Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor’s Mausoleum)

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor’s Mausoleum)

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Location:Beijing Changping

Level:AAAAA

Famous scenery:Changling, Dingling, Ancient Shinto, Deling

Suitable for the play season:March-May, September-November

Ming Tombs, world cultural heritage, national key cultural relics protection units, national key scenic spots, national AAAAA level tourist attractions.

The Ming Tombs are located in Tianshou Mountain, Changping District, Beijing, with a total area of over 120 square kilometers and about 50 kilometers from Tiananmen Square. The Ming Tombs are located in small basins surrounded by mountains on the east, west and north sides. The surrounding areas are surrounded by mountains, plains in the middle, and small rivers in front of the tombs. In the 7th year of Yongle (1409), the Changling was started in May, and the last emperor of the Ming Dynasty was buried in Siling. During the 230 years, 13 emperors’ tombs, seven tombs, and one eunuch’s tomb were built. A total of thirteen emperors, twenty-three empresses, two princes, more than 30 monks, and two eunuchs were buried. As of 2011, Changling, Dingling, Zhaoling and Shenlu have been opened.

In October 2015, the National Tourism Administration passed an unannounced visit and found that the main existence of the external thirteen people in the Ming Tombs scenic spot was serious, and there was no clear price tag; the sanitary situation was poor, the garbage in the scenic spot was bare, and the ground dirt cleaning was not timely; Insufficient facilities, incomplete functions of the visitor center, and serious warnings to the scenic spots, and public notice, given 6 months to rectify.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Origin of the name

Zhu Yuanzhang, the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty, was built in Nanjing. After his death, he was buried in the Yang of Zhongshan, and he was called “Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum”. The second emperor Zhu Yunxuan (Jian Wendi) was sent to Nanjing for his uncle Zhu Xi’s name as “Jing Difficulty” (for the emperor to lift the crisis), and Jianwen’s emperor did not know what to do. Some people say that being a monk is a monk. In short, the whereabouts are unknown (this is an unsolved case in the history of the Ming Dynasty), so there is no mausoleum. The seventh emperor Zhu Xi, because his brother Emperor Yingzong, Zhu Xizhen was captured by Hua Tuo, had no ownership in the palace, and he was the emperor under the will of the Queen Mother and the Minister. After the British Emperor was put back, under the planning of the confidant partisan, engaged in a “change of the door”, the British ancestors restored, and took the emperor. Zhu Xi was killed and Ying Zong did not recognize him as an emperor. He also destroyed the mausoleum built in the Tianshou Mountain area. In the name of “king”, he was buried in Yuquan Mountain in the western suburbs of Beijing. In this way, two of the 16th Emperors of the Ming Dynasty were buried elsewhere. One of the whereabouts is unknown. The remaining 13 are buried in Tianshou Mountain, so they are called Ming Ming Tombs.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Historical evolution

The Ming Tombs were built between 1409 and 1645. The area covers an area of 40 square kilometers. It is the largest and most imperial tomb in China and the world.

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, in order to protect this cultural relics and historic sites, the government began to carry out maintenance from the early days of liberation and protected the Ming Tombs as national key cultural relics.

In 1957, the Beijing Municipal People’s Government announced that the Ming Tombs were the first batch of key ancient cultural relics protection units in Beijing.

In 1961, the Ming Tombs were announced as national key cultural relics protection units.

In 1982, the State Council announced that the Badaling-Mingling Scenic Area was one of the 44 key scenic spots and protected areas in the country.

In 1991, the Ming Tombs were identified by the National Tourism Administration as one of the “Forty Best Tourist Attractions in China”.

In 1992, the Ming Tombs were rated as “the tombs of the world’s most buried burial emperors by the Best Selection Committee of the Beijing Tourism World.”

In 2003, Ming Tombs were included in the World Heritage List.

In 2011, the National Tourism Administration approved the Ming Tombs Scenic Area as a national 5A-level tourist attraction.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Emperor mausoleum

The Ming Tombs are the general name of the royal tombs of the 13 emperors’ tombs after the Ming Dynasty moved to Beijing. They were built in Changling (Mingchengzu), Xianling (Mingrenzong), Jingling (Ming Xuanzong), and Yuling (Ming Yingzong). , Maoling (Ming Xianzong), Tailing (Ming Xiaozong), Kangling (Mingwu Zong), Yongling (Ming Shizong), Zhaoling (Ming Mu Zong), Dingling (Ming Shenzong), Qingling (Ming Guangzong) , Deling (Ming Yizong), Siling (Ming Yizong).

Ming Changling

Ming Changling is located in the south of the main peak of Tianshou Mountain. It is the burial mausoleum of the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty, the emperor Zhu Xi (Yongle) and the Queen Xu. The construction of the Ming Tombs is the largest, the construction time is the earliest, and the ground buildings are also best preserved. It is the ancestral tomb of the Ming Tombs and one of the most important tourist attractions in the Mausoleum.

