Geographic location:Intersection of Jingxuan Middle Road and Dacheng Road, Qufu City, Jining City, Shandong Province
Famous scenery:Temple of Confucius, Xingtan, Thirteen Tablet Pavilion
Opening hours: 8:00-17:30
Confucius, Confucius Temple and Konglin of Qufu, Jining, Shandong Province, collectively referred to as the “three holes” of Qufu, are the commemoration of Confucius in China’s dynasties, praising the representation of Confucianism, with rich cultural accumulation, long history, large scale, rich cultural relics collection, and scientific and artistic value. And famous.
Shandong Jining Qufu is the hometown of Confucius. Before Confucius gave birth to the school, he founded the Confucian culture, and the Chinese history of more than 2,000 years was deeply imprinted with Confucianism. Confucian culture, represented by Confucius, has shaped the entire Chinese ideological, political, and social system in accordance with its own ideals and has become the cornerstone of the entire Chinese culture. In 1994, Confucius Temple, Konglin and Confucius were listed by the United Nations as World Heritage List.
Confucius Temple was built in 478 BC and has been continuously expanded. It has become an ancient building with an area of 14 hectares (1 hectare = 10,000 square meters), including three halls, one pavilion, one altar, three plaques, two plaques and two Tang, two fast, seventeen pavilions and fifty-four gates, magnificent and huge monuments, can be called the city of palaces.
Confucius, built in the Song Dynasty, is the place where the descendants of the Confucius family lived. It is adjacent to the Confucius Temple in the west. It covers an area of about 16 hectares and has nine courtyards. There are 463 rooms, halls, buildings and porches. The old name is “Yansheng Gongfu”.
Kong Lin, also known as the “Sacred Forest”, is a special cemetery for Confucius and his family. It is also the family cemetery with the longest duration in the world. The wall of the forest is 7 kilometers long and contains more than 20,000 old trees. An ancient artificial garden.
Confucius (formerly 551-before 479), Mingqiu, the word Zhongni, Lu Guoren in the late Spring and Autumn Period. His ancestors were the aristocrats of the Song Dynasty, and they died about a few days before Confucius. When Confucius was young, he worked as a small official, but he spent most of his life educating. He passed on as many as 3,000 disciples and taught many students with knowledge and talent. At the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, thinkers, educators, and founders of the Confucian school were known as “the sacredness of the heavens” and “the sacred sacredness” in the world. It was one of the most scholars in the society at that time, and was regarded as the most holy in the later generations. (Sage among the saints), Master of the World. Because the parents had prayed for Niqiu Mountain for their children, hence the name of Qiu, Lu Guozhen (now southeast of Qufu, Shandong). Zeng Xiu’s “Poetry”, “Book”, “Li”, “Le”, and “Zhou Yi”, “Spring and Autumn.” Confucius’s thoughts and doctrines have had a profound impact on later generations.
International commentary on Confucius was a great philosopher, politician and educator during the Spring and Autumn Period of China from the 6th century BC to the 5th century BC. The temples, cemeteries and mansions of Confucius are located in Qufu, Shandong Province. Confucius Temple was built in 478 BC to commemorate Confucius. It has been repeatedly destroyed for thousands of years, and today it has developed into a building with more than 100 halls. Konglinli not only accommodates the tomb of Confucius, but more than 100,000 of his descendants are also buried here. At the beginning, the small Kong House has now expanded into a huge and prominent residence, and the entire house consists of 152 halls. The reason why Qufu’s ancient buildings have unique artistic and historical characteristics should be attributed to the great admiration of Confucius by Chinese emperors in the past 2000 years.
The main attraction “Millennium rites return to Donglu, Wang Guyi Guan Suwang” Qufu is famous all over the world and is closely related to the name of Confucius. Confucius is one of the greatest philosophers in the world and the founder of the Chinese Confucian school. In the long history of more than two thousand years, Confucian culture has gradually become China’s orthodox culture, affecting East Asian and Southeast Asian countries and becoming the cornerstone of the entire Eastern culture. Qufu’s Confucius, Confucius Temple and Konglin, collectively known as the “three holes”, are the commemoration of Confucius in China’s dynasties, and they are famous for their rich cultural heritage, long history, grand scale, rich cultural relics collection, and scientific and artistic value. Because of its prominent position in Chinese history and world oriental culture, it has been respected by the world as one of the three holy cities in the world.
Confucius’s name is the name of the government. Located on the east side of Confucius Temple, it is the headquarters of Confucius. Han Gaozu Liu Bang’s ceremony of worshipping Confucius at the ceremony of the Taiji prison and sealing the Confucius’s ninth-generation Sun Shi as a vassal of the Confucius. After the dynasties, the seals were continually sealed. Ming Hongwu ten years to establish an independent Yansheng government. There are more than 480 existing buildings, halls and halls, the former is the bureaucracy, and the latter is the inner house. There are famous pore files and a large number of cultural relics in the house.
Confucius is known as the “first in the world” and is the residence of the Confucius family for a long time. It is also a typical building of the feudal society of China and the interior of the feudal society. After the death of Confucius, the descendants of the descendants lived next to the temple to look after the relics of Confucius. By the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, the descendants of the Confucius family had expanded to dozens. In the Jin Dynasty, the descendants of Confucius had always been the east side of the Confucius Temple. With the promotion of the post-Confucius official position and the improvement of the title. Confucius’s building continues to expand, making it the largest residence in China after the Emperor’s Palace in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Confucius covers an area of about 7.4 hectares and has 480 ancient buildings. It is divided into nine courtyards, with layouts of the middle, east and west.
The main entrance of Confucius is a five-story hanging mountain-style building, and the scripture “Shengfu two characters” is the book of the Ming Dynasty. On both sides of the door, there is a couplet of “the same as the state of the United States, and the same day, and the old article of moral sages”, in which the word “rich” is a little less, “rich and no head”, “zhang” word vertical Through the above words, the article “The article goes through the sky”, this association sums up the style of “sage family” for thousands of years.
Confucius has set up six halls in the six sections of the feudal dynasty. On both sides of the two gates, it is the Guanlu Hall, the Baihu Hall, the Classics Hall, the Sile Hall, the Zhiyin Hall, the Palm Book Hall, and the Public Management Office. In the Ming Dynasty, there were five deep and three rooms, which were spacious and generous. They were the places where the decree was read, the officials were interviewed, and major cases were heard.
Confucius covers an area of 240 acres and has 463 halls, halls, buildings and houses. Jiujin Courtyard, three-way layout: East Road is Dongxue, built consistent hall, Muentang, Kong’s family temple and workshop; West Road is Western, there are Hongxuanxuan, Zhongshutang, Anhuaitang and Huafang; The main part of the government is in the middle road, the former is the bureaucracy, there are three halls and six halls, followed by the inner house, the front room, the front and rear halls, the annex building, the last six rooms, etc., and finally the garden.
Confucius is located in the center of Qufu City, facing south, facing a whitewashed wall. On the left and right sides of the door, there is a pair of round male and female stone lions more than 2 meters high. The red-brown black-painted door is inlaid with a plaque, and the “Sacred House” plaque with the blue-red gold hanging above the center of the main entrance. On both sides of the door, there is a pair of blue-gold couplets hanging in the middle: Anfu honors the government, the same day and the old article moral saints. This couplet is also a handwritten book for the Qing Dynasty. The beauty of Wen Jiazi vividly illustrates the prominent position of Confucius in feudal society. This pair of couplets is too big to say, and it is thought that the rich words of the “An Fu honor” and the “word morality” of the Shanglian. From the above picture, the word “rich” is a little less. There is one more in the word “zhang”, which means that the position of Yan Sheng’s official is listed as one product. The fields are thousands of hectares, and the natural riches are gone. Confucius and his doctrines, “Deyi Heaven and Earth, Daoguan Ancient and Modern”, saints The “ritual and music” of the family can also coexist with the heavens and the earth.
