Geographic location:Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region
Famous scenery:East Hall, the victory of the Three Realms Hall
Suitable for the play season:March-October
The Potala Palace (Tibetan: པོ་ཏ་ལ), located on the northwestern Mabu Rishan in the city of Lhasa, the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, is the world’s highest building with a palace, a castle and a monastery. Tibet’s largest and most complete ancient palace complex.
The Potala Palace is built on the hills and overlaps with the buildings. It is an outstanding representative of Tibetan ancient architecture (it is said to originate from Sangzhu Zongbao). The essence of the Chinese ancient architecture is the fifth set of RMB 50 yuan banknotes. Landscape pattern. The main building is divided into two parts, the White House and the Red Palace. The palace is more than 200 meters high, with 13 floors and 9 floors. The Potala Palace Square is located in front of the Potala Palace and is the highest city square in the world.
The Potala Palace was originally built for the Tubo dynasty, Zampson, and the tribute to the princess and Princess Wencheng. In 1645 (the second year of Qing Shunzhi), the Qing Dynasty was under the State of the Republic of China and the Khmer Khanate, and the Guru Khan, the regent of the Gelug Sect, was rebuilt after the Potala Palace, becoming the residence of the Dalai Lama in the past, and a major religion. It is also the place where the political ceremonies are held. It is also the place where the Dalai Lama’s spiritual tower is worshipped. In the old days, it was the center of the rule with the Minister of Tibet. From 1988 to 1994, it was repaired again on a large scale.
The Potala Palace is a sacred place for Tibetan Buddhism (Grupo), and there are countless pilgrims and tourists visiting the country every year. In March 1961, the State Council listed it as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units; in December 1994, UNESCO listed it as a World Cultural Heritage; in January 2013, the National Tourism Administration listed it as a national AAAAA level tourist attraction. . From November 1st, 2018 to March 15th, 2019, the Potala Palace is free to visit.
“Budala” is a Sanskrit transliteration, the original meaning is “Buddhist Holy Land.” The basic appearance of the Potala Palace is mainly the White House built by Gushi and the Fifth Dalai Lama during the period of the Qing Dynasty in the Qing Dynasty and the Shuo Khan (the Heshuo Dynasty), and the Red Palace built after the death. Since then, the Dalai Lama has been expanded successively, and it has become the size of the Potala Palace today. “The old and the Minister of Tibet, Tuen Mun, were the center of the rule (the building is the executive body).
The Potala Palace was built in the 7th century AD. The Tubo Kingdom, the king of Songtsan Gambo, has a history of 1,300 years.
At the beginning of the 7th century, after Songzan Gampo moved to Lhasa, he built a three-story nine-storey building with a total of 1,000 palaces, especially the Potala Palace. According to historical records, the outer city of Hongshan is triple, and there is a bridge of silver and copper between Songtsan Gambo and Princess Wencheng Palace. There is a racecourse of Songtsen Gampo outside the east gate of the Potala Palace. When the Tubo Kingdom, established by Songtsan Gambo, was destroyed, most of the Potala Palace was destroyed by war.
In 631 AD (Tibetan Year of the Rabbit), the Potala Palace was built by Tubo Songtsan Gambo. There were 999 palaces built at that time, and there were a total of 1,000 training rooms on the mountain. They were severely damaged by lightning strikes and war.
After the demise of the Tubo Kingdom, most of the ancient palace castles were destroyed by war. In addition to natural disasters such as lightning strikes, the Potala Palace was shrinking in size and was even included in the Jokhang Temple as a branch. Today, the Potala Palace still has the Fawang Cave and Pabalakang at that time.
Heshuo Khan period
At the end of the Ming Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty belonged to the State and the Shuo Khan State (1637-1641 ruled Qinghai, and 1642-1717 ruled Tibet further). A new era began. The guardian of the king, Gu Shihan, helped the Gelug Sects Suo Nanqun and the Fifth Dalai Lama. With the founder of the 4th Panchen Lama, the Gelugpa government or the sub-regime, they formed the four giants, of which Gushi Khan and Sonam Qunpei are known as the heaven and the moon in the sky, and are two powerful figures.