Changling’s mausoleum building covers an area of about 120,000 square meters. Its planar layout is in the shape of a front and a round shape. The square part in front of it consists of three courtyards connected in front and rear.

The first entrance to the courtyard, a former Lingmen. It is made up of a palace-style building on the top of the mountain. It has five wide-faced buildings, and the frontal forehead, the flying child, the dragonfly and the single-ang three-step bucket arch are all glass components; there are three red coupon doors. Before the Lingmen, there was a platform, and the wall-mounted corner door was built (demolition and closure). In the courtyard, there were five kitchens in the Ming Dynasty (left) and Shenku (right), and a kitchen pavilion was built before the kitchen. The kitchen and the gods were destroyed in the middle of the Qing Dynasty, and the Pavilion was preserved to this day.

The second entrance to the courtyard, in front of a temple door, named Yuenmen. According to the “Tai Chang Continued Examination” and other documents, the Tianshou Mountain Zhuling Mausoleum is called “Yu En Temple”, and the temple door is called “Yi En Men”, which began in Jiajing seventeen years (1538) and is Shizong Zhu Houzhen. Pro-friendly name. Among them, the word “祾” takes the meaning of “blessing and blessing”, the word “en” takes the meaning of “benevolence”, and Changling is the gate of the mountain, which is a single-shaped mountain top, with five sides wide (opening 31.44) m), two deep into the depth (14.37 meters deep), the top of the ridge is 14.57 meters higher than the ground. The underarm arch is a single-shouldered heavy seven-step type, and its flat-body arching head is made of a slanted rod shape, which is different from Song and Song. The interior of the room and the second floor are each set with a door and a wall. Among them, there is a Chinese-style band on the top of the Ming Dynasty, and the book “祾恩门” has three gold characters. The word “edge” was mistakenly written when the later generations were repaired. Under the door, the base of the sacred seat is surrounded by a dry white jade railing. Its railing shape is the pillar of the dragon and phoenix carving, and the aquarius and three cloud-shaped slats. Under the four corners of the platform and under the railings of each railing, there are stone carving daggers (faucets) for drainage. There are three stepping steps on the front and back of the platform. The bas-relief pattern carved on the Imperial Road stone between the road steps is very beautiful: the following is the sea water and the rushing surge of the river, the Baoshan Mountain stands in the sea, the two sea horses jump out of the water and the Mercedes-Benz; the top are two healthy dragons. The sea of ​​clouds rises and falls, chasing the fireballs, showing a magnificent and magnificent scene.

There are also a door on each side of the Yanmen Gate. They are used as wall-mounted glazed flower doors. The arches on the door, the forehead, the tile at the top of the door, and the scorpion fly are all assembled with yellow and green glazed pieces. The following is particularly clear. In the courtyard, there is a tall and sturdy temple in the middle of the north. This hall was used in the Ming and Qing dynasties for the worship of the emperor’s gods (plates) and the place where the Shangling sacrifices were held.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Ming Dingling

Ming Dingling was the tomb of the 13th Emperor Shenzong Emperor Zhu Xi (Year Wanli) in the Ming Dynasty. There are also his two queens buried here. The mausoleum is located under the Dagu Mountain, southwest of Changling, and was built between 1584 and 1590 (the 12th year of Wanli to the 18th year of Wanli). The main buildings include Yan Enmen, Yan En Temple, Bao Cheng, Ming Lou and Underground Palace. Covers an area of 182,000 square meters. It is the only tomb that has been excavated in the Ming Tombs. Dinglingdi Palace is available for visitors to visit.

Dingling began construction in the Wanli Emperor before his death. The 12th year of Wanli (AD 1584) was started. It took 6 years to complete and consumed 8 million silver. When the tomb was completed, the emperor was only 28 years old and was not officially opened until 1620. Dingling became one of the three largest cemeteries in the Ming Tombs. Its ground buildings occupy a total of 180,000 square meters. There are three courtyards in front and a tall city in the future. In front of the main entrance of the mausoleum is the three-legged white jade stone bridge. After crossing the bridge is a tall monument pavilion. There are more than 300 buildings around the pavilion, including the Priesthood Department, Zaiyan Pavilion and Dingling Supervision. Then there is the outermost wall of the cemetery – the outer Luocheng (the wall outside the wall).

The overall layout of the Mausoleum is also in the shape of the front round. On the periphery is a “outside Luocheng” that will include Baobao and Baocheng’s front yard. The city has an area of about 180,000 square meters. Qing Liangfen’s “Tomb of the Emperor’s Mausoleum” has described this outside city as follows: “The foundation of the wall is paved, the stone is all aragonite, the slippery is like new, the dust can’t be dyed. The left and right are the landscape, the flower, The dragons and phoenixes, the unicorns, the seahorses, the turtles and the snakes are strong (like), and they are not so eager to make a difference. It is also true that the wall is yellow and tiled, the bricks are arched, the hollows are inlaid, and the light is like jade. The change of Jiashen, the inch of the inch is destroyed, but it can not be destroyed.” Outer Luo City only has a front gate in the middle of the axis, which is the first door of the mausoleum. Its system, Huangwa, Zhu Xi, set the door of the coupon.