Passing through the first narrow courtyard, it is the second gate of Confucius Middle Road, commonly known as the second door. The door was built in the Ming Dynasty, and the threshold was high. The poet of the Ming Dynasty, the Shangshu Shangshu, and the Wenyuange University Li Dongyang handwritten book “The Gate of the Sage” was erected, and there was a valve reading support. The doorpost was covered with stone drums. There is a door on the left and right sides of the main entrance, and a room in the ear. In the feudal society, usually only take the door, the main door does not open, to show solemnity.
Heavy light door
Entering the door of the saint, the face is a small and exquisite screen door. This door was built in the 16th year of Ming Hongzhi (1503). The door is made of wood and is not connected to the wall. In the independent courtyard, it is similar to the church door. . The top of the screen is covered with gray tiles. The threshold is called “Heavy Light Gate” because of the sacred name of the Emperor Shizong. Under the four columns of the door, there are stone drums, which support the painted roof. There are four inverted wooden carvings on the front and back, which are also called “Dragon Flower Door”. There is a lot of research value in the construction process. In the past, the Guangguang Gate was not open at all times. It will only be opened when the Confucius Grand Ceremony, the emperor’s luck, the reading of the purpose, and the holding of a great ritual etiquette.
Because of the isolation of the front yard and the back yard, the heavy light door is also called “Semmen”. It is said that such a general lawsuit is not eligible for establishment. Only the “Bangjun” of the prince can enjoy this glory. Therefore, there is a record of “Bang Junshu” in “The Analects of Confucius”. The east and west halls on both sides of the double-sided side of the Guangguangmen are the six halls established by Confucius in the “six parts” of the feudal dynasty.
Over the light door, there is a platform in the courtyard, the original sundial on the stage, and then the spacious main hall, the Confucius Hall. This was the text of the year when Yan Shenggong read the sacred official, met the family law, and tried the major cases, as well as the festival and birthday ceremony. There are 5 halls, 3 deep thoughts, and gray tiles hanging over the top. Under the armpit, he used a bucket of two liters to hand over the hemp leaf arch, and hemp headed out, fighting and fighting, with a Ming Dynasty style. In the middle of the lobby, there is a painted cloud, Babao warm pavilion, on the Taishi chair in the middle, a patch of tiger skin, a long and tall red paint case in front of the chair, with four treasures, printing boxes and signatures.
In the middle of the lobby is a plaque of “Tongzong Zong surname”, which was engraved on the sixth year of the Qing Emperor Shunzhi (AD 1649). It is necessary to spread the sacred name of the sect of the sect of the sect of the sect of the sect of the sect of the sect of the sect of the sect of the sect of the sect. The innocent holy gate stipulates the various privileges of Yan Shenggong in the Kong family. From the Tang Dynasty, the imperial court ruled that the Qufu County magistrate was also served by Yan Shenggong. After the Ming Dynasty, it was stipulated by Yan Shenggong to hold the Kong clan.
On both sides and at the back of the hall, there is a ceremonial ceremonial ceremonial. Such as Gourd, Chaotian, Gun, Spear, Hook Gun, Drum, Cloud, Dragon Flag, Phoenix Flag, Tiger Flag, Umbrella, Fan, etc. There are also some red gold medals that symbolize their princes and privileges. Such as “Sheng Feng Yan Sheng Gong”, “Guanglu Temple Doctor”, “Appreciation of the Eyes of the Flower Garden”, “The Forbidden City Horse Riding”, “Dedication to the Inspection of Shandong Province Academic Affairs”, etc., when Dang Yansheng travels, Specialized in charge, to show the majesty.
Behind the lobby is a gallery that is connected to the two halls. There is a long red lacquer stool in the corridor, called the “old bench”. It is said that when the Ming Dynasty dynasty Yan Yan was detained to be convicted, he went to Confucius to ask his granddaughter, Yan Yansheng, to express his feelings to the emperor. This stool is the old thing that Yange used to sit in.
It is also called the back hall. It is the official residence of the four sects of the sacred sects and the emperor entrusted the emperor to entrust the court for the first year of the ceremonies and music school children. “The big cockroaches, there are several stone monuments standing on both sides.” Among them, the “Shou” word tablet, the “Jiu Tao Figure” and the “Song Crane Map” of the Empress Dowager Cixi are the 20th year of Emperor Guangxu of Qing Dynasty (AD 1894), and Yan Shenggong and his mother and his wife made a special trip to Beijing. Appreciated for the birthday of Cixi. The two ends of the two halls, the east is the notice hall, and the west is the official hall.
After the second church, there was a small courtyard with two towering sky and two sides. The six stone carving basins each had a strange shape of Taihu Lake. The three halls are also called the retreat hall. It is the place where Yan Shenggong meets officials of more than four grades. It is also the place where they handle family disputes and punish the servants in the government. The houses in this courtyard have a courtyard, and the east is the office of the government. The acre of the book, the secretary is in charge of the general affairs and finances of the government; the west is the study room, which is the document file room of the government office of the year.
After the three halls, it is the inner house part of Confucius, also known as the inner house. There is a forbidden door—the inner door is separated from the outside world. This door is heavily guarded and no outsider can enter it without authorization. The emperors of the Qing dynasty gave three pairs of weapons: the tiger-tailed stick, the swallow-winged scorpion, and the golden-headed jade stick. The gatekeeper held the weapon in front of the door, and those who did not comply with the order were “strictly punishable and not loaned”.
Inner house door
In order to maintain contact with the outside world, there are two types of confessions in the interior of the house. One is called a squat, and the other is called a cadre. There are more than a dozen people in the squatting room, and they are on duty at any time. Insider. On the west side of the door, there is also a special sink–stone flow outside the wall. The housekeeper is not allowed to enter the inner house. Only the water is poured into the inner wall of the tank.
The face of the greedy wall is the main hall, which is called the front room. This is the living room that the host of Confucius received to the pro- and near-branch, and it was also the main place for their banquets and wedding mourning. There is a lush scented fragrant tree on the east and west sides of the courtyard. When the spring and summer meet, the white flowers emit a burst of fragrance. There is a large platform in front of the house, and four stone drums with noses are placed in the corner. When you sing a play, you can hang the foot stone. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, Confucius raised dozens of troupes, and the master gave a singer and immediately sang. In the front room, the bright and bright, the high-hanging “Hongkai Ciyu” in the middle of the hall, above the Zhongtang, hanging a “Shou” written by Cixi.
The interior furniture is exquisite, and the antiques and antiques are dazzling. On the east side, there are the Jinggen beds and chairs that Emperor Qianlong gave to Confucius. The original emperor’s sacred original was placed on the table. There is also the bright and simple pattern of the Ming Dynasty “cloisonne”. On the middle table of the tip, there is a large set of full Chinese tableware, 404 pieces together. Deer, duck, fish, etc. are carved on the utensils, which can hold vegetables according to their shape, and serve up to 190 dishes per meal. For a long time, Confucius has formed a fine and unique dish – Confucian cuisine. A variety of dishes made to pay attention to, elegant name, such as hydrangea shark’s fin, pearl sea cucumber, fairy duck, poetry ginkgo, jade with shrimp and other famous dishes, color, fragrance, taste, shape and good. In the middle of the room, for the seventy-sixth generation of Confucius, the place where the sacred priests signed the documents, there were four treasures on the table, and the Confucian scriptures and the Kong family tree were displayed on the bookshelf. There are five rooms on the east and west sides of the front upper house. It is the inner warehouse and the management room of the Confucian house.