In 1645 (Tibetan Year of the Rooster), Gushi Khan (the supreme ruler of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau) and the Gelug Sect of the Southern Song Dynasty, Soren Qunpei, consolidate the kingdom of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Shuite Khanate and the following Dalai system. The government of Gansu (the Gandanpozhang government stage is the Drepung Monastery government, which existed before the new completion of the Buddhism Palace, and later became the Potala Palace government, and the dynasty was the Heshuo Dynasty), rebuilding the Potala Palace. . In 1690 (Tibetan Iron Horse Year), the first division of Sangjie Gyatso built the spiritual tower for the Fifth Dalai Lama and expanded the “Red Palace”. The project was completed in 1693 (the Year of the Tibetan Water Chicken). Later, the Dalai Lama added five golden domes and some ancillary buildings. In particular, after the completion of the 13th Dalai Lama’s Lingta Hall in 1936 (Tibetan Year of the Rat), the size of the Potala Palace was formed today.
After the demise of the Tubo dynasty established by Songtsan Gambo, most of the ancient palace ruins were destroyed by war, and the Potala Palace was rebuilt in 1645.
Additional construction of the Dalai Lama
Later, the Dalai Lama has successively carried out additional construction, and the Potala Palace has a later scale.
After the Dalai Lama has been expanded in the past, the Potala Palace has the scale of today. The unique Potala Palace is also sacred at the same time. Because in today’s China, whenever it is mentioned, it is natural to think of Tibet. Suddenly in people’s minds, this ancient building complex that condenses the wisdom of Tibetan working people and witnesses the cultural exchanges between the Han and Tibetan cultures has become a symbol of the Tibetan people with its splendid majesty and the status of Tibetan Buddhist holy places.
In 1690, under the auspices of the Bha Sangjiejia, the Red Temple V Dalai Lingta Temple was modified and completed in 1693. Later, I experienced the expansion of the Dalai Lama. For more than 300 years, the Potala Palace has collected and preserved a wealth of historical artifacts. Among them, there are more than 2,500 square meters of murals, nearly a thousand stupas, tens of thousands of statues, and tens of thousands of Thangka; as well as precious scriptures such as the Bayeux and Ganjur, and the Tibetan local government in history The two emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties of the Central Government have given the Dalai Lama’s gold, gold, jade, and a large number of gold and silver goods, porcelain, pottery, jade, brocade forgings and crafts. These cultural relics are colorful and rich in subject matter.
The 13th Dalai Lama Lingta Hall is the latest building of the Potala Palace. It was started in 1933 and completed in 3 years. In addition, there are the Shangshi Hall, the Puxian Chasing Hall, the Xiangtong Hall, the Shilun Temple, the Sakyamuni Hall, the Sakyamuni Hall, the Flower Teacher’s Hall, the Bodhi Pathary Hall, the Zhiming Hall, and the Hereditary Hall.
In August 2015, Tibet’s Potala Palace, which is the world cultural heritage, will be further protected by the Regulations on the Protection of Cultural Heritage of the Potala Palace in the Tibet Autonomous Region.
In 2016, according to the application for the repair project by the Potala Palace Management Office, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage has allocated more than 31 million yuan. In 2017, it officially launched the 7th Golden Pavilion, 7 Aquarius and V, VII, and VII of the Potala Palace. The repair works of the VIII and IX Dalai Lingta Temple and the five gold domes of the Pabarakang Temple.
On November 7, 2018, the completion and acceptance of the Golden Roof Group repair project of the Potala Palace marked the successful conclusion of the one-and-a-half-year-old Potala Palace Jinding Group and its affiliated repair works.
In April 2019, the Southwest Tourism Scenic Alliance jointly sponsored by eight units including the Potala Palace in Tibet was established in Chengdu Wuhou Temple Museum.
The east and west sides of the main building of the Potala Palace extend downwards and connect with the tall palace wall. The palace wall is 6 meters high, the bottom is 4.4 meters wide, and the top is 2.8 meters wide. It is built with bauxite and is covered with bricks. There is a three-story gatehouse on the east, south and west sides of the wall, and a turret in the southeast and northwest corners. The range surrounded by the palace walls all belong to the Potala Palace.
The front part of the palace wall is called “Snow City”, and it is distributed with the offices of the former Tibetan government, such as the court, the Buddhist scriptures, and the Tibetan army headquarters. In addition, court facilities, horse stables, water supply, warehouses, prisons and other court facilities are also located here.