In the outer city of Luo, the lower part is Baocheng. Before the city, there were three-square courtyards in the outer city.

The first entrance to the courtyard, in front of a single There are wall-to-door shackles on the left and right sides. There are no building facilities in the courtyard. Before the courtyard (inside the outer city of Luo), there are three kitchens on the left and three on the right.

The second entrance to the courtyard, the front wall between the building of the door. It has five walls (26.47 meters wide) and two deep rooms (11.46 meters deep), and a lower base. On the base of the platform, the stone railings and the size daggers of the dragon and phoenix heads are fully equipped. There are also three stepping steps on the front and back.

The third enters the courtyard, and the main hall of the cemetery is built in the front wall. Its shape is a heavy dome, with seven sides wide (50.6 meters wide), five deep (28.1 meters deep), and a lower base of the base. The fence is engraved with the same door. There is a platform on the front of the platform. There are three stepping steps in front of the platform, one for each side. There is a back door in the temple, so there is also a step on the back of the base. Among them, there is a royal stone carving in the back of the step and the middle of the platform. Engraved dragon and phoenix play beads (Zuoshenglong, right descending phoenix) and sea water Jiangya pattern. There is a wall-mounted door on the left and right sides of the temple. Along the central axis, there is a two-poster archway (Xingxingmen) and a set of stone. The two columns of the archway door are made of heads, carved in white stone, with a square cross section, and the top is carved by a dragon. The stone is composed of stone and stone feeders. The stone supply is made up of a seat, and the stone feeder consists of a censer (one), a candlestick (two seats), and a vase (two seats). The shape is like a long, eternal tomb.

Since the tunnel door of Baocheng is located in the right front of the Baocheng Wall, after the Emperor’s Temple held the “Anshen Ceremony” in the Temple (祾恩殿), it must pass through the tunnel door of the Outer Ring City to enter the Baocheng Hall. At the same time taking into account the symmetry of the architectural design, in the third courtyard, the left and right walls are symmetrically provided with one wall-to-wall door.

In addition, before Dingling Wailuo City, there were also slaughter pavilions and sacred priests on the left side, and ancillary buildings such as Jingujian and Shenmafang on the right. Dinglingwei’s barracks were built in Changping City. Among them, the architectural layout of the Dingling Worship Agency is that the middle is the public seat (the main hall for office use), the latter is the official residence, and the front is the door. There are more than 300 houses in the shrine.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Ming Zhaoling

The Ming Zhaoling Mausoleum is located in the foothills of Datun, and is the tomb of the emperor of the Ming Dynasty, the emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Mu Zongzhuang, Zhu Zaiyu (Yong Qing) and his three empresses. Zhaoling is the first large-scale restoration and restoration of the Ming Tombs and one of the officially opened tourist attractions in the Mausoleum.

The Zhaoling Mausoleum has a construction area of 35,000 square meters. There are complete Jingenmen, Yuen Hall and its East Hall, and Fangcheng, Minglou and Baoding. There are buried the 12th Emperor Muzong Zhu Zai and his three empresses.

After the demise of the Ming Dynasty, Zhaoling was twice destroyed. In 1644, in the war, the Minglou was burned; in the thirty-fourth year of the Qing Dynasty (1695), the rain was heavy, the thunder and lightning were mixed, and the temple and the two temples were struck by lightning. The mausoleum desperately saved. Only the two temples were saved, and the temple was completely burned. As the years went by, during the Qianlong period, the two temples and the Lingen Gate were successively damaged. In the 50th to the 52nd year of Emperor Qianlong (1785-1787), the Qing government rebuilt the Ming Tombs in order to ease ethnic conflicts. Zhaoling is also being repaired. From the analysis of the site, the only projects that were repaired at that time were the Minglou, the Lingenmen and the Lingen Temple. This re-construction, although the cemetery system was slightly more complete, changed the regulation of the original building.