Passing through the front room, passing a low door, it entered the front hall. In the courtyard, the pines are straight and straight, and the fish ponds are in the right and the opposite, so quiet and elegant, and there is a sense of walking and moving. The front hall is a seven-storey two-story pavilion, and the interior furnishings still maintain the original appearance of the year. There is a copper heater in the middle, which is a tool for heating at that time. In the “Duobao Pavilion” in the east, there are phoenix crowns, ginseng, coral, ganoderma, jade carvings and tooth carvings. The ensuite is the bedroom of Confucius’s seventy-six generations of grandsons, Yan Shenggong’s wife, Dow’s wife, and the bedroom of Kong Ling’s two daughters. When the seventy-seventh generation of Sun and Yan Shenggong Kong Decheng wrote at the age of 14, the banner of “the heart of the saint is like a bead in the heart, and the heart of the ordinary is like a scoop in the water” is hanging on the wall intact.
After the building, you will enter the back hall. The back hall is a 7-storey building on the second floor, and there are 3 annexes on the east and west sides of the building. The Houtang Building is the residence of Confucius’ seventy-seventh generation grandson and Yan Shenggong Kong Decheng.
The hall displays the supplies of the hole at the time of marriage, as well as the calligraphy and gifts presented by the friends at that time. Dongli was the reception room at that time, with Chinese and Western furniture. The suite was the bedroom of Kong Decheng and his wife Sun Qifang. The frame on the east wall is encrusted with a couple of Kong Decheng couples and their children. The two rooms on the west side of Houtanghuanglou are the bedroom of Mrs. Kong Decheng’s nurse. The building in the courtyard is the place where the needlework is done in the same year, and the west building is the residence for the relatives of the insiders. There is also a building on the west side of Houtang Building, which is the Fotang Building, which is the place where Yan Shenggong burns incense and worships Buddha. There are 5 main rooms after the back hall, called the last five, the old name is Zao Xuan, the former is the place where Yan Shenggong studied, and became the house of the maid in the late Qing Dynasty.
Confucius Garden is the backyard of Confucius House, also known as Tieshan Garden. In fact, there is no iron mountain in Tieshan Park. There are only a few iron ore shaped like mountains in the northwest of the garden. This stone system Kong Qingrong moved in during the rebuilding of the garden during the Qing Jiaqing period. He said that the Tianhuan Third Ring Road helped him to repair the garden. He himself also claimed to be the owner of the Iron Mountain Garden.
The garden was built in the 16th year of the Hongzhi Period of the Ming Dynasty (AD 1503). It was built at the same time when the Confucius was rebuilt and expanded, and was designed by Changsha Li Dongyang.
At that time, Li Dongyang was a Taizi Taifu, a prince Shangshu, a Huagaidian university student, and a national history president. Why did he personally design it? Is it so hard for Kongfu? Because Li Dongyang’s daughter married Confucius’s sixty-two generations of Sun, Yan Shenggong Kong Wenzhen, and made a lady, for his daughter, he was so hard to build a garden. After the construction of Confucius and Confucius Temples, Li Dongyang wrote poems for four times, and engraved the inscriptions. After the construction, during the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty, Yan Yu replaced Li Dongyang’s status. He was also a Taizi Taifu, a prince Shangshu, a Huagaidian university student, and a national history president. He also took a fancy to Confucius and married his granddaughter to Confucius’s sixty-fourth generation of Sun, and Yan Shenggong Kong Shangxian as a lady. Yan Yan also helped Yan Shenggong to rebuild Confucius and renovate the garden, transplanted strange rock from famous mountains and transplanted famous flowers from various gardens, making the Confucius Garden more impressive. He is proud of Yan Songsong.
Confucius Garden from Li Dongyang, Yan Yu to Emperor Qianlong, three major overhauls, there are also intermediate repairs and minor repairs, so the garden is more and more repaired, covering an area of more than 10 acres. Among them are mountains, water, forests, curved bridges, flower docks, otters, fountains, stone islands in the water, flower gardens in the cool, stone altars of the gods of the gods, gazebos that appreciate the moon, and altars that burn incense. There is also a “five gentlemen cypress” in the park for 400 years, one tree and five branches, and one eucalyptus tree in the middle, so it is also known as “five cypresses”, and there are poems and praises: five dried branches and leaves, Ling Ling Kei winter. Suspicion of the tiger and leopard, the shape of the dragon. The curved path is shaded by the heat, and the high jade is reduced. Natural gentleman, arrogant rock pine.
Temple of Confucius
Confucius Temple is a temple of Confucius, a thinker, politician and educator of the feudal dynasty in China during the Spring and Autumn Period. It is located in the center of Qufu City. It is a group of ancient buildings with oriental architectural features, grand scale and majestic grandeur.
The Confucius Temple began in the second year after Confucius’ death (478 BC). The disciples set up their temples as “the temples of their homes” during their lifetime, and “when they were old.” At that time, there were only “three temple houses”, which contained the “clothes, crowns, pianos, cars, and books” used by Confucius during his lifetime. Since then, the dynasties have continued to expand. In the first year of the Yongxing Period of the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 153), the Emperor of the Sui Dynasty ordered the Confucius Temple to be built, and sent Kong He to guard the temple official, “establishing a monument in the temple.” In the second year of Wei Huangchu (AD 221), Emperor Cao Yu of the Emperor Wendi squatted down and repaired the old temple in Lu County, but the size of the Confucius Temple was not very large. In the last years of the Western Jin Dynasty, “the temple was deserted.” In the first year of the Eastern Wei Xinghe (AD 539), the Confucius Temple was repaired, and the “Sculpture of the Holy Spirit, standing next to the Ten Sons” was the beginning of the statue of the Confucius Temple. In the early Tang Dynasty, in addition to the construction of the “Zhougong and Confucius Temples” in the state’s highest school, the emperor went down to the “state and county are all Confucius Temples.” The temple was built five times in the Tang Dynasty and seven times in the Northern Song Dynasty. The biggest one was Song Zhenzong’s two years of the sacred year (AD 1018), “expanding the old system…. 316 rooms in the Zengguang Hall.” The Jin Dynasty was repaired 4 times, and the Yuan Dynasty was repaired 6 times. The Ming Dynasty rebuilt and rebuilt a total of 21 times. The biggest one was Ming Xiaozong Hong’s 12th year (AD 1499) when the Confucius Temple was struck by lightning, and more than 120 major buildings such as Dacheng Hall were “turned into ashes”. The emperor Zhu Youzhen hurriedly ordered a re-construction. It lasted for 5 years and consumed 152,000 yuan. In the Qing Dynasty, Confucius Temple was built 14 times. The biggest one was Yongzheng two years (AD 1724). At that time, the Confucius Temple was destroyed by the Thunderfire Shizong. In addition to the visit to the Taimiao Festival, the “Golden Orders” ordered the Minister to supervise the work, the scale of the temple system, and even the ritual The instruments are presented in a drawing, and the pros are taught.” In order to speed up the progress of the project, 12 provincial, state, and county magistrates were also mobilized for a total of six years. In history, Confucius Temple has undergone a total of 15 major repairs and 31 minor repairs. It has been repaired hundreds of times and finally formed a macroscopic scale.
The scale of the Confucius Temple was completed in the Ming and Qing dynasties. The structure of the imitation palace is divided into nine courtyards, which run through a north-south axis and are arranged symmetrically. The entire building consists of five halls, one pavilion, one altar, two temples, two churches, and 17 pavilions, totaling 466, built in the period of Jin, Yuan, Ming, Qing and the Republic of China. The Confucius Temple covers an area of about 200 acres and is more than 1 kilometer long from north to south. Four walls are surrounded by high walls, with gates and turrets. Huangwahong 垣, carved beams and paintings, monuments such as forest, ancient trees towering. In the Song Dynasty, Lu Mengzheng had a literary comment: “The clouds are flying, the wings are flying, the doors are heavy, the walls are open, and the layers are fascinating.” This is a huge architectural complex with oriental architectural features. The grandeur of the spirit, the long time, and the integrity of the ancient architects are called the “only orphans” in the history of world architecture. It embodies the blood and sweat of thousands of workers in all ages and is the crystallization of the wisdom of the working people of China.
