel paintings to Su-style paintings, changing the original appearance of Qingyuan Garden in detail.

On December 25, Xuantong (1911), Puyi abdicated, and the Summer Palace, as a private property of Puyi, was still managed by the Qing Office.

Due to the shortfall of royal funds year by year, the financial resources of the Qing Dynasty have become increasingly exhausted. In order to subsidize the finance of the garden, on January 14, the Republic of China, the Qing government office changed the Summer Palace to ticket sales. In April, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Qing Dynasty Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs agreed to: “In the open tour, the meaning of fundraising,” proposed the “Provisional Regulations for the Sale of Tickets in the Summer Palace.” It is stipulated that the official ticket sales to the society will begin on May 6.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Building pattern

The Summer Palace covers an area of 293 hectares and is mainly composed of Wanshou Mountain and Kunming Lake. There are more than 3,000 palace garden buildings of various forms, which can be roughly divided into three parts: administration, life and sightseeing.

The administrative district centered on Renshou Temple was the place where the Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu sat in the DPRK and met with foreign guests. Behind Renshou Palace are three large courtyards: Le Shoutang, Yuxitang and Yiyi Hall, which are the places where Cixi, Guangxu and Houyi lived. The Deyi Garden Grand Theatre on the east side of Yiyi Pavilion is one of the three major theater buildings in the Qing Dynasty.

The Summer Palace is descended from the wisdom sea of Wanshou Mountain Peak. It consists of a well-defined central axis from Foxiangge, Dehui Hall, Paiyun Hall, Paiyunmen and Yunhui Yuyufang. Under the mountain is a “long corridor” with a length of more than 700 meters. There are more than 8,000 paintings on the porch of the promenade, which is known as the “world’s first corridor”. Before the promenade is Kunming Lake. The west bank of Kunming Lake is modeled after the Su Cause of the West Lake.

Wanshou Mountain Houshan, Houhu Ancient Mucheng Forest, Tibetan Temple, Suzhou Hegu Trading Street. At the eastern end of Houhu Lake, there is a harmonic garden built like Wuxi Sending Changyuan. It is small and exquisite, and is called “the garden in the garden”.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Main Attractions

Suzhou Street

Suzhou Street is also known as the “sales street”. Suzhou Street is a trading street built on the banks of the Houhu River in the south of the Yangtze River. During the Qing Dynasty, there were various shops on the shore, such as jade antique shops, satin shops, snack shops, tea houses, gold and silver jewelry buildings. The clerk in the shop is the eunuch and the palace girl. The emperor began to “open” when he was lucky. Dozens of shops on the shores of Houhu Lake were burned in the ten years of Xianfeng (1860) and rebuilt in 1986.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Wanshoushan

Wanshou Mountain belongs to the Yanshan Mountains and is 58.59 meters high. The building complex is built on the hillside, and the Wanshou Mountain front mountain is centered on the Buddha’s Pavilion with eight sides, three floors and four layers, forming a huge main building complex. From the foot of the “Yunhui Yuyu” archway, through the row of Yunmen, Ergongmen, Paiyun Hall, Dehui Hall, Foxiang Pavilion, to the wisdom of the sea on the top of the mountain, formed a layer of rising central axis. On the east side, there are “running wheel” and “Wan Shoushan Kunming Lake” stone monument. On the west side are the Wufang Pavilion and the bronze cast Baoyun Pavilion. There are Tibetan Buddhist architecture and multicolored glazed pagodas in Houshan. On the mountain, there are pavilions such as Jingfu Pavilion, Zhongcui Pavilion, Qiu Xuan, and the middle of the painting. A group of central buildings with large volume and rich image is built in the central part. This group of large buildings consists of the main building in the park, the “Puyun Temple” and the Buddhist temple “Foxiang Pavilion”. Responding to the longitudinal axis of the central building complex is the “long corridor” that runs through the mountains and along the north bank of the lake.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Four major states

The four major ministries are in the middle of the back hill of Wanshou Mountain, which is a Sino-Tibetan-style architectural complex. Covering an area of 20,000 square meters, due to the mountain, the local cabinet. There is a need for Mi Lingjing (currently a platform), with a 3-meter-high warp building on both sides, and a temple complex with the main body of the temple. Surrounded by four major sub-districts that symbolize the Buddhist world – Dongsheng Body, Xi Niu Hezhou, Nanbu Minzhou, Beilu Luzhou and eight small suburbs built with different forms of towers. There are four red, white, black and green Lama towers representing the four wisdoms of the Buddhist scriptures in the south, southwest, northeast and northwest. There are thirteen layers of circular “phase wheels” on the tower, indicating the Buddhist scriptures “Thirteen days.” The tower is chic and the shape is dignified and beautiful. There are two uneven temples in the middle of the four major ministries and eight ministries, one representing the platform and one representing the sun, symbolizing the sun and the moon surrounding the Buddha.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Wisdom sea

