Geographic location:Southeast of Heilongjiang Province, Ning’an City in the southwest of Mudanjiang City
Famous scenery:Jingbo Lake, crater underground virgin forest.
Suitable for the play season:The best in June and September, and the winter is not bad.
Jingbo Lake National Scenic Area, National AAAAA Level Scenic Spot, World Geopark, China’s Top Ten Leisure Resorts, comparable to Qiandao Lake, with sandstone carvings and rabbit earlings.
Jingbo Lake National Scenic Area is located between Zhangguangcailing and Laoyeling in the southeast of Heilongjiang Province, 60 kilometers southwest of Ning’an City, 90 kilometers away from Mudanjiang City. The total planned area is 1726 square kilometers. The scenic spot is from Baili Changhu. The volcanic virgin forest and the ruins of the Jinglongquan House in the Bohai State are composed of three parts.
Jingbo Lake is dominated by lakes and mountains, with geological wonders such as crater underground virgin forests and underground lava tunnels, and historical and cultural landscapes represented by the Bohai State ruins in the Tang Dynasty. It is available for scientific research, summer vacation, sightseeing, sightseeing, vacation and culture. A comprehensive scenic spot for communication activities. Jingbo Lake is like a dazzling pearl inlaid on the northern front of the motherland. It is famous for its unique and simple natural beauty, attracting more and more domestic and foreign tourists.
Jingbo Lake World Geological Park and Jingbo Lake National Scenic Area (hereinafter referred to as Jingbo Lake Scenic Area) are located in the southeast of Heilongjiang Province and Ning’an City in the southwest of Mudanjiang City (east 120°30′～129°30′, north latitude 43°46’~44°18′). It is an important tourist destination in Heilongjiang Province in the Harbin-Yuquan-Yabuli-Langlin China Snow Township-Jingbo Lake tourist route. From a broader perspective, Mudanjiang-Jingbo Lake is at the center of the Northeast Asian tourism circle. The southeast is the Russian port city Vladivostok, and the south and southwest are the Changbai Mountain Tianchi Tourist Area and the Songhua River source in Jilin Province. – Songhua Lake Tourist Area, Xiangxi Road, through the sea forest China Snow Town, Yabuli Ski Resort, Yuquan Hunting Ground, Harbin, Wudalianchi and other famous scenic spots and cities, these constitute the unique location environment of Jingbo Lake. Jingbo Lake is on the main stream of Mudanjiang River and is more than 80 kilometers north of Mudanjiang City. It is more than 130 kilometers away from Suifen River in the east, and is connected to Dunhua City in Jilin Province in the south and 250 kilometers away from Changbai Mountain. West of Hailin City. Jingbo Lake is 45 kilometers long from north to south, 6 kilometers wide at the east and west, 300 meters at the narrowest point, 80 square kilometers in water area, 1.6 billion cubic meters in storage capacity, and forest coverage rate of over 68%.
Jingbo Lake is located on the eastern shore of the mid-latitude Asian continent and is a temperate continental climate type. The annual average temperature in the zone is 3.6 degrees and the maximum temperature is 36.2 degrees. Because of its mountains, dense forests, vast waters and the topography of the Huaxia Gorge, it has a subtle effect on the microclimate of the lake. The temperature difference between summer and evening is large, and it is cool and pleasant.
The Jingbo Lake Mountain Range is located in the Zhangguangcai Ridge and Laoyeling overgrowth areas of Changbai Mountain. It is a low hilly landform. The mountainous area of Huxi has a large ups and downs, and the mountains in Hunan and Hunan are relatively flat. Hubei is a lava platform with a flat terrain. The northern part of Jingbo Lake Scenic Area is complex with 12 volcanic craters. The highest elevation of the mountain range is 1260.7 meters (the old Montenegro in the west of Luyuan Island), with a minimum elevation of 339.17 meters (lowest water level). The geological structure of Jingbo Lake is mainly granite, perlite and basalt. The volcanic group in the northwestern part of the park has erupted since a million years ago, forming a basalt platform that has been more than a hundred miles long. The lava of the last volcanic eruption about 4,800 years ago blocked the Mudanjiang River and formed The world’s largest volcanic lava dammed lake, Jingbo Lake, also formed a series of large and small lakes such as Xiaobei Lake, Drilling Lake and Dianchi Lake.