Mencius had such an evaluation of Confucius: “Confucius is said to be a great achievement. The master of the collection, the golden sound and the Yu Zhenzhi. The golden sound is also the beginning of the rule; the Yu Zhenzhi is also the final rule.” “Golden Sound” and “Yu Zhen” indicate the whole process of playing music, starting with the bell (golden sound) and ending with the killing (Yu Zhen). This symbolizes Confucius’s thoughts on the great achievements of the ancient sages and praises Confucius’ great contribution to culture. Therefore, the descendants named the first stone square in front of the Confucius Temple as “Jinsheng Yuzhen”.
Jinsheng Yuzhenfang stone carvings, 4 楹, stone drums, 4 octagonal stone pillars decorated with a lotus throne on the top, each of the carved singular unicorn monsters “Peng Tianxie”, commonly known as “Chaotian 吼”. The two sides of the square are engraved with Yunlong opera beads. The Ming Dynasty Square is filled with four large characters, “Jinsheng Yuzhen”, which is written by the famous calligrapher Hu Yuzong in the 17th year of Ming Jiajing (AD 1538). Behind the square is a single-hole stone arch bridge. The bridge surface is the stone steps of the Erlong play beads. The clear flow under the bridge is semicircular. This is the drowning water. Unfortunately, the water is covered by stones, and only the bridge is unique. After the bridge, there is a stone plate in the east and west. It was set up in the second year of Jin Mingchang (AD 1191). It was engraved with the words “official officials waited to be dismissed here.” People called the “down to the monument”. In the past, civil and military officials and ordinary people passed by, and they must dismount their cars. In order to show respect, even the emperor sacrificed Confucius to go down and see the dignity of the Confucius Temple.
The comet, the Lingxing, also known as the Tiantian Star, is considered by the ancients to be “the celebration of the Lord.” In ancient times, worship the heavens first. The Confucius Temple is famous for its name.
After the Xingshui Bridge, there are four rooms and three rooms. Shizhu iron beam, iron beam cast 12 faucet valves. The four round stone pillars are encrusted with auspicious clouds, and the top eagle stunned. The forehead is engraved with a flame orb, and the Mingba is composed of two layers of slate. The lower layer engraves three characters of the Qianlong Emperor’s handwritten book, “Xingxingmen”, and the upper layer is engraved with a ring pattern. In the Ming Dynasty, this door was made of wood. When the Qing Emperor Qianlong rebuilt in the 19th year (AD 1754), it was easy to use stone.
In the Xingxingmen Square, the second building is built in the south, and the south is Taihe Yuanqifang. This square was built in the spring of the 23rd year of Ming Jiajing (AD 1544). The shape is the same as that of Jinsheng Yuzhenfang. The inscription is the Shandong governor’s hand-milled book. Confucius thought is like the birth of everything in heaven and earth. The north is the Most Holy Temple Square. The title of the Ming Dynasty is inscribed in the Ming Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, the original “Xuansheng Temple” was written in 3 characters. The Qing Dynasty was in the 7th year (AD 1729). The square is engraved for the white marble stone, three four-column, the pillars are decorated with clouds, and the square is decorated with flame beads.
Later generations praised the profound influence of Confucius thought on Chinese society. They used the words “Deyi Heaven and Earth” and “Daoguan Ancient and Modern”, which means that his contribution is as big as the same. His claim is ancient and modern. it’s the best. Therefore, two symmetrical wooden arches were built on the left and right sides of the first entrance to the Confucius Temple. The east title was “Deyi Tiandi” and the western title was “Daoguan Ancient and Modern”, which was the first partial door of the Confucius Temple. The two squares were built in the early Ming Dynasty and have an obvious style of the times. The building is made of wood, three four-column and five-story, yellow glazed tiles, such as the arch, the thirteen steps in the Ming Dynasty, a little nine steps, and a small roof with five steps. There are 8 stone monsters under the square. The four Tianlu in the center, the Linlin tail, the neck long claws; the four sides on both sides of the evil spirits, angered and twisted neck, the image is weird.
Holy time gate
According to “Meng Zi” records: “Meng Zixuan: ‘Bo Yi, the Holy One is also clear; Yi Yin, the Holy One is also; Liu Xiahui, the Holy One is also; Confucius, the Holy One is also.'” means to say Among the saints, Confucius is the most suitable for the times. According to this, Qing Shizong was named “Sheng Shi Men” at the main entrance of the Confucius Temple in the 8th year of Emperor Yongzheng (1730). Sanshimen was built in the 13th year of Ming Yongle (1415), and 3 rooms were expanded into 5 middle arches in the Hongzhi period. The top of Biwaxi is surrounded by crimson wall coverings. Inside, there are stone carving dragons on the front and back stone steps. From the inside of the arch, there is a deep and unpredictable feeling.
After the holy gate, suddenly opened, a large courtyard, Gu Baisensen, green shade, grass and grass. On the face of three arch bridges, the water crosses, the blue waves, the lotus leaves, and the water sculptures have exquisite stone columns. The water is “like the wall”, hence the name “wall water”, the bridge is thus famous, called “wall water bridge”.
The east and west gates of the bridge are connected to each other. The west gate “Yanggao Gate” is taken from the “The Analects of Confucius” “Yang Zhi Mi Gao” language, praised Confucius’s knowledge is very advanced. This is the second partial door of the Confucius Temple. In the past, only the emperor sacrificed to go to the main entrance. The average person only went to the temple from Yanggao.
The north of Bishuiqiao is Hongdaomen. It is the gate of the Confucius Temple in the 10th year of Ming Hongwu (AD 1377). It was named after the “The Analects of Confucius” in the 7th year of the Qing Dynasty. The Confucius and Confucius expressed the Confucius and Wenwu Zhougong. The way. There are two pieces of Yuanbei under the door, and the East Four-Rimstone is the history of Qufu County. It records the evolution of Qufu. The value of historical materials is very high. The Western Monument is a “Tongshi King’s Tomb”. It is quite calligraphy. It was 1966. Moved into the Temple of Confucius.
Too big to the middle door, that is, to enter the fourth courtyard of the Confucius Temple. The courtyard is wide, the old trees are lush, the birds gather in the summer, the flying cranes dance, the egrets, the winter and the spring sings, the faints are late, and they are very deep.
Formerly known as Zhonghe Gate, Dazhongmen was longer and narrower than Hongdao Gate. It was originally the gate of the Confucius Temple in the Song Dynasty. It was rebuilt after Ming Hongzhi, and it was built in the Qing Dynasty. On the left and right sides of the door, there is a green tile corner building, which was built in the second year of the Yuan Dynasty (AD 1331) to make the Confucius Temple as majestic as the Imperial Palace. There are 3 turrets, which are curved in the shape of a plane. They stand on the square platform. There are horse tracks on the inside of the platform. The northeast and northwest corners of the two corners of the temple form a huge rectangle for guarding.
Entering the Dazhong Gate, you will be on the same door. The door is 5 wide, 2 deep, and the top of the Huanghuaxi, the layout of the arch is sparse. At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, this door was once called “the same door”, and it was changed to this name after Shunzhi.
Over the same Wenmen, the north end of the courtyard is a high-rise building. The top of the temple is surrounded by a group of dragons and a large wooden book called “Kui Wenge”. It is a Confucius Temple library with a rich collection of books and unique architecture. .