The arches of the Minglou, according to the Ming Dynasty, the various tombs of the Ming Dynasty are all on the top of the squat, and the squats are heavy. After the repair, the Zhaoling Mausoleum became a single-winged, five-footed arch. A stone vault top has been added to the Ming Building. Although there were no major changes in the number of reconstruction hours, there were no major changes in the number of reconstructions. The ancestral hall, the original noodles are five (30.38 m) wide and four deep (16.77 m). After the reconstruction of the Qing Dynasty, the number of façades has not changed, but the scale has shrunk to 23.3 m. The depth was changed to three, and the scale was reduced to 11.92 meters. The lion door was originally three (18.44 m) wide and two deep (8.04 m). In the Qing Dynasty, the width was reduced to 12.52 m and the depth was reduced to 6.77 m. The two temples in the mausoleum and the sacred monuments in front of the mausoleum were not reconstructed, and the ruins were also dismantled. Only a week of the wall was built on the old pavilion around the stone. Since then, it has not been repaired for 200 years. The magnificent cemetery buildings of the past were full of desolate, leaving only the ruined Minglou and the mausoleum.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Ming Yongling

The Ming Yongling Mausoleum is located in the south of Yang Cui Ling. It is the burial mausoleum of the eleventh emperor of the Ming Dynasty, the Emperor Shizong of the Ming Dynasty (Zhujing) and the three empresses of Chen, Fang and Du.

After about 7-11 years of operation in Yongling, the construction of Yongling was generally completed. After the completion of Yongling and the former seven tombs, there are indeed two unique features.

First of all, it is a grand scale. In ancient times, the size of the cemetery depends on the rules of the cemetery, the Ming House and the Baocheng. According to the records of the “Da Ming Hui Dian”, the diameter of Yongling Baocheng is 81 ft, the 裬恩殿 is a heavy seven, and the left and right halls are nine, respectively. Its regulation is second only to Changling, and more than offering, Jing, Yu, Mao , Thai, and Kang Liuling system. The five facades of the Yan En are equal to the Changling, and only the Tomb is the same.

In addition, outside the Fangyuan and Baocheng of Yongling, there is also a foreign Luocheng that was not found in the former Qiling. The system is “strengthen, the fine work of the meteorites, and the minds of Changling’s planning are not as good as it is.” Within the outer Luocheng, there are five kitchens in the left column and five in the right column. They are also modeled on the system of the deep palace and the alley. The ancients designed the outer Luocheng to bury the emperors in the outer Luocheng. The location of the burial was planned to be outside the Baoshan City. Before the Minglou, that is, the left and right walls of the Minglou, the left and right sides were in turn. And hey. Later, although the tombs of the Emperor’s emperors were not repaired in the outer city according to the original plan, the outer Luocheng was built according to the original plan.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Mingxian Mausoleum

The tomb was the mausoleum of the fourth emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Ren Zongzhao Emperor Zhu Gaochi (Hong Xi) and the Queen Zhang. It was located under the west peak of Tianshou Mountain, next to the Changling, and is currently closed without opening.

The mausoleum system is indeed relatively simple. Its Shinto is separated from the north of the Five-Yun Bridge of the Changling Shinto Road and is about 1 km long. There is a single stone bridge on the way. The pavement is a medium-paved brick, and the gravel on both sides is scattered water, which is very simple. Its orientation is 200 to the south and covers an area of only 42,000 square meters. Its mausoleum, two temples, and kitchens are each of five, and they are all single-story buildings; the gate building (祾恩门) is only three; the city coupon door is changed to a simpler form of straight-through. The wall is set behind the square because it is not located in the voucher hole, before the tomb. The meteorite observation road of Shangdeng Minglou was changed to the left and right sides of Fangcheng located in Baocheng. Since the Xianling system does not pursue luxury, the predecessors mentioned that the Ming Dynasty was the simplest and the smallest of the Jingling, and it established a model for the Mingling architecture.

There is another characteristic of Mingxian Mausoleum. This is that the Yan’en Temple and the Fangcheng Minglou are not connected to each other in the courtyard. In front of the main hall, there is a courtyard, and two temples and a god furnace are built in front of the temple. The main entrance of the courtyard is the gate of the cemetery gate, which is the gate of the cemetery. The front of the gate is out of the big platform, and the back of the courtyard is set up with a single door. Behind the Baocheng and Minglou, the front is out of the courtyard. There are two columns of The courtyard door is a three-story glazed flower door on the top of the mountain. Between the two courtyards, there is a small mountain (shadow mountain).

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Mingqing Mausoleum

Mingqing Mausoleum is located in the south of Erling Mountain, Huangshan Temple, Tianshou Mountain, Changping, Beijing. It is the burial mausoleum of Emperor Guangzong Emperor Zhu Changluo (year-old Taichang) and Queen Guo, Wang and Liu of the Ming Dynasty.

The underground Xuan Gong of Qingling was built in the first year of the Apocalypse (AD 1621), and it was built on July 29th. It lasted four months and consumed 1.5 million silver. And the quality of the project is fine. Except for the use of stone materials in the Xuan Palace, the “post, middle and front halls” have “the door is separated.” The ground building was completed in the sixth year of Apocalypse (AD 1626). Its cemetery building consists of three parts: the Shinto, the Mausoleum and the ancillary buildings outside the Mausoleum. A single stone bridge was built on Shinto. In the vicinity of the mausoleum, the remains of the monuments of the gods and gods, the monuments in the pavilion, the tombs of the daggers, and no words.