The back part of the palace wall is called “Linka”, mainly a group of garden buildings centered on Longwangtan, and is the back garden of the Potala Palace. When the Fifth Dalai rebuilt the Potala Palace, it took the soil here and formed a deep pool. Later, the Sixth Dalai Lama built a three-story octagonal glass pavilion in the heart of the lake, which was called the Dragon King.
On the right side of Hongshan is a Yaowang Mountain, which has a Tibetan medical school built in the 17th century. On the south side of the Gongqian Highway, there is a piece of “Dhaza Road Gongjigong Monument”, which was established by the Tubo Zanpu Chisong Dezan in recognition of his general Dazha Lugong’s attack on Chang’an in the first year of Tang Guangde (763). Around the palace wall, a lot of new commercial facilities have been built, which is in sharp contrast with the serious atmosphere of the Potala Palace.
The White House is surrounded by the sturdy buildings of the Fifth Dalai Lama in the form of reconstruction of the early palaces, but the ruins of the ruins of the early palaces.
The whole frame
The Potala Palace is 3,700 meters above sea level (the tourism should prevent the lack of endogenous oxygen), covering a total area of 360,000 square meters, with a total construction area of 130,000 square meters. The main building is 117 meters high and has 13 floors, including the palace and the spiritual tower. Buddhist temples, temples, shacks, courtyards, etc. are readily available.
The Potala Palace has 13 floors and a height of 110 meters. It rises from the foot of the mountain to the top of the mountain. It consists of the White House in the east (the place where the Dalai Lama lives), the Red Palace in the middle (the Buddhist temple and the Dalai Lama’s spiritual tower). In front of the Red Palace, there is a white towering wall for the Buddha’s table, which is used to hang a large Buddha tapestry in Buddhist festivals.
The outer wall of the Potala Palace is 2 to 5 meters thick, and the foundation is directly buried in the rock formation. The walls are all made of granite, up to tens of meters. At intervals, the iron is poured in the middle to strengthen the wall, which improves the earthquake resistance of the wall.
The roof and window sill are made of wooden structure, the fly shovel is picked up, the corner of the house is lifted, the copper tile is gilded, and the gold plaque is used, the bottle, the squid and the golden winged eagle, and the ridge decoration. The shiny roof features a mountain-style and a pointed style with Han Dynasty architecture. The walls under the eaves are decorated with gilt bronze ornaments. The image is a Buddhist instrumental eight treasures with a strong Tibetan Buddhist color. The column and the imitation are covered with brightly colored paintings and gorgeous carvings. The interior corridors are staggered, the halls are mixed, and the space is unpredictable.
The Potala Palace is built on the hills, the buildings are overlapping, the temples are sturdy, the majestic, the solid granite walls, the loose white sand grass collar, the golden crown, the strong decorative effect. The huge gold bottles, the buildings and the red dragonflies, the contrasting colors, the contrast of the three colors of red, white and yellow, the architectural styles of the divisions and layers, all reflect the charming characteristics of the ancient Tibetan architecture.
White House Building
The White House is the Dalai Lama’s Winter Palace. It was also the seat of the former Tibetan local government office. It is seven stories high.
The White House is named after the white wall of the exterior. The oldest building in the existing Potala Palace is the Fawang Cave. In the 9th century, the Potala Palace was destroyed by the civil strife in Tubo. Inside the cave is a statue that is rumored to be made by Songtsan Gambo in his lifetime, along with the Princess Wencheng and the Princess of Nepal.
At the top is the Dalai Lama’s “Daylight Hall”, where some of the roofs are open, the sun can be shot in, and the tarpaulin is covered at night, hence the name. The Sunlight Temple is divided into two parts, the West Sun Temple (Nyue Saurang Lieji) is the original hall, and the East Sun Temple (Gandan Lange) was later copied. The two layouts are similar. They are the thirteenth and the fourteenth. The Dalai’s palace is also where they handle government affairs. The level is strict here, only senior officials are allowed to enter. The hall includes a pilgrimage hall, a hall, a study room and a bedroom. The furnishings are very luxurious.
The sixth and fifth floors of the White House are living and office buildings.