Kuiwenge was founded in the second year of Song Tianyi (AD 1018). The first chapter of the “Tibetan House” Jin Zhangzong was renamed “Kui Wenge” during the re-construction of the second year of Mingchang (AD 1191), and the Qing Emperor Qianlong re-inscribed. “Kui” is the name of the star, one of the twenty-eight places. There are 16 stars in the head of the Western White Tiger. “Bucking and hooking, like a painting of words”, so “Xiao Jing” is called “Kui’s main article”, and later generations put Kui ( The Kui) star evolved into the head of the civil service. The descendants of the feudal emperors praised Confucius, and named the Confucius Temple Library as Kui Wenge.
Kuiwen Pavilion is 23.35 meters high, 30.1 meters wide and 17.62 meters deep. It has a top of Huangwaxi, a triple fly, and a four-layered battle. The inner two layers, the middle layer of the middle layer, the stacked frame, the bottom layer of the wooden column, and the top layer of the wooden column. Kuiwenge has a reasonable structure and is solid and abnormal. Since the rebuilding of the 17th year of Ming Hongzhi (AD 1504), it has withstood hundreds of years of ups and downs and many earthquakes, although the earthquake in the Kangxi period made Qufu “human The house is nine, the depositor is one, and the strong circumstantial evidence of Kuiwenge is still innocent, standing tall and standing as one of the famous ancient wooden structures in China. The stone monument recorded in the Kangxi Pavilion during the Kangxi Period was the strong circumstantial evidence of Kuiwenge. There are two stone monuments in front of the pavilion, and the east is “Kui Wenge Fu”. It is written by Li Dongyang, a famous poet of the Ming Dynasty, written by the famous calligrapher Qiao Zong; the west is the “Reset Book of Kui Wenge”, which records the Emperor’s Order of the Ming Dynasty. Re-editing the collection of books.
There are two imperial pavilions in front of Kuiwen Pavilion. There are four Ming Dynasty imperial monuments inside and outside the pavilion. Each building is more than 6 meters high and more than 2 meters wide. The turtles under the monument are more than 1 meter high. The monument is carved into a dragon, and the circle is winding around the world. The content of the inscription is mostly respected by Confucius. “Reconstruction of Confucius Temple Monument” in the southeast open air. For the Ming Xianzong Zhu Jianshen. The inscription strongly advocates Confucius’s thoughts. “The only way to be a Confucius is to have a day in the world.” The word is written, the book is dignified, the structure is rigorous, and it is known for its exquisite calligraphy. The stone monument was established in Chenghua four years (AD 1468) and was called “Chenghua Monument”.
There is an independent courtyard in the courtyard. The name is “Sai Su”, and the sacrifices of the former Confucius are here to bathe. The Eastern Court is the home of the “Yan Sheng Gong”. Emperor Kangxi and Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty bathed here, also known as “residents.” There is an exhibition of life stories of Confucius in the current world. The Western Court is a place from the sacrificial officials. It was abandoned in the middle of the Qing Dynasty. It was only a courtyard. During the Qing Daoguang Period, Confucius’s seventy-one generation Sun Kongzhao was the son of the Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. The block is set inlaid on the courtyard wall, and it is renamed as the “Beiyuan” monument or smooth and unrestrained, elegant and elegant; or rich and gentle, and the spirit is flying; or dignified and elegant, simple and ancient; the boutique is numerous and magnificent.
Thirteen monument pavilion
The Kuiwen Pavilion was the sixth courtyard of the Confucius Temple. There are 13 monument pavilions in the courtyard, and the south 8 is north 5, two rows are arranged, the fighting is flying, the fangs are high, the yellow watts are golden, and the scales are compared. The Thirteen Monument Pavilion was built to preserve the stone monument of the feudal emperor, and is known as the “Yubei Pavilion”. The pavilion has 55 monuments, which are engraved in the Tang, Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming, Qing and Seven Dynasties. The inscriptions are mostly records of the emperor’s memorial to Confucius and the worship of the temple, the official sacrifice and the renovation of the temple. They are written in Chinese, Ba Si Ba Wen (Meng Dynasty Mongolian) and Man Wen.
The 5 Beibei Pavilions in Daobei were built in the Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong years. Among the 8 pavilions in Daonan, 4 are gold and Yuan buildings, and the third and sixth blocks in the east are built by Jin Mingchang for six years (AD 1195). The fourth building was built in the Yuan Dynasty to the Yuan Dynasty (AD 1268), the fifth was built in the sixth year of Yuan Dade (AD 1302), and the remaining four were built in the Qing Dynasty. The two squares of the Jin Dynasty monument pavilion, bold and unrestrained, are the earliest buildings in the Confucius Temple.
Each pavilion is made up of animals like turtles and turtles. The name is bi (xi), which is said to be the son of the dragon. Legend has it that the dragons are 9 sons, each has their own ability, and they are good at carrying weights. The earliest of the tablet pavilions are two Tang monuments, one of which was built in the first year of Emperor Gaozong’s total chapter (AD 668), and the “Tao Tang gifted Taishi Lu Xiansheng Kong Xuan Ni”, one of which was built in the Tang Xuanzong Kaiyuan In the seventh year (AD 719), the “Rukongzizi Temple Monument” was located in the sixth Jindaibei Pavilion in the south row. The largest stone monument was established in the 25th year of Qing Emperor Kangxi (AD 1686) and is located in the third tablet pavilion in the north row. This monument weighs about 35 tons, plus the shovel under the monument, the water tray, weighing about 65 tons. This stone was collected from Xishan in Beijing. Under the technical conditions of the time, it was amazement that the monument could be safely transported to Qufu, which is thousands of miles away.
In the southeast and southwest of this courtyard, there is a jungle-like monument. There are also a large number of carved stones in the north wall of the Zhulan. They are carved by the emperors of the past dynasties to repair temples, temples and temples. As seen from the art of calligraphy, the true grass is shackled, each has its own merits. In addition, several stone tablets recorded the peasant uprisings of the Yuan Dynasty Red Scarf Army, Liu Liu in the middle of the Ming Dynasty, Liu Qi, and Xu Hongru in the late Ming Dynasty. They are rare historical materials for studying the history of the peasant revolution.
On both sides of the Thirteen Monument Pavilion, the East Building is a quintessential gate, and the West Jianguan Gate is open for people to enter and exit. According to the name of the palace, people are called East and West Gates. This is the third partial door of the Confucius Temple.
In the north of the Thirteen Monument Pavilion, there is a famous Dacheng Gate in the middle of the five gates. It is the seventh gate of the Confucius Temple.
“Dacheng” is Mencius’ evaluation of Confucius. He said: “Confucius said that the collection of Dacheng”, praised Confucius reached the highest realm of the ancient sages. Here, the five gates are opened, and the Confucius Temple is divided into three roads: the east is the Chengsheng Gate, the inner ancestor is the five generations of ancestors on the Confucius; the west is the Qisheng Gate, and the inner Confucius’s parents are in the middle of Dacheng Gate, and the three gates stand side by side. Door, right Yu Yuzhen. “Golden Sound” is the sound of the bell, indicating the beginning of the music; “Yu Zhen” is the sound of the killing, indicating the end of the music, used to symbolize the Confucius thought collection of the ancient sages. In the middle of the road, the main consecrated Confucius and the couple, and the sages of the sages of the dynasties.
The Thirteen Monument Pavilion at the southern end of Dachengmen has been built from generation to generation since the Jin Dynasty. The craftsmen skillfully used the traditional intrigue construction techniques to subtly solve the problem of the architectural space.
The word “Xingtan” is the place where it is said that Confucius lectured. The record of Confucius’s apricot altar was first seen in “Zhuangzi, the fisherman’s article”: “The Confucius swims in the forest of the scorpion, rests on the apricot altar, and the North Son reads the Confucius string song.” However, there is no record of the original site. In the second year of Song Tianyi (1018), Confucius’s forty-five generations of Sun Kongdao auxiliary supervised the Confucius Temple, and moved the main hall back and expanded to the former site of the main hall. “Xingtan”, the Jin Dynasty began on the altar to build a pavilion, by the famous literati party Huaiying’s book “Xingtan”.