The Wisdom Sea is a religious building at the highest point of the Longevity Peak. It is a beamless Buddhist temple made entirely of masonry. It consists of a vault structure. The outer layers of the building are all beautifully decorated with yellow and green glazed tiles. The upper part is covered with a small amount of purple and blue glazed tiles, especially the more than a thousand glazed Buddhas embedded in the outer wall of the temple. The word “smart sea” is a Buddhist term, which is intended to praise the Buddha’s wisdom as the sea, and the Dharma is boundless. Although the building is very similar to a wooden structure, there is actually no wood. All of them are made of stone bricks. They are not bearing the weight, so they are called “No Beam Temple”. Because the temple is dedicated to the Buddha of infinite life, it is also called “the Temple of Immortality.”

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Buddha incense

Foxiangge is located on the mountainside in the central part of the Qianshou Mountain front. It is built on a square platform with a height of 21 meters. It is an eight-story, three-story, four-story building. The height of the pavilion is 41 meters. There are 8 huge iron pears in the pavilion. Optimus Prime, with a complex structure, is a fine example of classical architecture. After the first year of the Xianfeng Xianfeng (1860) was burnt down by the British and French coalition forces, Guangxu seventeen years (1891) spent 780,000 silver reconstruction, completed in the 20th year of Guangxu (1894), the largest project in the Summer Palace. In the pavilion, there is a “speaking Buddha” for the royal family to burn incense here.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Baoyun Pavilion

Baoyun Pavilion (Bronze Pavilion) is one of the most exquisite and bulky copper castings in China. Built in the Wufang Pavilion on the west side of Foxiangge, a 4 meter high white marble stone seat was built in the Qianlong period, 7.5 meters high and weighs 207 tons. There are diamond flowers on all sides. Although it is made of copper, it is made entirely in accordance with the structure of the wooden frame. There are three doors on the east, south and west sides, four door fans on the door and eight fan windows on the north. The door pane fan has a rhombic fan heart, and the upper part of the curtain frame also has a fan-shaped heart, and all the fan-shaped hearts are two layers inside and outside.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Paiyun Temple

In the center of the building in front of the Wanshou Mountain, the Paiyun Temple was originally built by Emperor Qianlong for the 60th birthday of his mother. The Yanshou Temple was built in the 60th birthday of the mother. When Cixi was rebuilt, it was changed to the Paiyun Temple. It was the Cixi who lived in the garden and accepted the worship at the birthday. local. The word “Puyun” is taken from Guo Yushi’s fairy goddess Yunshan, but sees the gold and silver platform. It is like a fairy in the fairy mountain Qiongge. The fairy is about to show up. From a distance, the Paiyun Temple and the archway, Paiyunmen, Jinshuiqiao and Ergongmen are connected in a straight line. The group of Paiyun Temple is the most spectacular architectural group in the Summer Palace.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

gallery

The promenade is located in the south of Wanshou Mountain, facing Kunming Lake. It is based on Wanshou Mountain in the north, the Moon Gate in the east, and the Shizhang Pavilion in the west. It is 728 meters in length and 273 in total. It is the longest veranda in Chinese gardens. It is recognized as the longest promenade in the world and is included in the Guinness Book of World Records. Each truss on the gallery is painted, with more than 14,000 drawings, including landscapes, flowers, birds, fish, and characters. The figures in the paintings are all based on Chinese classical masterpieces.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Kunming Lake

Kunming Lake is the largest lake in the royal gardens of the Qing Dynasty. A long embankment in the lake, the west embankment, is southward from the northwest. The West Bank and its levees divide the lake into three waters of different sizes, each with a lake island. These three islands are full of hustle and bustle on the lake, symbolizing the ancient Chinese legend of the Three Seas of the East China Sea – Penglai, Abbot, and Pazhou. The west embankment and the six bridges on the embankment are the Su Di and the “Sudi Six Bridges” that consciously imitate the West Lake in Hangzhou. The blue dip willows in the west embankment, the natural scenery is wide, and the beautiful mountain shape of the Yuquan Mountain and the Yufeng Tower on the top of the mountain are collected and taken as part of the landscape.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Mid-picture