The Jingpo Lake water system consists of more than 30 rivers in size and flows into the lake in a centripetal manner. Most of these rivers are of mountain stream nature, with rapid currents and rapid distribution of runoff. They are characterized by small sediment concentration, large annual runoff, obvious seasonal variation in flow rate, and long glacial period. Jingbo Lake is 45 kilometers long from north to south, 6000 meters wide at the widest point of the east and west, 300 meters at the narrowest point. The general width is between 500 and 1000 meters, and the deepest is 70 meters (in the northern waters of Jingbo Lake). The water area is 79.3 square kilometers. The water storage capacity is about 1.6 billion cubic meters. The second largest lake, Xiaobei Lake, is about 6,000 meters long and has a water area of 3.80 square kilometers. The characteristics of the water level in Jingbo Lake are as follows: the highest water level occurs mostly from August to September, and the lowest water level occurs mostly from March to April. The average water level is 347.95 meters, the highest water level is 354.43 meters, and the lowest water level is 339.17 meters. Jingbo Lake is sourced from Mudanjiang. Mudanjiang originated from the Changbai Mountain Mudanling in Jilin Province, and the river water ratio was larger. Jingbo Lake was about 300 kilometers away from the source of Mudanjiang River, with a drop of about 750 meters.
Jingbo Lake is known as the Weihe River in the Han Shu·Geography, and the Tang Emperor Gaozong Yonghui two years (AD 652), called the Abu River (also known as Abulong Lake), later called Huer Haijin, In the first year of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty (AD 713), it was called Khanhai. Mingzhi was called Jingbo Lake. It was called Bilten Lake. It is still called Jingbo Lake. In 755, Bohai State moved from Jilin Province to today’s Bohai Town. The capital of the capital is “Shangjing Longquan House”. In 928, Bohai was destroyed by Qidan and the capital was destroyed. In history, the residents of Jingbo Lake area are mainly Su Shen and their descendants. According to the Chinese history book: “The 15th year of Zhou Wuwang (1666 BC) and the 9th year of Zhou Chengwang (1654 BC), Su Shen’s came to the tribute.” The Western Han Dynasty, Beiji in the Northern Wei Dynasty, the Sui and Tang Dynasties in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the Manchus, and the Manchus were all descendants and tribes of the Sushens. During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Japanese had conducted numerous investigations, logging and excavation in Jingbo Lake. Cultural relics, built power plants, and anti-association heroes have also been active in this area. After liberation, the main residents here are Han, Korean and Manchu.
Volcanic geological landscape
Within 40 kilometers of the northwestern part of Jingbo Lake Scenic Area, there are 12 craters. The diameter of the crater is 70-550 meters and the depth is 30-132 meters. The volcanic group erupts from a million years ago. Until the last volcanic eruption about 4,800 years ago. The lava river and lava platform outside the Jingbo Lake volcanic cone are mainly composed of black basalt. There are rare lava tunnels on the platform. The internal structure of the tunnel is similar and the shape is strange. The longest lava cave can reach 10,000 meters. The largest and most complete lava tunnel ever discovered. In the summer season, the ice scene is still visible in the cave, and the coldness is pressing. Some of the caves are foggy, deep and mysterious, and have great scientific research value. At present, no experts have conducted systematic research. There are also a variety of peculiar volcanic lava landscapes on the lava terraces, such as lava bridges. Due to the long and different volcanic eruptions and the superior geographical environment of Jingbo Lake, the crater is now covered with dense original coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests and pure pine forests. It is also known as the “underground forest”. The landscape is unique and imposing. Spectacular, all rare in China.
Jingbo Lake is surrounded by mountains, and the mountains are heavy and complex, and the horizontal is like a mirror. Sometimes the waves are rippling and beautiful. Here, may wish to cite some people’s praises on Jingbo Lake: “The folds of the lake and the mountains, the clouds are clear and the waves are mirrored” (Chen Lei: “Jingbo Lake”); “Huguangshan color green 黛 ,, peak return to the lake “Lianhuru” (Qian Junrui: “Tune the words to add words to Xixisha·Jingbo Lake”); “People are in the mirror, and the shadows of the sky are bright and clear” (Lu Ge: “You Jingbo Lake Transfer to Nanxiangzi”). From these poems describing Jingbo Lake, people have expressed such deep affection for “Quhu”, “Pinghu” and “Minghu”. In the lake, there are white stone scorpions, city wall rafters, old scorpions, pearl gates, Maogong Mountain, Dagushan, Xiaogushan, Taoist Mountain and other famous attractions inlaid in it, forming a unique natural beauty, and there are beautiful legends, personalizing them. Give the Jingbo Lake a very high aesthetic value.