Xingtan cross-ridged ridge, surrounded by mountains, yellow tile Zhulan, carved beam painting, beautifully painted, the front of the altar is engraved with carved stone incense burner, a few apricot trees on the side of the altar, whenever the spring, safflower shakes. Emperor Qianlong once gave poems for him: “When the time comes again, there are a few trees in the east wind, and the stalks are in the world.
The houses on the east and west sides of Dacheng Hall are called “two gongs”, which is the place where the later generations worshipped the sages and the Confucianism. The sages and sects are mostly famous characters in the Confucian school of the later generation, such as Dong Zhongshu, Han Yu, Wang Yangming and so on. In the Tang Dynasty, there were only 20 people. After the replacement of the dynasties, there were as many as 156 people in the Republic of China. These people were originally portraits, and the Jin Dynasty was changed to a statue. During the Ming Dynasty, the wooden tablets with names were changed to the gods in the seat. Stone carvings of the past dynasties are displayed in the two plaques today.
“The old man once touched Zhou Yulu, and the broken monument is still a Chinese article.” There are more than 40 inscriptions on the Han, Wei, Sui, Tang, Song and Yuan dynasties in the East, and the most precious ones are the “Han Wei and Northern Dynasties”. The Western Han Dynasty stone carvings, the first to promote “five phoenix”; the Eastern Han Dynasty stone carving, with “ritual ritual”, “Yi 瑛”, “Kong Zhou”, “Shi Chen” monument as a librarian; North Dynasty with “Zhang Menglong” monument for the Wei body model. More than 100 pieces of “Chinese Stone Carvings” displayed in Xiqiao are also famous art treasures. These stone carvings are rich in content. There are myths and legends of Qinglong, Baihu, Suzaku, Xuanwu, and fishing, singing and dancing, acrobatics, medical practice and hunting that reflect the social life of the time. It is a precious material for studying the social life of the Han Dynasty in China. The techniques of stone carving, some of them are meticulous and exquisite, some are rough and unrestrained, and each has its own style. The 584 “Yuhonglou Stone Carvings” displayed in the north of the two dynasties were made by Confucius, a descendant of the Confucius during the Qing Emperor Qianlong, who collected the handwritings of famous calligraphers from all ages. These stone carvings were originally abandoned in the Yuhong Building of the “Twelve Houses” of Qufu. They were moved to the Confucius Temple in 1951. They were displayed in 1964 for the appreciation of calligraphy lovers.
Looking out from the north of Xingtan, a golden yellow hall on the base of the double-layered stone squad, the double-flying cymbal of the sea-blue mullion on the wooden block, the golden dragons clinging to the three golden characters “Dacheng Hall” “. The word diameter is 1 meter, which is the handwritten book of Emperor Qing Emperor.
Dacheng Hall is the main hall of the Confucius Temple. It is 24.8 meters high, 45.78 meters wide and 24.89 meters deep. It is divided into nine ridges, yellow tiles, and the surrounding cloisters. It is called the Taihe Temple of the Forbidden City and the Song Tian Temple of the Temple. It is also known as the Three Great Halls of the East. . The structure of the hall is simple and tidy, with heavy squats, cross-stitching, staggered, carved beams and brilliance. The brilliance of the algae wells is decorated with a cloud dragon pattern, wrapped in gold foil, and surrounded by clouds. Around the gallery, there are 28 carved dragon stone columns, all carved with stone. The height of the column is 5.98 meters and the diameter is 0.81 meters. It is based on the heavy layer of treasures and the lotus column. It was originally carved by the Huizhou artisans in the 13th year of Ming Hongzhi (AD 1500). The Qing Dynasty was re-engraved after two years of fire. The 18 octagonal milled stone pillars of the two mountains and the back sill are decorated with Yunlong. Each side is engraved with 9 dragons, 72 per column. The careful craftsman records the total number of carved dragons on the stone pillar. 1296. The top ten scorpions are deep reliefs. Each column has two dragons facing each other, coiled up and rising, engraved with a bead, four rounds of cloud flames, and the pillars are adorned with rocks and stones. The 10 dragon columns are opposite each other, each with its own changes. No one is the same, the shape is beautiful and vivid, the carving is exquisite and clear, the knife method is strong and powerful, and the dragon pose is vivid. This is the unique stone carving art treasure of Qufu. It is said that when Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty came to Qufu to worship Confucius, the stone pillars were wrapped in red enamel, and they were not dared to be seen by the emperor. I am afraid that the emperor would blame for exceeding the palace. The architectural art of Dacheng Hall shows the talent and wisdom of the working people of our country. Guo Moruo once praised it.
The Dacheng Hall is dedicated to the statue of Confucius. It sits 3.35 meters high, wearing a crown of twelve crowns, wearing a twelve-piece king’s suit, holding a handful of towns, just like the ancient celestial system. On both sides, there are four matches. The east is westward and the other is the holy sacred back and the holy sacred. The west is eastward with Zongsheng Zeng and Yasheng Meng. In addition, it is the twelve philosophers. The east is the west, the derogatory, the scorpion, the Duanmu, the zhong, the shanghai, the ruin, and the west is the ploughing, slaughtering, begging, talking, grandson Teacher, Zhu Xi. The four-figure statue sits at a height of 2.6 meters, and the twelve-character statue sits at a height of 2 meters. They are all wearing a nine-crowned crown, wearing nine chapters, serving, and holding a hand, like an ancient ceremony. The statues are placed in the wooden gold gods, the Confucius is like a single cymbal, and the Shi 13 is stepping on the raft. The two pillars in front of the raft are each carved with a dragon, hovering around the column, with vivid posture, exquisite carving, and exquisite beauty. Four with twelve philosophers, two squats, each of the nine squatting. There are rituals such as enamel, beans, and princes used for tables, incense, and sacrifices. In the hall, there are also musical instruments and dance instruments that are used to commemorate Confucius. There are 10 plaques and 3 pairs of couplets hanging outside the hall. The center of the door is the ancestral plaque of the Qing Emperor Emperor’s title. The middle of the hall is the “Wanshi Shibiao” of the Emperor Kangxi’s book and the “Swen” of the Guangxu Emperor’s book. In the plaque, the plaque of the “Zero Neutral” of the Qianlong Emperor’s title is hung in the south. Each piece is more than 6 meters long and 2.6 meters high. The dragon is golden and beautiful.
The temple is built on two floors, with a terrace at the front, 2 meters high, 4.5 meters wide from east to west, and 35 meters deep from north to south. The stone carving dagger has two embossed dragons in the middle of the south. The terrace is a place where songs and dances are performed during the sacrificial ceremony. Today, the birthday of Confucius (November 28th of the lunar calendar) is to perform rituals and dances—-eight dances.
Followed by the hall of Dacheng Hall, surrounded by layers, another pillar of the temple, which is one of the three major buildings of the Confucius Temple (the other two buildings are Kuiwen Pavilion and Dacheng Hall), which is dedicated to the eunuch of Confucius. Specialist.
There are 7 rooms in the temple, 4 in the deep, and gold paintings. The dragons and the algae are all made of gold foil. The 22 ancestral pillars of the cloister are engraved with the phoenix peony. In the temple, the gods and wood carvings are dragons and dragons, beautiful and unusual. There are wooden signs in the temple, and the book “The Lady of the Holy Master”.
The eunuch, the ceremonial monument and the official, Song Guoren, 19-year-old married Confucius, first Confucius died seven years. Her situation is rarely recorded in ancient books. It was not until the first year of Dazhong Xiangfu (AD 1008) that it was chased by Song Zhenzong Zhao Heng as “Mrs. Laos”. Yuan Zhishun three years (AD 1332) was added as “Dacheng to the Lady of the Holy Scriptures”, Ming Jiajing eight years (AD 1592) Confucius renamed “the Holy Master”, she is also known as “the Holy Pre-Mrs.” After the death of Confucius, “that is, the temple where Confucius lived is a temple.” The eunuch was sacrificed together with Confucius. In the Tang Dynasty, there was a special hall for the temple. In the early days, there was a statue. When the Qing Emperor was rebuilt after the fire, it was already the main card of God. The cover is engraved with wood and the front is set for the table.