The overall layout of the mausoleum building is in the shape of a front and a round shape, covering an area of ​​about 27,600 square meters. There are two entrance halls in front, which are not connected to each other. There is a Shinto connection between the two entrances, and three single stone bridges are built behind the first entrance. The first entrance to the courtyard, with the entrance to the gate of the gate, the single peak of the mountain, three wide. There are five halls in the courtyard. Two sacred furnaces. The second entrance to the courtyard, there are three doors in front, built two columns of arch doors and stone for the case, placed on the case of a stone incense burner, stationed in Thailand, two vases, after the square is a round treasure city, in Baocheng There is a square city platform at the entrance, and a heavy-duty mountain-style Minglou above the city platform. In the building, the sacred monument is engraved with the words “Da Ming” and “The Tomb of the Emperor Guangzong”. After the Ming Dynasty, the city is filled with loess, and the central part of the building is built with a small cylindrical body, which is about 28 meters in diameter. The front wall of the squatting wall is equal to the wall of the Baocheng City, and it is surrounded by a wall of the city of Baocheng and the walls of the two sides, which are close to the shape of the “crescent” – the dumb courtyard, which has a wall-mounted glazed wall. There are also some ancillary buildings outside the odd jobs, such as Zai She Ting, Shen Chu, Shenku, the Priest, the Jingongjian, Chaofang, Orchard, Pelican, and Shenmafang.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Ming Maoling

Ming Maoling, located at the foot of Jubao Mountain on the right side of Yuling, is the burial mausoleum of the emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Xianzong, Emperor Zhu Jianshen (yearly Chenghua) and Wang, Ji’s and Shaw.

Located at the foot of Jubao Mountain on the right side of Yuling, it is the burial mausoleum of the emperor of the Eighth Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Jianshen (the year of Chenghua) and the three empresses of Wang, Ji and Sha.

The construction of Maoling was still preserved in the early Qing Dynasty, and the furnishings in the temple were also preserved. Gu Yanwu’s “Changping Mountains and Waters” records the situation of Maoling in Shunzhi and Kangxi years: “The 12th Mausoleum is only the end of Maoling, and his mausoleum or only the royal family, Maoling is still the genus.” Yanmen was collapsed due to years of disrepair. During the Republic of China, the temple was destroyed and demolished. Its current situation is the same as Yuling.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Ming Kangling

Ming Kangling, located in Jinling (also known as Lianhua Mountain or Babao Lianhua Mountain), is the burial mausoleum of Emperor Wu Zongyi, the tenth emperor of the Ming Dynasty, and the Queen of Xia.

Jianling took 1 year, and the overall layout followed the pre-production system, which was in the shape of the front and the back. The mausoleum was built in the 16th year of Zhengde (1521) and covers an area of 27,000 square meters. [7] At the end of the Ming Dynasty, Kangling was burned down and was renovated during the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Ming Jingling

Ming Jingling, located under Tianshou Mountain Peak (also known as Montenegro), is the burial mausoleum of the fifth emperor Xuanzong Zhang Emperor Zhu Zhanji (year Xuande) and the empress Sun.

Its Shinto is divided from the south of the Wuling Bridge of Changling Shinto to the east, about 1.5 kilometers long, and a single stone bridge is built on the way. The mausoleum faces 55o west to the south and covers an area of about 25,000 square meters. Baocheng was repaired into a slender shape in front of the front circle. The front two courtyards and the later Baocheng are integrated into one. On the central axis, the buildings such as Yanmen Gate, Yanen Hall, Three Gates, Qixingmen, Stone Case, Fangcheng and Minglou were built in sequence.

The base of the temple in Jingling is still a relic of the Jiajing period. It can be seen from the remains of the foundation stone of the Ming Dynasty Dynasties. The original hall of the temple is five (31.34 meters), three deep (16.9 meters), and one after the building (width 8.1 meters, depth 4.03) M), the front of the Royal Road stone carving two dragon play beads pattern, more than the Yunling color moiré, it is more exquisite and spectacular.

On the base of Yan Enmen and Yan En Temple, there are pillars left behind after the Qing Dynasty was rebuilt. The Shengong Shengde Pavilion has only stone tablets and bases.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Ming Tailing

Ming Tailing, located in the southeast of Beacon Hill, also known as “Shijiatai” or “Shijiashan”, is the burial mausoleum of the ninth emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Xiaozong Jing, Zhu Youzhen (year-old Hongzhi) and Empress Zhang .