The middle of the painting is a group of scenic spots in the west of Wanshou Mountain. It is built on the mountain. There is a two-story pavilion on the front, and there are one floor on the left and right. It is called “Love Mountain” and “Let Autumn”. There is a stone archway behind the pavilion, and behind the archway is the “Shenghui Pavilion”. There is a climbing gallery between the buildings. Because it is located halfway up the mountain, the buildings, pavilions and corridors are built on different contour lines. The Qingshan cypresses are surrounded by a group of buildings covered by red, yellow, blue and green glazed tiles.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Listen to the museum

The listening hall was originally built by the Emperor Qianlong for his mother. There are two levels of stage in the theater. Because the ancients often used the sound of the yellow ostrich to compare the beautiful music of the music, it was called the “Listening Hall”. Before the completion of the Dahe Building, the Cixi often watched the drama and feasted here. The Xianfeng Decade (1860) was burned down by the British and French Allied Forces and was rebuilt in Guangxu. Listening to the restaurant is a famous palace cuisine restaurant.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Harmony Garden

The Harmony Garden is located in Wanshou Mountain, a garden that is independent and has a southern garden style. When the Qing Emperor Garden was called Huishan Garden, it was built in the same way as Wuxi Huishan. After the rebuilding of Jiaqing in the 16th year (1811), it was taken to be “the rest of the world, and the harmony between the fields” and The meaning of the Emperor Qianlong’s verse “One Pavilion, One Path, and Harmony” was renamed “Harmony Garden.” There are a total of thirteen pavilions, terraces, churches, and plaques in the park, and there are hundreds of verandas and five different forms. The bridge communicates. There is a stone bridge in the southeast corner of the park. The three-character “Xiyuqiao” inscribed on Qianglong in the bridgehead is quoted from the dispute between Zhuangzi and Keiko on the “Qiu Shuiyu”.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Le Shoutang

Le Shoutang is the main building in the living area of the Summer Palace. It was originally built in the fifteenth year of Emperor Qianlong (1750). The Xianfeng ten years (1860) was destroyed and rebuilt in the 13th year of Guangxu (1887). Le Shoutang faces Kunming Lake, backed by Wanshou Mountain, Dongda Renshou Hall, and west of the promenade. It is the best place to live and play in the park. In front of the church, there is a pier of the Cixi boat trip. “Le Shou Tang” is a golden handwritten book. The copper deer, bronze crane and copper vase are displayed in the courtyard of Le Shoutang, which means “Liuhe Taiping”. The flowers in the courtyard are planted with magnolia, sea bream, peony, etc. The famous flower is full of courtyards, meaning “Yutang rich and rich”.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Yiyi Hall

Yiyi Museum was built in the Qianlong period and rebuilt in Guangxu. When the Qing Emperor Garden was the library of the Emperor Qianlong, it was elegantly furnished. When the Summer Palace was the palace of Guangxu Empress Longyu, the layout of the furnishings changed greatly due to the different functions of the building and the identity of the owner. In 1979, after the ancient construction was repaired, the furniture was only placed indoors. In 1992, according to the furnishings of the Qing Dynasty, the furnishings were arranged, and more than 100 pieces of cultural relics were displayed in the whole group.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Big theater

The Grand Theatre is located in the Summer Palace, together with the Qingyin Pavilion in Chengde Mountain Resort and the Changying Pavilion in the Forbidden City. It is called the three major stage of the Qing Dynasty. The Dehe Garden Grand Theatre was built for the 60th birthday of Cixi, and is dedicated to the show of Cixi. It is 21 meters high and is second only to the highest Buddha Pavilion in the Summer Palace. The theater has three floors and the backstage makeup building is on the second floor. There are seven “patio” on the top panel and “ground wells” in the floor. There are wells and five square pools at the bottom of the stage.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Yuxitang

Yuxitang is built on the bank of Kunming Lake in the southwest of Renshou Temple. It is a courtyard-style building. The main hall of the temple is located in the north facing the south, the east is equipped with the Xiafen room, and the west is equipped with the temple. The East Hall can go to Renshou Hall, the West Hall can go to the lakeside pier, and the back door of the main hall is directly opposite Yiyi Hall. The Houyi and the two halls are both isolated from the outside world and are an important historical relic in the Summer Palace. In the twenty-fourth year of Guangxu (1898), after Cixi launched the court coup, he was imprisoned by the Emperor Guangxu who advocated reform, and was the palace of Emperor Guangxu.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Renshou Temple

Renshou Temple (named Qinqian Temple in Qingyi Garden) was the emperor’s place in the two historical periods of Qianlong and Guangxu. The main layout of the furnishings was roughly the same, and they were all specific forms of the royal palace. However, the furnishings are different, and the Summer Palace period is much more luxurious than the Qing Dynasty. The center of the interior of the hall continues the original period of the Guangxu period. The rest of the furnishings are slightly changed. The cultural relics, books and furniture in the original hall are preserved in most of the cultural relics in addition to being exhibited in the hall.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Donggongmen