The Temple of the Holy Sepulchre is named after the stone carving comic strips that record the life of Confucius. This temple is located behind the sleeping hall and is the only ninth entrance courtyard of the Confucius Temple. The temple was built in the 20th year of Wanli (AD 1529). The Confucius Temple originally reflected the woodcut picture of Confucius’s deeds. He suggested changing to stone carvings. Yang Zhi made paintings and carved stones on the inner walls of the temple. This is the 120-story “St. Each of the sacred maps is about 38 centimeters wide and 60 centimeters long. The sacred traces of the sacred traces are from the prayer of the mother to the Confucius of Nishan, to the tomb of the son of Confucius after death, and accompanied by Han Bangzu Liu Bang and Song Zhenzong Zhao Heng. Ether holds two pieces of Confucius. Among them, the main activities and remarks of Confucius, such as “Songren logging” and “Severe tyranny in the tiger”, are the first comic books in China with complete characters, which have high historical value and artistic value.
Inside the Temple of the Holy Sepulchre, the heading is the stone carving of the Emperor Kangxi Emperor’s handwriting “Wanshi Shibiao”. In the middle of the word, “Confucius is a statue of Lusi” painted by Wu Daozi, a painter of the Tang Dynasty. On the left is the “first portrait” of the famous painter Gu Yuzhi of the Jin Dynasty. It is called “the shadow of the Master”. It is said that “Little Shadow” is in the Confucius. The most true, the closest to the original appearance of Confucius. Confucius’s forty-eight generations of Sun Kong Duanyou was in the second year of Song Shaosheng (AD 1095) and on the third stone; on the right is Wu Daozian’s painting “Confucius with a few images”, Confucius sits a few times, disciples are divided and left, Confucius forty-six generations Sun Kong Zongshou In the second year of Song Shao, the stone was carved. In these portraits, there are the royal tributes of the emperors such as Song Taizu and Song Zhenzong, and the Song Dynasty Shao Sheng, Zheng He and other years and questions. In the temple, there is also the “Dabu Confucius” of the Song Dynasty calligrapher Mi Shushu, as well as the royal monuments of Emperor Kangxi and Emperor Qianlong.
Located in the north of Qufu City, it is a special cemetery for Confucius and its family. It is also the longest and largest clan cemetery in the world. Confucius died in the 16th year of Lu Aigong (479 BC) in April, and was buried in the northern part of Lucheng. His descendants were buried from the hustle and bustle, forming today’s Kong Lin. Since Zigong planted trees for Confucius, the ancient trees in Konglin have reached more than 10,000. Since the Han Dynasty, the rulers of the past dynasties rebuilt and improved Confucius 13 times, and even opened up to the present scale, with a total area of about 2 square kilometers. The surrounding forest wall is 5.6 kilometers, and the wall is more than 3 meters high and 1 meter thick. Guo Moruo once said: “This is a very good natural museum and a chronicle of the Kong family.”
Kong Lin, originally known as the Holy Forest, is the cemetery of Confucius and his family. After the death of Confucius, the disciples buried him in the northern waters of Lucheng. At that time, they were still “tombs without graves” (no high-altitude ridges). In the Qin and Han Dynasties, although the grave was built high, there were still only a small number of cemeteries and several forest guards. Later, with the increasing status of Confucius, Konglin became larger and larger. In the third year of Emperor Yongshou of the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 157), Lu Xiang Han Yu repaired the tomb, built a door in front of the tomb, and made a room in the southeast, and used some of the households to make a hole in the tomb. One is.” When the North and the North moved to Gaoqi, only 600 trees were planted. During the Xuanhe period of the Song Dynasty, stone instruments were built in front of the tomb of Confucius. Into the second year of Yuan Wenzong Zhishun (AD 1331), Kong Sikai majored in the forest wall and built Linmen. In the 10th year of Ming Hongwu (AD 1684), Konglin was expanded to a scale of 3,000 acres. In the 8th year of Emperor Yongzheng (AD 1730), the Confucius was overhauled, and the 25500 was used to repair various gates, and special officers were guarded. According to statistics, since the Han Dynasty, Confucius has been rebuilt and upgraded 13 times in the past, planted 5 times, and expanded the forest land 3 times. The entire wall around the Konglin is 7.25 kilometers long. The wall is more than 3 meters high and 5 meters thick. The total area is 2 square kilometers. It is larger than the Qufu City. It is a clan cemetery. It has been buried for more than 2,000 years. . Here, you can test the burial of the Spring and Autumn Period, the tomb of the Qin and Han Dynasties, and the development of the political, economic, and cultural developments of our country and the evolution of funeral customs. In 1961, the State Council announced the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units. “The tomb of the ancient millennium, Lin Shen May cold”, there are more than 100,000 trees in Konglin. According to legend, after the death of Confucius, “the disciples were planted by the Quartet, so many different trees, the incompetent names of the Lu people for generations.” To this day, some of the trees in Konglin still cannot name them. Among them, cypress, scorpion, scorpion, scorpion, scorpion, scorpion, sap, maple, yang, willow, sandalwood, scorpion, five flavors, cherry blossoms and other large trees, tangled, leafy; wild chrysanthemum, Pinellia, firewood Hundreds of plants such as Hu, Taizishen and Ganoderma lucidum have also won glory. Kong Lin is a natural botanical garden.
“In the deep tree of the broken monument, there is no way to find it.” In Konglin, which is hidden in Wanmu, the stone is like a forest, and the stone instrument is in groups. In addition to a group of famous Han monuments, the tombs are inscribed in the Confucius Temple. There are also tombstones written by Li Dongyang, Yan Yan, Weng Fanggang, He Shaoji, Kang Youwei and other famous Ming and Qing calligraphy masters. Therefore, Kong Lin is also a veritable forest of monuments.
When you go out to Qufu City Gate in the north, you will see two rows of warehouses and cypresses, such as Long Ruyi, which stands by the road. This is the Confucian Shinto. There is a long-standing Changchun Square in the middle of the road. This is a six-carved stone pavilion with six stone pillars supported by two stone lions on both sides. The four characters of “Wanchun Changchun” in the square were engraved when the Ming Dynasty was built in the 22nd year of the Wanli Period (AD 1594), but in the Qing Dynasty, it was engraved in the square, “Qingzhen is rebuilt in July and July.” Typeface. On the stone pavilion, there are Panlong, Wufeng, Qilin, Junma, Zelu, Tuanhua, Xiangyun, etc. The two dragons play in the middle of the dragon, next to the Danfeng Chaoyang ornamentation, the entire Shifang is magnificent and beautiful.
There are green pavilions on both sides of the square, and there are a large stone monument in the pavilion. In the twenty-two years of Wanli (AD 1594), the Ming Dynasty official residence Zheng Zheng and Lien Bian were established, and the ten characters of “Dacheng Zhisheng Shizi Confucius” were engraved on the west; the west was the second year of the “Fuli Reforestation” Temple monument.” Both monuments are very tall, the inscription has a carved pattern, and there is a vivid skin under the tablet.
From the road to Shenglinmen West, about 200 meters ahead, there is a stone square carving the Yunlong and evil spirits in the north of the road. The two sides of the square are engraved with the words “Yi Shui Bridge”. The north side of the Ming Dynasty is the second year of Jiajing, and the south is the tenth year. In the north of the square, there is a high-rise arch bridge over the Lishui.