The planning of the Tailing Mausoleum was after the death of Ming Xiaozong. “Ming Wu Zong Shi Lu” records that after Wu Zong was in place, he began to organize Xiaozong funeral. Li Jie, the left-hander of the Ministry of Rites, Li Qian, the deputy of the Qintian supervisor, and Dai Yi, the eunuch of the court, said to Wu Zong: “There is a place called Shijiatai in the west of Maoling. It is a Jidi of Jianling. The mausoleum of the emperor can It was built there.” Xu Tianxi, who was in the right hand of the engineering department, also suggested to Wu Zong that the person who sent the enthusiasm in the court to go back and look twice. He also proposed: “If there is doubt, 亟文文江西等处. Widely seeking warlocks, visiting the famous mountains, to get the strong power of the main force, the gathering of the atmosphere, the depth of water and soil, the correctness of the hole method, the power of the whole, such as Song Ru Zhu Xi is in the clouds, and he can worship the gods and help the country to help the world.” The Ministry of Education also agrees with this proposal. Therefore, Wu Zong’s eunuchs, Fuan, Li Xing, Yan Guan, and the clerk of the Ministry of Education, Wang Shihua, went to Shijiatai to see and watch, and finally decided to build Xiaozong Mausoleum there.

On June 5th, Hongzhi, the cemetery was officially built, and the tomb was named Tailing. The eunuch Li Xing, Xin Ning Bo Tanyou, the Ministry of Industry Zuo Shilang Li Wei, the admiral of the project, the five military superintendents and the three battalions of the officers and men served in the servants, lasted in April, the Xuangong was completed, in October 19 of that year In the afternoon, he buried Xiaozong into the tomb. On the 22nd of the first year of Zhengde (1506), the ground buildings of the cemetery were also completed.

The buildings that Tailing had in the Qing Emperor Kangxi were destroyed. “The Emperor’s Mausoleum” is written in the case of Tailing Yuenmen. “The two doors are broken today, and the stone is used to seal the door.” Since then, the cemetery building of the Qing Emperor Qianlong 50th to 52nd years (1785-1787) has been repaired, except for the three doors, which were transformed from the glazed flower door into a brick-shaped ice tray-style gatehouse. Its status quo is the most serious than Maoling.

The Emperor Zhu Youzhen of the Hongzhi Emperor of the Ming Dynasty was the only emperor of the Chinese feudal society with only one woman.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Mingde Mausoleum

Located in the west of Tanzhiling, Mingde Mausoleum is the burial mausoleum of the fifteenth-generation emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Zhu Zong, the emperor of Zhuzong, and the empress of Zhang.

Yu Zongzhu Yu School, the eldest son of Guangzong, was born on November 14th in the thirty-three years of Wanli (AD 1605). In the first year of Taichang (AD 1620), the emperor was on September 6 and the next year was changed to the Yuan Dynasty. In the seventh year of the Apocalypse (AD 1627), he died on August 22, and he said that “Da Tian explained that Dunxiao Yuyou Zhang Wenyu Wu Jing Mu Zhuangqin zhe emperor”, at the age of 23 years old. The first year of Chongzhen (AD 1628) was buried on March 8th. According to the literature, Miao Zong is “sexually clever, multi-skilled, and especially happy to create”. He used to slash a chisel and make a small pavilion. “The carving is perfect, that is, the skill can not be combined.” When you are so happy, you can even undress and sit on the spot. He “does not love the device, does not hesitate to do things”, and arbitrarily dismantles it for the pleasure of film.

Queen Zhang, the original match of Yuzong. Henan Xiang Furen, Tai Kang Bo Zhang Guoji’s daughter. In the first year of the Apocalypse (1621 AD), it was registered as a queen in April. In the seventeenth year of Chongzhen (AD 1644), Li Zicheng’s peasant army self-proclaimed when entering the city. Nan Ming Hong Guangchao honored her for her filial piety. In the first year of Shunzhi (AD 1644), the Qing Dynasty buried her in Deling.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Ming Yuling

Located in the south of Shimen Mountain, Xifeng Mountain, Tianshou Mountain, it is the joint burial mausoleum of the sixth emperor Yingzong Zhujing Town of the Ming Dynasty and the Queen Qian and Zhou.

Ming Yingzong Zhu Yuzhen, the eldest son of Xuanzong. Xuande two years (1427) was born on November 11th, three years (1428) on February 6th as the Crown Prince, ten years (1435) on the 10th of the first month of the emperor, the next year changed the orthodox.

On the 17th day of the Tianshun Eighth Year (1464), Yingzong died, 谥 “Fa Tianli Road, Ren Ming Cheng Jing Zhao Wenxian Wu to De Guang Xiao Rui Emperor.” The dying remains of the dying, ending the cruel system of the funeral of the palace. In May, the mausoleum of the mausoleum was built. In August, the Yingzong was buried in the tomb.