The east gate of the palace is painted with oil paintings, and the six yellow-red doors are lined with neat yellow door nails. The middle of the temple is hung with the golden plaque of the Kowloon, and the three characters of the book “The Summer Palace” are the royal masters of Guangxu Emperor. question. The Yunlong Stone on the Imperial Road in front of the gate is engraved with the Erlong Opera Ball, which was carved from the ruins of the Yuanmingyuan (An Yougong Palace). It is a symbol of the dignity of the emperor. Donggongmen only came in and out of the Qing emperor. Renshou Temple is in the East Palace Gate of the Summer Palace Gate.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Clear

The Qing Dynasty is commonly known as Shijie. It is a large stone ship on the west end of the promenade. It is the only thing that has the Western style of the Summer Palace. Its predecessor was the release platform of the Yuanjing Temple in the Ming Dynasty. When Qianlong repaired the garden, he changed the station to a ship and changed its name to “Shijie.” The stone sarcophagus is 36 meters long and is carved with marble sculptures. There are two-storey shipbuildings on the ship, the bottom of the ship is covered with tiles, the windows are stained glass, and the top bricks are decorated. When it rains, the rain falling on the top of the ship passes through the hollow pillars at the four corners and is discharged into the lake by the four leading hulls of the hull.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Wenchangyuan

Wenchangyuan is located in the east of Wenchang Pavilion in the Summer Palace. It is the largest and highest-grade cultural relics exhibition in Chinese classical gardens. There are six special exhibition halls in the pavilion. Chen Zhan exhibited thousands of fines of the Summer Palace from the Shang and Zhou dynasties. The categories include bronzeware, jade, porcelain, gold and silverware, bamboo and wood anglers, and lacquerware. Furniture, paintings, ancient books, cymbals, clocks, miscellaneous items, etc., cover many categories of Chinese cultural relics. Due to the special royal environment of the Summer Palace, these artworks represent the best craftsmanship at that time. Many treasures were the national weapons at that time. The museum also exhibited some Qing Dynasty court daily necessities, which are closely related to the life of the emperor. It has outstanding historical value and is the most authentic material evidence of Chinese royal culture.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Wenchang Court

The largest of the six towns in the Summer Palace (Ziqi Donglai Chengguan, Suyunyu Chengguan, Qihui Chengguan, Tongyun Chengguan, Qianfeng Caicui Chengguan, Wenchangge Chengguan) was built in the 15th year of Emperor Qianlong (1750). In 1860, it was burnt down by the British and French coalition forces and rebuilt in Guangxu. The main pavilion has two floors, which are used for copper casting Wenchang Emperor and Fairchild and Bronte. Wenchang Pavilion and Kunming Huxi for Wusheng’s Su Yunlu symbolize “Wenwu Fu”.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Copper cow

The copper cow is located on the east bank of Kunming Lake and on the north side of Dongqiaotou of the 17-hole bridge. It is designed to suppress flooding. In the 20th year of Emperor Qianlong, it was cast in copper in 1755 and was called “Golden Bull”.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Seventeen hole bridge

Located on Kunming Lake, the 17-hole bridge is located between Dongdi and Nanhu Island. It is the largest stone bridge in the park. The stone bridge is 8 meters wide and 150 meters long and consists of 17 bridge holes. More than 500 stone lions of different sizes and shapes are carved on the railings on both sides of the stone bridge.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Cultural relics collection

During the Qing Emperor Garden period, the Emperor Qianlong had many collections of literary and artistic works. There were many bronzes in the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming Dynasties, and many paintings and calligraphy. At that time, there were more than 40,000 pieces of records, and the Qing government’s Ministry of Internal Affairs set up a special book for the establishment of the book. management.

After the Opium War, due to the decline of the national power of the Qing Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty Park Chen was abolished. By the time of Xianfeng five years (1855), there were actually 37,583 pieces. In the 10th year of Xianfeng (1860), five large royal gardens in the northwestern suburbs of Beijing, including Qingyi Garden, were brutally burned by the British and French coalition forces. According to the album after the looting of the British and French forces, there are only 530 pieces of furnishings in the Qing Dynasty, and many of them are broken.

In 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces broke into Beijing, and the Summer Palace was again ravaged. The cultural relics in the park were destroyed. In 1902, Cixi repaired the Summer Palace again and vigorously enriched the furnishings in the park.