Lishui is a river in ancient times, which merges with Lishui, and is divided into two waters in Qufu. During the Spring and Autumn Period, Confucius taught between the two, and later generations used the name of Confucianism. However, in order to commemorate Confucius, the later generations of the Lishui River Road were named as the waters of the Luguo River and repaired the exquisite squares and bridges. On the east side of the bridge, there is a square courtyard, which is called Sitang, 3 halls, and 3 rooms in the east and west. It is the place where the priests change clothes when they worship the hole. The interior wall is inlaid with a large number of stone tablets that later generations praised Confucius. Another small courtyard in the east of this courtyard is engraved with the word “God”, which is where the animals were slaughtered when they sacrificed holes.
Enjoy the temple
In the north of Lishui Bridge, there is a high-rise gate of the green tile and three plaques – the gate of the tomb, and the back of the temple is dedicated to the Confucius. To the side of the temple, there are four pairs of stone carvings, such as Huabiao, Wenbao, Yu Duan and Weng Zhong. The stone pillar in front of the tomb of the Chinese watch is also called the pillar; the leopard, the image is like a leopard, the fire is under the arm, gentle and kind, used to keep the tomb; the end is also an imaginary monster, the legendary day is 18,000 miles. The Quartet language, the distant things of the Ming Dynasty; Weng Zhong, stone portraits, passed down to the Qin Dynasty, the Weizhen side, followed by symmetry, glyph, Wu two images, are called Weng Zhong, used to keep the tomb. The two pairs of stone beasts were engraved during the Song Xuanhe period. Weng Zhong was engraved during the Qing Emperor’s reign, and the writers were obedient and the warriors were according to the sword. On the front of the ramp is the temple, the temple is 5, the yellow tile is on the top of the mountain, the front and rear corridors are wooden frames, and the armpits are heavily smashed. In the hall, there is a poem written by the Qing Emperor Hong Li, a handwritten book of the “Jin Confucian Linyi”, in which there are poems such as “Teaching the Taste of the Ages, and Taishan Endless”. During the Liberation War, Commander-in-Chief Zhu De held a military conference in this hall.
After the temple, the center of Konglin–the tomb of Confucius. This tomb is like a raised horseback, called the horse seal. The tomb of the tomb is surrounded by red walls, and the perimeter is long. In front of the tomb, there is a tomb engraved “Dacheng to the Tomb of the King of the Kings”, which is the eight years of Mingzheng (AD 1443). The stone platform in front of the tomb was originally Hanxiu. In the Tang Dynasty, it was changed to the Fengchan stone that was transported from Taishan. The tomb of Confucius is the tomb of the son of the Confucius, and the tomb of the Sun Confucius is in the south. The layout of this tomb is called the son of the son.
The three Westinghouses in Confucius’ Tomb West are the tombs of Zigong. After the death of Confucius, the disciples kept the tomb for three years and went away with each other. The only son tribute here for three years. In order to commemorate this matter, the descendants built three houses and built a monument, entitled “Zonggongyu Tomb.” After enjoying the temple, there is another square pavilion with a gray corrugated spire, called “楷亭”. An ancient banyan tree is engraved on the stone monument in the pavilion, which is the “children’s handicrafts” from the south side. According to legend, after the tribute to the funeral, a eucalyptus seedling was planted next to his tomb and later became a big tree. The Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty was burned to death by the thunder, and the descendants carved the dried image on the stone.
There are three four-corner plaque pavilions in the north of Yuting, which are built in the pavilion of the pavilion. The pavilion restored in the north of the green tile is built to commemorate the Confucius of the Song Zhenzong Zhao Heng sacrifice, and the second tablet pavilion in the middle and south of the yellow tile is commemorated. The Emperor Xuanzang of the Qing Dynasty and the Confucius of the Hongli Festival were built. “跸” is the driving of the Yellow Emperor, and the three pavilions are where the Yellow Emperor sacrifices. There is still a stone monument in the pavilion.
Kong Shangren’s Tomb
Along the east of Huanlin Road, in the northeast of Konglin, after passing a stone pavilion, a huge monument will be set up along the roadside, and the tomb of the Mr. Dongtang Dongtang, the secretary of the Qing Dynasty, will be written in the early Qing Dynasty. The tombstone of the playwright and the author of the “Peach Blossom Fan”, Kong Shangren. Thus, to the west, there is a tomb group that wrote the book “Yuanyin Jude”, and the descendants of Confucius, Kong Qian, Kong Zhoukong, and Kong Tong, were buried here. From the west tomb of the Han Tombs, there are also Ming Tombs, where the tombs are a little bit, the monuments are numerous, the stone beasts are in groups, and the monuments written by the famous calligraphers Li Dongyang and Yan Yan of the Ming Dynasty stand in the middle.
Strolling through the depths of Konglin and enjoying the treasures of the forest, people are amazed.
A memorial arch for the daughter of the Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. Chuanlong’s daughter had black eyes on her face. The fortune teller said: “The Lord has a disaster in his life, and he must marry a blessed person to avoid the disaster.” In the middle of the discussion, only the descendants of the saints are the most appropriate, because Manchu is not allowed to marry, Qianlong makes her daughter Recognizing the co-organizer of the university and the family department Shang Shu Yu Minzhong as the righteous father, changed his surname to the next marriage to the Confucius. This square is dedicated to the commemoration of Yu.
It was passed down as a tribute to the Confucius disciple, and later generations built a monument to show their commemoration.
Three-hole joint ticket totaling 140 yuan (single ticket: Confucius, 60 yuan / person; Confucius Temple, 90 yuan / person; Kong Lin, 40 yuan / person. The price of single ticket in the off-season has decreased)
Three holes + n (n is 1, 2, 3, can be selected from Nishan, Yanmiao, Zhougong Temple 1, 2, 3 and three holes together)
Free ticket description: Second-class and above-mentioned persons with disabilities are exempted from admission; 60-year-olds (including 60-year-olds) or older (by ID card) can be admitted to the park without a ticket; the retired cadres holding the “cadre retired permit” issued by the State can be admitted free of charge. Students with a student ID card, ID card or college entrance examination permit can enjoy half-price concessions; Confucius descendants other than Qufu, holding their valid ID card to enter the park without a ticket; some teachers, journalists have a discount on the corresponding documents (teachers with teacher qualification certificate) , the position of the business unit, the teacher’s professional level evaluation certificate free of charge to enter the park).
Best time to travel
There are three holes in the tour, which are suitable for all seasons, but it is customary for people to prefer the tour from March to November. At this moment, it is the peak season for Qufu.
Scenic address: Confucius Temple is located on the road of Shen, the old town of Qufu. Confucius is located on the east side of Confucius Temple, in the old town of Qufu. Konglin is located on the forest road.
Qufu High-speed Railway Station: Take the K1 bus from the high-speed railway station and get off at Nanmen Station. You can go to Confucius Temple in Confucius Temple and take a scenic bus to Konglin at the back door of Confucius.
Qufu Bus Station: Take the No. 2, No. 3, No. 5 bus at the bus station and get off at Nanmen Station. You can go to Confucius Temple in Confucius Temple and take a scenic bus to Konglin at the back door of Confucius.
Qufu Railway Station: Take the 5th Railway Station and get off at Nanmen Station. You can go to Confucius Temple in Confucius Temple and take the scenic bus to Konglin at the back door of Confucius.
Zhangzhou Railway Station: Take the K23 road at Zhangzhou Railway Station and get off at the terminal station. Then take the 2nd road of Qufu. Get off at Nanmen Station and you can go to Confucius Temple in Confucius. Take the tour bus to Konglin at the back door of Confucius.
Qufu Anxin Taxi: 5 yuan 2 kilometers, more than 2 kilometers, plus 1.3 yuan per kilometer
There are three rounds of manpower and carriages in Qufu District. The fare is not necessarily the same. You can bargain with the driver.