The fourth floor is the largest hall of the White House, the East Hall (Chongqinxia). It is the largest hall of the White House of the Potala Palace. It covers an area of 717 square meters. It is 27.8 meters long and 25.8 meters wide. It has a Dalai throne and a hanging ceiling. The Emperor wrote the “Zhenxi Yujiang” plaque. Major events at the Potala Palace such as the Dalai Lama’s bed ceremony and pro-government ceremony were held here. Outside the White House, there is a “Zigzag” type of Shangshan Road. On the east side of the mountain, there is a wide square called Deyang Building, which is the place where the Dalai Lama watches drama and holds outdoor activities. There are eunuch schools on the north and south sides of the square.
The White House is connected to Zhaxia under the Red Palace. Located on the west side of the Red Palace, Zhaxia is the residence of the lamas who serve the Potala Palace. At most, it is home to more than 25,000 people. Its exterior walls are white and are therefore often seen as part of the White House.
Red Palace Building
The Red Palace is located in the central part of the Potala Palace and the exterior is red. The palace adopts the mandala layout, and many temples and Buddhist temples are built around the Dalai Lama’s Lingta Hall, thus connecting with the White House.
The main building of the Red Palace is the spiritual tower of the Dalai Lama. There are five temples, namely V, VII, VIII, IX and XIII. Each temple has the same shape but varies in size. The largest five-day Dalai Lamenta Temple (Tibetan Jingji) is a three-storey high-rise building supported by sixteen large columns. The fifth floor of the Dalai Lamenta is placed in the center. The two sides are the tenth and twelve Dalai Lama’s spiritual towers. The Great Hall of the West Hall of the Five Daling Towers (Zuchinlu, also known as Sixipingcuo) is the largest hall in the Red Palace, with a height of more than 6 meters and an area of 725.7 square meters. In the temple, the “Jianlian first place” of the Qianlong Emperor’s book was hoisted, and the Dalai Lama was placed. The entire hall is carved and painted, with 698 murals. The content is related to the life of the fifth Dalai Lama. In the west of the Red Palace is the thirteenth Dalai Lingta Temple (Glaidunya), built in 1936, the latest building of the Potala Palace. Its size is also comparable to that of the Fifth Dalai Lamenta Temple. In addition to the Spirit Tower, the temple also houses a silver-made 13th Dalai Lama and a French made of 200,000 pearls and coral beads. “Manza”.
The Palace of the Kings in the Red Palace (Zhuzhebu) and the Temple of the Sacred (Pababarang) are legendary buildings left over from the Tubo period. The Fawang Hall is in the central position of the Potala Palace, and below it is the tip of the Mabulje Mountain. It is said that it used to be the retreat of Songtsan Gambo, and now it is dedicated to the statues of Songtsan Gampo, Princess Red, Princess Wencheng and ministers. The Temple of the Holy Spirit is dedicated to the Lord Buddha of Songtsan Gambo, a statue of Guanyin that is naturally formed by sandalwood. The roof of the Red Palace is covered with the golden domes of the various towers, all of which are single-slung-style, with wooden arches supporting the outer rafts and overlying the gilt copper tiles. The top three big two small pagodas, the golden light, the dazzling is dazzling. The female wall outside the roof is made of a deep purple-red shrub. It is decorated with various gold ornaments. The top of the wall is covered with a huge gold-plated building and a red prayer plaque, reflecting a strong Tibetan style.
Other palaces in the Red Palace are also important. The Sanjie Xingsheng Hall (Sasong Langjie) is the highest hall of the Red Palace, with a large collection of scriptures and portraits of the Qing emperors. The Mandala Hall (Lolacon) has three huge bronze mandalas (mandala) dedicated to the Tantric Three Buddhas. The Emperor Ming Temple (Ren Zeng Lakang) is the main source of the Zinning Ningma Patriarch Lotus and its avatar. The Department of the Descent (Zhongre Lakang) is a 12-year-old statue of Sakyamuni and the statue of the Silver Five, and the 10th Dalai Lama is also in this hall.