The Hangshuilou Waterfall is located at the northern end of the Baili Changhu Lake. It is a ring-shaped falling water deep pool formed by black basalt. The drop is 20 meters. The flood season is three-sided overflow. The waterfall is more than 100 meters long and the water flow is 4000 cubic meters per second. The waves rolled and flew down, and the sound was thunderous and the scenery was spectacular. If there is a poem: “Flying a thousand piles of snow, thunder and hundreds of miles of autumn. Deep pool Xiafei foggy, more exposed shore show. Ren Shijie cliffs, just rushing to the mouth” (Lai Jizhong: “Transfer water Tune the song and watch the waterfall”; “Lin Hai night heard the tiger, the mountain rain waterfall for thunder” (Sun Yixiang: “Jingbo Lake”).
Animal and plant resources
The peculiar geological structure has produced different vegetation landscapes and rich plant species. The vegetation protection in the park is good, and the vegetation coverage rate is over 90%. The area is a temperate broad-leaved mixed forest, and the typical vegetation is Korean pine forest, Korean pine broad-leaved mixed forest and deciduous broad-leaved forest. More than 1000 species of plants are distributed, including more than 70 species of fungi, more than 20 species of bryophytes, more than 20 species of ferns, 12 species of gymnosperms, and more than 800 species of angiosperms. Quercus mongolica is distributed on sunny slopes or drier habitats; in the damp habitats there are broad-leaved species such as maple, alfalfa, ash, alfalfa and birch, as well as Schisandra, mountain grapes, dog dates, kiwi and Liaodong fir. Juniper and other tree species. There is a large area of virgin forest in the Xiaobeihu Forest Farm in the west of Jingbo Lake Scenic Area. The forest area is 46,766 hectares, of which 26,875 hectares are coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests, accounting for 22.4% of the park area. The rest are broad-leaved forests and volcanic lava fields. grassland. There are 120,000 hectares of larch forest near the crater. There are a small amount of red pine in the vicinity of the large dry foam. The evergreen trees in the mixed forest are mainly conifers. The vast forest land in the park contains more than 50 species of wild mammals, including leopards, bears, deer, lynx, scorpions, sheep, rabbits, etc.; birds have scorpions, pheasants, wild ducks and other more than 40 species of fish. The rest of the species, such as lake carp, carp, red tail, silk flower, heavy lip fish, white fish, etc., where the lake was once a tribute of the Qing Dynasty.
The landscape resources in the park include lakes, rivers, waterfalls, wetlands, volcanoes, lava terraces, underground lava tunnels, virgin forests, wildlife habitats, ancient city sites and ethnic folklore. It integrates history, humanities, flora and fauna, archaeology, geology, aesthetic value and biodiversity, and is rare in China.
Landscape resource classification of Jingbo Lake Scenic Area
There are 72 scenic spots in Jingbo Lake, including 48 natural landscapes, accounting for 67%; and 24 cultural landscapes, accounting for 33%.
Mountain View: Maogong Mountain
Canyon: Xuanwu Valley
Cave: Xiongshi Cave, underground labyrinth, Shenshui Cave, Weihu Hall Cave, Sittingjing Guantian, Lava Cave, Dongzhong Cave, Sister Cave, Anti-linking Camp
Shilin Shijing: Baishi scorpion, Buddha statue scorpion, meteorite, Shimen scorpion, mushroom stone
Volcanic cave: crater, lava terrace, natural bridge, volcanic bridge, Phoenix Bridge, Shili Shigang
Island Reef: Laozizi, Taoist Mountain, Pearl Gate, Xiaogushan, Dagushan, Luyuan Island, Yimao, Heron Island
Peninsula: Xiaolong Neck Mountain, Dalong Neck Mountain, Yuwang Nose
Quanjing: Xiangquan, Longquan
Lake: Jingbo Lake, Xiaobei Lake, Drilling Lake, Xuanwu Lake, Ziling Lake, Dianchi Lake, Baoyuewan
Tanchi: Yu Yutan
Waterfall falls: Hangshuilou Waterfall
Lake Bay: Lotus Bay
Forest: The Road to Life, Bird Forest
Ancient and famous trees: Songbai, Peacock, Yingsong
Cemetery Cemetery: Tomb of Chen Hanzhang
Landscape architecture: Yiren Pavilion, Jingxin Pavilion, Qitian Pavilion
Folk House Ancestral Hall: Korean Waterfall Village
Religious Architecture: Xinglong Temple
Memorial Building: Green Great Wall
Ruins of the site: Huzhou Shancheng Ruins, Bohai Guoshang Jinglongquan House Ruins, etc.