Xiao Zhuang Rui Queen Qian, Ying Zong Yuan, Haizhou, are commanding the anecdote (after the seal An Changbo) Qian Gui female. The orthodox seven years (1442) became a queen. In the fourteenth year (1449), Yingzong was captured by the Ministry of Vaughan. In order to welcome the British dynasty, she exported all the wealth in her palace, and sorrowfully greeted the heavens every day, praying for the gods to bless Yingzong. When I was tired, I was lying on the ground, and I was injured with one leg. I cried all day long and cried one eye.

The Xianzong ascended the throne and honored the Empress Dowager. On June 26, Chenghua four years (1468), Qian died. 谥 “Xiao Zhuang Xian Mu Hong Hui Xian Ren Gong Tian Qin Sheng Rui Queen.” Yu Yuling was buried on September 4.

After Xiaosu, Zhou, the mother of Xianzong, Liulin Village, Wenningli, Changping Prefecture (now Haidian District, Beijing), Jinyiwei thousand households chasing Qing Yunhou to give Ning Guogong Zhou Neng’s daughter. In the orthodox twelve years (1447), the Emperor Xianzong Emperor, the first year of Tianshun (1457) was enshrined as the royal family. The constitutional sect is in the throne and is honored as the Empress Dowager. In the twenty-third year of Chenghua (1487), the honorary name “Sheng Ci Ren Shou”. After Emperor Xiaozong was in power, he was honored as the Empress Dowager. On the first day of the 17th year of Hongzhi (1504), he died on the first day of the reign of Emperor Xiaoshun. Yuling Mausoleum was buried on April 18.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Ming Siling

Siling was built in 1642, and it was the garden of Sizong. After the demise of the Ming Dynasty, Li Zicheng ordered the Mingsi Zong and the Queen Zhou to be buried in the tomb of Tian Guifei, which was renamed as the soul of the people and renamed Siling, making Siling the only emperor and the tomb of the Ming Dynasty. Compared with the Ming Dynasty, the scale of Siling is also small. In the vicinity of Siling, there is also Mingsizong’s personal eunuch, Wang Chengen’s tomb, and Emperor Qing Shunzhi and Emperor Kangxi also made a monument to Wang Chengen to honor his loyalty.

After the demise of the Qing Dynasty, Siling repeatedly suffered disasters, and the destruction was very serious. The underground tomb has been stolen twice by local bandits. In 1947, the Kuomintang army was the artillery building, and the cemetery ground buildings were demolished on a large scale. Siling is full of desolate, only the tombs, the ruins of the building, the stone carvings, and the stone are preserved as precious cultural relics.

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the state attached great importance to the protection of cultural relics, and Siling received due protection. Mingsi Mausoleum, although there is no magnificent palace tower, but the ancient tombstones, Songtao bursts, still do not have a mood. In particular, the remains of stone carvings are wonderfully crafted and finely crafted.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Tombstone

There are 8 tombs of the Ming Tombs, including 7 tombs of the scorpion (Prince) and 1 tomb of the eunuch.
They are:
Dongjing and Xijing: One said that it was the tomb of the 16th dynasty of Mingchengzu, and it was the tomb of the emperor of the Ming Dynasty.
Wan Niang Tomb: the “Wangui Tomb”, the Ming Dynasty Emperor Xianzong Emperor Wanshi.
Fuling: the “Shizong Sancha Tomb”, commonly known as Omiya. The emperor of the Emperor of the Ming Dynasty was buried in the emperor, Shen, Wengui, and Lu Jingwei.
Tomb of Sejong Hyun Joong: “The Tomb of Sejong, the Tomb of the Second Prince” or the Tomb of the Four Princes and the Second Prince. The burial of Emperor Xianzong of the Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Huanggui, Emperor Guigui, Wang Gui, Zhou Guizhen, Yang Rongzhen, Ma Wei, You Chong Taizi, Zhuang Jing.
Zheng Guifei’s Tomb: The Emperor of the Emperor of the Emperor of the Ming Dynasty.
The Tomb of the Four Emperors of the Emperor Shenzong: The Emperor of the Emperor of the Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Li Shi (Li Jingwei), Li Shunqi, Zhou Duanqi, and Liu Zhaoxuan (that is, Xuanyuan Taihao).
Tomb of Wang Chengen: Wang Chengen, the confidant eunuch of the Emperor of Emperor Mingzong.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

God road

Ming Tombs Shen Road is composed of Stone Arch, Dahongmen, Beilou, Shixiangsheng, Longfengmen and so on.

Located in the center of Shinto, the monument is a tall square pavilion with a heavy mountain and four corners. It is built for Changling. There is a dragon head turtle stone monument in the pavilion, which is more than 6 meters high. On the title of Daming Changling Shengong Shengde monument, the inscription is more than 3,500 words. It is written by Ming Renzong Zhu Gaochi, written by Cheng Nanyun, a famous calligrapher at the beginning of Ming Dynasty. On the east side of the monument is the expenditure record of the Qing court to repair the Ming Tomb. On the west side is the reason why Jiaqing Emperor discussed the demise of the Ming Dynasty. There are four white stone Chinese watches on the top of the pavilion. There is a different animal on the top of the pavilion. The watch and the pavilion are set against each other and look very solemn and honest. On the east side of the monument, there was a palace built for the emperor’s dressing place when he came to Fuling.