The Red Palace is mainly the Dalai Lama’s Lingta Temple and various Buddhist temples. There are 8 spiritual towers that store the Dalai Lama’s body. The fifth Dalai Lama’s spiritual tower is the largest. There is a hall full of silence in the west (Candanus Sipingcuo) is the hall of the Fifth Dalai Lama’s Lingta Temple. It is also the largest palace of the Potala Palace. It covers an area of 725 square meters and is painted with murals on the inner wall. Among them, the 5th Dalai Lama went to Beijing to see the murals of the Qing Emperor Shunzhi is the most famous. Above the throne of the Dalai Lama in the temple, the Emperor Qianlong’s royal book “The First Place of Yonglian” was hoisted. Part of the building, such as Fawangdong (Quji Zhupu), is the earliest building of the Potala Palace, which was preserved in the Tubo period. It contains statues of the most precious Songtsan Gambo, Princess Wencheng, Princess of the Ruler and Lu Dongzan. The Sanjie Hall is the highest hall of the Red Palace. It is now available for the Qing Emperor Qianlong’s portrait and the 11th Dalai Lama’s eleven-faced Guanyin image. The 13th Dalai Lama Lingta Hall is the latest building of the Potala Palace. It was built in 1933 and lasted for 3 years. In addition, there are the temples of the Shangshi Hall, the Bodhi Road, the Temple of the Ring, the Temple of the Rings, and the Temple of the Hereditary.
The Potala Palace was built in the 7th century Songtsan Gambo period. After the reconstruction of the Dalai Lama in the 17th century, it became the residence of the Dalai Lama and the center of the unity of politics and religion. The main building is divided into the White House and the Red Palace. The main building is 13 stories high and 115.7 meters high. It consists of the palace, the Buddhist temple, the spiritual tower, and the shack.
The White House traverses the two wings and is the living place of the Dalai Lama. There are various halls and corridors, beautifully arranged and beautifully arranged. The paintings on the walls are related to Buddhism, and there are many famous hands. In the middle of the Red Palace, the Buddha statue, the Songtsan Gambo, the Princess Wencheng and the Nepalese Princess statue are thousands of statues, as well as the Dalai Lama Lingta, gold treasure inlays, with colored murals and brilliant gold. The entire building group covers an area of more than 100,000 square meters, with thousands of houses. The layout is rigorous and patchwork, reflecting the superb skills of Tibetan construction workers. The Potala Palace is the center of the political and religious unity of Tibet. Rebuilt after August 1990.
The Potala Palace is built on the hills, the buildings are overlapping, the temples are hustle and bustle, the imposing manners are born, the world is born, the air is full of the sky, the solid granite wall, the white stalk wall of the pine mushroom The splendid golden dome, the huge decorative gold bottle with strong decorative effect, the building and the prayer flags, the contrast of the three colors of red, white and yellow, the architectural style of the joint construction and the layered layer. They all reflect the charming features of Tibetan ancient architecture. The Potala Palace is an outstanding representative of Tibetan architecture and the essence of the ancient Chinese architecture.
The Potala Palace, the intertwined architectural style of the stone, the cultural connotation of the palace itself, and the adorning of the ridges, the aquarius, the squid, and the golden-winged bird make the whole palace look magnificent. The murals in the main hall are also a unique landscape in the Potala Palace. In this gallery of giant painting art, there is a history of Tibetan Buddhism, and the life of the fifth Dalai Lama and Princess Wencheng.
The design and construction of the palace is based on the law of the sunlit area of the plateau. The wall base is wide and strong, and there are tunnels and vents extending under the wall. There are pillars, bucket arches, fins, beams, rafters, etc. in the house to form a bracket. The floor and roof are made of hard soil called “Altun”. The top of each hall and bedroom has skylights for easy lighting and air conditioning. There are various carvings on the column beams in the palace, and the color murals on the walls cover more than 2,500 square meters.
The palace also houses Thangka, which is unique to Tibet and painted on cotton satin, as well as historical relics. The Potala Palace was listed as a national key cultural relics protection unit in 1961 and was fully constructed in 1989.
The palace is stacked, twists and turns, and organically blends with the mountain. This is the most direct feeling of the Potala Palace. Its appearance has 13 floors, rising from the foot of the mountain to the top of the mountain. The whole building is mainly composed of the White House in the east (the part of the Dalai Lama’s residence), the Red Palace in the middle (the Buddhist temple and the Dalai Lama’s spiritual tower) and the western white mortuary (the lama Lama serving the Dalai Lama).