Cliff Inscription: Deng Xiaoping’s inscription, Zhu De’s inscription, Ye Jianying’s inscription
Sculpture: Stone Lamp Building, Big Stone Buddha, Zodiac
Recreational venues: Villa Marina, Guanhe Wharf, film and television location
Jingbo Lake Park Landscape Resource Division
The Jingbo Lake Park is divided into seven scenic spots including volcanic geology, Xiaobei Lake, Waterfall Villa, Lava Terrace, Bohai Sea Country, water tour and water recreation, and 90 protection, management and development zones.
Jingbo Lake is located between Zhangguangcailing and Laoyeling in the southeast of Heilongjiang Province, 60 kilometers southwest of Ning’an City, 90 kilometers away from Mudanjiang City. It was about 10,000 years ago, about the volcanic eruption in the middle and late Quaternary The basalt magma blocks the volcanic lava formed by the Mudanjiang River and blocks the lake. The lake has an average depth of 40 meters and gradually deepens from south to north. The deepest point is 62 meters. The lake is 50 kilometers long and 9 kilometers wide at the widest point. The narrowest part is also 300 meters in dry season. The whole lake is divided into Beihu and Zhonghu. The four lakes of Nanhu and Shanghu have a total area of 90.3 square kilometers. From southwest to northeast, it is twisted and twisted, showing “S” type. There are many harbors on the lakeshore, and the islands in the lake are dotted with stars. The eight great scenes in the lake are like eight bright pearls inlaid in this green grove. On the ribbon.
Hangshuilou Waterfall, Dagushan, Xiaogushan, Baishizizi, Chengbizizi, Pearl Gate, Taoist Mountain and Laozizi.
In the Jingbo Lake Scenic Area, there is the Yinggeling Culture of the Neolithic Age (located in Yinggeling. Sushen people live here, there are cave dwelling sites, unearthed cultural relics), and the Pearl Gate site (located in Pearl Gate. Su Shenren lives here, There are semi-underground cave dwellings. There is the ruins of the Jinglongquan House in the Tang Dynasty. The location is in Bohai Town. The Tang Dynasty is built in the sea, and it is like the Chang’an City. There are five temples in the outer, inner and the palace. The scale is huge. Urban pattern architectural ruins, stone lamp buildings, stone Buddha and other cultural relics), heavy lip river mountain city ruins (located in the heavy lip river. Bohai State built for the defense of the Qidan invasion, existing city wall architectural sites), Huzhou Mountain City site (location in Xiaogushan West Bank. Also known as the city wall scorpion. Bohai State built for the defense of the Qidan invasion, existing granite wall residual wall, architectural site, Gujing site, training ground ruins), Xihuzuizishancheng site (located in Nanhu), Xiaochengzishancheng Ruins (located in Nanhutou), Rujiashancheng Ruins (located in Nanhutoujiajia), Xiaocheng Wall Ruins (located in Jiangshan Jiaolinchang. Bohai State built for the defense of the Qidan invasion), Jingbobian The site (located in the aquaculture farm), there is the ruins of the Houshan City of the Dongxia Guochengzi in the Song Dynasty (located in the lower reaches of the waterfall. The only remains of the Dongxia Kingdom in the province, now only the remains of the city buildings, waste wells), and the Xinglong Temple in the Qing Dynasty (location) In Bohai Town. Built in the site of the Bohai State Temple, Wuzhong Hall, wooden structure, well preserved, now a cultural relics exhibition room), Sanqingguan (located in Taoist Mountain. The site is well preserved).
Visitors to Jingbo Lake, take Mudanjiang City, take the high-speed train from Harbin to Mudanjiang, it takes only four and a half hours, then transfer to the center of the scenic spot, Jingbo Mountain Villa, about one hour.
The external traffic of Jingbo Lake Scenic Area mainly relies on Mudanjiang City, including roads, railways and aviation. among them:
Highway: The boundary of Mudanjiang City to Jingbo Lake Scenic Area is G10 Expressway, and the boundary of Jilin Province is National Highway No. 201.
Railway: Mudanjiang Railway Station is currently a second-class passenger station. It has direct trains to major cities in Northeast China, as well as Beijing and Tianjin, and has convenient transportation.
Aviation: Mudanjiang’s existing wave airport is Grade II, 80 kilometers away from Jingbo Lake Scenic Area. Currently there are domestic routes from Mudanjiang to Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Qingdao, Dalian and Wuhan.