The stone carving group is a stone carving person and a beast placed in front of the mausoleum. It is called a stone statue in ancient times (the stone man is also called Weng Zhong). From the two hexagonal stone pillars in the north of the monument, to the two sides of the kilometer of the dragon and the phoenix, neatly arranged 24 stone beasts and 12 stone people, the shape is vivid, the carving is fine, and it is deeply loved by tourists. The number of them, the size of the body, the precision of the carving, and the preservation of it are rare in the ancient cemetery. There are 6 kinds of stone beasts, 4 of which are in two-fold shape. Display them here, with a certain meaning. The stone people are divided into the honours, the literary ministers and the martial arts. Each of them is a close-knit minister of the emperor’s life. They are all standing statues of the hands, and they are mighty and sincere. This stone statue was set up in the Imperial Tomb, as early as the Qin and Han Dynasties more than 2,000 years ago. It mainly serves as a decorative embellishment to symbolize the prestige of the emperor during his lifetime. He said that after the emperor’s death, he also possessed civil and military officials and various animals to drive in the underworld, and still ruled everything.

The Xingxing Gate is also called Longfengmen. The three stone pillars form three door openings. The door pillars are similar to the Chinese watch. There are cloud boards and exotic animals on the columns. In the central part of the three door plaques, there is also a stone carving fireball, which is also called “flame archway”. On the northwest side of Longfengmen, the original palace was built, which is the rest of the emperor’s memorial. But later it became the main mausoleum of the entire Mausoleum. The road runs through the north and south of the cemetery and is 7 kilometers long. There are a series of buildings along the line, which are spectacular and spectacular.

Ming Tombs (Ming Dynasty Emperor's Mausoleum)

Security situation

On March 19, 2017, it broke the news in a WeChat group in a mausoleum in Beijing. Mingsi Lingshi Wusui became a “stone three supply”, and a pair of candlesticks were no longer in place. On March 20th, a media reporter went to Mingsi Ling to verify the site. The guardian said that the stone candlestick was taken away for repair. The relevant person in charge of the Ming Tombs District said that it will release relevant information in the afternoon.

On April 5, the Changping District Government confirmed the above speculation. Its official Weibo “Beijing Changping” released a message saying: On March 20, the district government learned that the Ming Tombs of Siling Stone Five for the 2 pieces of candlesticks were stolen, immediately organized a public security force to set up a task force to go all out to carry out the investigation. On April 8, the Beijing police reported that the case was broken. According to the report, at 11 o’clock on March 19, 2017, a citizen dialed 110 to reflect the theft of two candlesticks in the Ming Tombs of the Shiling Stone. The Beijing police set up a task force composed of the Municipal Criminal Investigation Corps, Changping Branch and other relevant departments to carry out case investigation.

As verified by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, at 19 o’clock on June 24, 2016, a guardian of Siling discovered a pair of stone candlesticks during the inspection. After investigation by the public security organs, it was found that the exact time of theft was April 2016. In other words, after two months, the guards discovered that the candlestick was stolen.

After the Tomb of the Ming Tombs Office confirmed that the cultural relics were stolen, the Office of the Ming Tombs arbitrarily decided not to report to the competent department of cultural relics in accordance with the regulations, and did not report to the public security organs for investigation. Because it was discovered that the candlestick was stolen, it was the National Tourism Administration’s re-evaluation period after the rectification of the Ming Tombs. If the case was stolen, it may face risks including “5A being delisted”. It was not until March 20, 2017 that it was officially reported to the Changping District Government.

The State Administration of Cultural Heritage said that when the case was filed, the original security facilities of Siling had been completely smashed, and the defenses against human defense and physical defense were ineffective. In addition, the Ming Tombs had already occurred in the attempted stolen cultural relics, but failed to cause sufficient attention to the Sanxingling SAR Office, and did not promptly investigate and rectify potential safety hazards and loopholes.

On the afternoon of March 21, 2017, the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Cultural Relics set up a special inspection team to conduct a thorough investigation of the safety hazards of the Ming Tombs.

On April 29, 2017, it was learned from the Ming Tomb Town of Changping District that after the theft of the Siling Stone Five Candlesticks, from the beginning of this month to the end of September, the Ming Tombs will carry out a six-month inspection of cultural relics safety. The relevant person in charge also introduced that the Ming Tombs will introduce 8 kinds of advanced security technology and management methods such as light wave vibration and anti-theft system, infrared pulse alarm and electronic patrol system, and update the old monitoring equipment.

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