The Tibetan calendar September 22 (November 6th of the Gregorian calendar) is the “God’s Day” in Tibet. It is said that the cleanest room brushed before this day will have a fairy come to live on this day. Every year, the Potala Palace begins to paint the palace first, and welcomes the arrival of the Fallen Festival with a new look.
Inside the Potala Palace, there are a large number of murals, which constitute a huge painting art gallery. Nearly 200 people have participated in the mural painting, and have used it for more than ten years. The theme of murals is the history of the development of Tibetan Buddhism, the life of the Lama Lama, the process of Princess Wencheng’s entry into Tibet, the image of ancient Tibetan architecture and a large number of Buddha statues. King Kong is a precious historical painting. A large number of precious cultural relics and Buddhist works are preserved in the palaces of the Potala Palace.
The spiritual tower of the Fifth Dalai Lama is located in the Temple of the Spirit. With a height of 14.85 meters, the tower is the tallest spiritual tower in the palace. The tower is wrapped in gold and is embroidered with various jewels and jade. The construction cost 110,000 gold. Although several other spiritual towers are not as tall as the Dalai Lama’s spiritual tower, the appearance of the decoration is also using a lot of gold and jewelry, which is worth the price. There is a large copper mandala in the hall of Lakangkang. The mandala is a three-dimensional model of the world structure of Buddhist teachings. It is also a forum for Buddhists to live and speak. The shape is chic and the decoration is gorgeous. The Sasang Langjie Temple is dedicated to the Emperor Kangxi’s long-lived tablets and the Emperor Qianlong’s painting axes written in Tibetan, Chinese, Manchu and Mongolian languages. It represents the affiliation relationship between the Dalai Lama and the Central Government. In some temples, the plaque of the Qing emperor was also hoisted. There are also a lot of luxury furnishings and costumes in the palace where the Dalai Lama lives.
On the mountainside, there is a platform of about 1600 square meters, which is the place where the Dalai Lama and senior officials watched songs and dances, called “Deyang Building”. From the escalator, they passed through the Dasongge Corridor and went to the East Palace, the largest palace in the White House. According to historical records, since the emperor of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty in 1653, the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama had to be officially enshrined by the Central Government, and the minister in charge of the Tibetan government held a bed, pro-government and other ceremonies. Here is the place where Dalai Laixing has been sitting on the bed, pro-political ceremonies and other major religions and political activities.
From November 1st, 2018 to March 15th, 2019, the Potala Palace is a free tour as part of the “Winter Tour of Tibet” preferential policy. During this time, visitors can receive a free visit to the window with a valid ID.
During the free visit, in order to maintain a good tour order and avoid excessive pressure on wooden buildings, when the passenger flow exceeds 5,000 people, an emergency plan will be launched to open the newly-opened No. 2 tour route in August 2018, and increase the reception of 2,000 people. Quantity; when the passenger flow reaches the upper limit of 7000, it will not be open.
Visiting the Potala Palace requires compliance with all taboos of Tibetan Buddhism, such as not wearing a hat, not taking pictures (meaning that after entering the palace, outside the palace can take some “outside scenery”), can not step on the threshold and so on. All visitors are required to complete the tour within 1 hour, so no stops are allowed anywhere in the palace. After the visit, they will come out from the west gate of the Potala Palace. After the hillside downhill, you can walk to the main entrance of the Potala Palace.
Ticket Purchase Notice: The Potala Palace implements a combination of pre-sale and restricted sales. The number of visitors per day is limited to 2,300 (about 700 for individual passengers). Tickets are sold after 5 pm every day. If you buy 4 tickets, you must queue up to get the ticket voucher one day in advance, and you must provide your ID card number. According to the queue, the ticket will be marked with the next day’s visit time, and the ID card will be used to purchase the ticket at the main entrance of the Potala Palace.
Tibet has international and inter-provincial routes. There are routes between Chengdu, Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Xi’an, Xining, Guangzhou, Changdu, Kunming and Kathmandu, Nepal. It is very convenient for tourists to enter and leave Tibet.
Lhasa’s state-run long-distance bus station is located at the junction of Minzu Road and Jinzhu Middle Road. The long-distance bus lines here extend in all directions, from August to August, Changdu and Chengdu, and to Shigatse, Gyangze and Tochigi in the west and Golmud in the north.