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, there are more than 40,000 pieces of cultural relics in the Summer Palace. The categories include bronzes, jade, porcelain, wood, lacquerware, calligraphy and painting, ancient books, urns, clocks, bamboo, musical instruments, root carvings, miscellaneous items, etc., covering almost China. All categories of cultural relics have been handed down, and there are many foreign cultural relics; in terms of value, there are more than 20,000 state-level cultural relics, including national treasures such as Xuan Gongzi Bai Ding, San Xiu Zun, and silk long-axis Buddha statues.

Summer Palace (Chinese Imperial Garden in the Qing Dynasty)

Important events

The Summer Palace is the most important political and diplomatic activity center outside the Forbidden City in the late Qing Dynasty. It is an important witness of China’s modern history and the birthplace of many major historical events.

In the 16th year of Guangxu (1890), a small power plant was built on the right side of the East Palace Gate of the Summer Palace. It was called the “Summer Palace Electric Light Office” and was supplied to the Summer Palace. The institute is the earliest power generation facility in Beijing with the “Xiyuan Electric Light Office” in the city. In the twenty-sixth year of Guangxu (1900), the Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded Beijing, and two generator sets and electric light equipment of Xiyuan and Summer Palace Electric Lights were destroyed. In 1902, the Qing government raised 234,900 yuan to repair two power facilities, Xiyuan and the Summer Palace. In the 30th year of Guangxu (1904), Xiyuan Electric Light Station resumed power generation; in May of the same year, the lights re-lighted in the Summer Palace.

In the twenty-fourth year of Guangxu (1898), on April 28 (June 16th), Emperor Guangxu summoned Kang Youwei in the Renshou Temple of the Summer Palace. Life Kang walked on the Zhangjing of the General Administration and made a special concert. After the announcement of the reform on April 23, Emperor Guangxu went to the Summer Palace for 12 times to summon the reformers and plan for reform. On the fourth day of August (September 19th), Empress Dowager Cixi returned to the palace from the Summer Palace. Two days later, she launched a coup, imprisoned Guangxu Emperor, arrested and killed the reformers, and failed the Reform Movement. During the reform period (June to September), Cixi lived in the Summer Palace. The Summer Palace became the center of the old school to oppose reform and prepare for a coup. After the failure of the reform, Guangxu was confined to the Yuxi Hall in the garden for a long time.

On the 21st of Guangxu (1900) (July 15th), the Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded Beijing. Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu fled through the Summer Palace. On July 25 (August 19), the Russian army first invaded the Summer Palace. In the future, the Japanese, British, and Italian troops were successively occupied. During the occupation of the Summer Palace, the treasures were looted by the invaders and many buildings were burned again.

On June 2, the 16th year of the Republic of China (1927), Wang Guowei, a famous Chinese scholar in modern times, sank in Kunming Lake, the Summer Palace, at the age of 50.

Travel Information

Opening hours

High season (April 1 to October 31 of each year)
Gate opening hours: 6:30 – 18:00
Garden Park Opening Hours: 8:30 – 17:00
Jingyuan time is: 20:00

Low season (from November 1st to March 31st of the following year)
Gate opening hours: 7:00 – 17: 00
Garden Park Opening Hours: 9:00 – 16:00
Jingyuan time is: 19:00

From September 28, 2018, the park will stop selling tickets after it is “full”. Xiangshan and Summer Palace were reduced from 80,000 in 2015 to 56,000 and 50,000 respectively, the zoo was adjusted from 108,000 to 63,000, Jingshan Park was adjusted from 21,000 to 12,000, and Tiantan Park was 58,000. Adjusted to 50,000 people. “The number of people down is mainly due to the safety and comfort of the garden. At the same time, the bearing capacity of the cultural relics should be considered. For example, noise and lighting will affect the ancient cultural relics.” When the number of people entering the park reaches the maximum carrying capacity of the day, The park stops selling tickets on the same day and closes all ticket sales windows; when the scenic spot visitors reach the instantaneous maximum carrying capacity, the park will suspend ticket sales and suspend admission.

Ticket information

Tickets for the Summer Palace: 30 yuan / Zhang (peak season), 20 yuan / Zhang (low season), half-price tickets.
Summer Palace joint ticket: 60 yuan / Zhang (peak season), 50 yuan / Zhang (low season), with half-price tickets.

  1. The joint ticket includes tickets and tickets for Yuanzhongyuan (Garden Park includes Wenchangyuan, Deheyuan, Foxiangge and Suzhou Street).

2. tickets and coupons have discount tickets, discount tickets: 15 yuan.

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