Geographic location:Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province
Famous scenery:Meilu Villa, Jinxiu Valley, Sandie Springs, Botanical Garden
Climate type:Subtropical monsoon climate
Jiangxi Lushan World Geopark is located in Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province, north of the Yangtze River and south of Poyang Lake. Covers an area of 500 square kilometers. As early as more than 1,200 years ago, Li Bai, a poet of the Tang Dynasty, praised Lushan like this: “To the world, the landscape is very rich, and the scenery is very beautiful. There are few who can pass it, and the beauty of the world.”
There are land-based fault block mountains and Quaternary glacial relics in the Lushan Geological Park in Jiangxi, as well as the Quaternary glacial stratigraphic section and the Early Proterozoic Xingzi Group stratigraphic section. By 2010, more than 100 important geological relics of glaciers have been discovered in Lushan Mountain. The whole process of snow and ice accumulation, glacial formation, glacial movement, erosion of rock mass, handling of rocks and sedimentation of gravel has been completely recorded. It is an ancient climate change in eastern China. A historical record of geological features. It has many similarities with the characteristics of Quaternary glaciers in the European Alps and North America. It has global comparative significance and is of high scientific value for studying the history of global paleoclimatic change and geological development.
Jiangxi Lushan World Geopark is one of the first batch of eight national geological parks in China to be selected as a World Geopark in 2004.
Lushan Geological Park is located in Guling Town, Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province, with a total area of 500 square kilometers. The main geological relics are geological features and geological sections.
Taking the extension structure as the main body, along with the fault block mountain structure and the metamorphic core complex structure appearing in the Lushan Mountain, it constitutes another feature of the geology landscape of the Lushan Mountain. Affected by the neotectonic movement, the Lushan Mountain stands tall, the large structure is spectacular, and the small structures are in various poses. The structure of the Lushan metamorphic core complex is very outstanding, and it is in contrast with the world-scale metamorphic core complex. The early Proterozoic “Xingzi Group” metamorphic complex of the Lushan Mountain has been exposed for 2.5 to 1.8 billion years ago. China Stratigraphic Code.
The geological and geomorphological types of the Lushan Geological Park and its surrounding areas include five types: erosion tectonic geomorphology, tectonic erosion and erosion geomorphology, karst erosion tectonic landform, glacier landform, and water erosion and landform.
In the geological park, the topographic features of the topography are: Zhongshan-Low Hill-Gangdi-Plain, which is a low-mountain-hill unit because of the fault block mountain. The geomorphic type is dominated by ice-eroded landforms, and it has the most distinctive features, followed by structural landforms and flowing landforms. Its overall characteristics are the multi-genetic composite geomorphic landscape formed by superimposed ice eroded landforms, structural landforms and flowing water features.
Lushan is located in the north subtropical monsoon climate zone with four distinct seasons. The average annual rainfall is 1833.5 mm and the foggy day is 190.6 days. The annual average temperature of Lushan is 11.5 °C, the highest is 32 °C, and the lowest is -16.8 °C. Marine climatic characteristics.
Guanyinqiao Scenic Area
Guanyin Bridge Scenic Area is located in the National Forest Park in the south of Lushan Mountain. There is Wushen Peak in the east of Lushan Mountain in the east, Hanyang Peak in the west of Lushan Mountain, Taiyi Peak in the north, and Poyang Lake in the south. . The scenic spot integrates the world cultural heritage, the world geopark, and the natural scenery of China. The entire scenic spot is hidden in the original jungle.
Known as the “first ancient bridge in the south of the Yangtze River”, the Millennium National Treasure – Guanyin Bridge, with a bridge length of 19.4 meters and a bridge width of 4.8 meters, was built in 1014. It is a magnificent force that spans the Grand Canyon of Lushan—-Qi Xianda Among the canyons, it is a national key cultural relics protection unit.
The famous Sixth Spring of the Tang Dynasty in the Tang Dynasty; Tang Bohu, the first painter of the Ming Dynasty, once painted the famous “Three Gorges Bridge” (now Guanyin Bridge); in 1961, Premier Zhou Enlai came to Guanyin Bridge and The cow’s baby Xiao Zhou Guihua left a touching story; the Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek and his wife praised the Guanyin Bridge Feng Shui, and established a palace here. The current exhibition hall in the palace shows the pictures of the famous people in modern history. There is a “mother and wife tree” cultivated by the Jiang and Song couples; the giant stone carving of the general of the Kuomintang patriotic general Feng Yuxiang – “Mozi” is one of the largest ground stone carvings in China. The Qixian Grand Canyon, which is also known as the “Three Gorges”, is a Quaternary glacial remnant that was formed by geological movements millions of years ago. The Qingquan rapids in the Grand Canyon have turned into twenty-four pools; such as Yuyuantan and Yuxiantan. Jinjingtan and so on.
The Guanyinqiao Scenic Area is also a Buddhist holy place. On the west side of the bridge is the Cihang Temple dedicated to the Guanyin Bodhisattva. The north side of the bridge is the Qianxian Temple, a thousand-year-old temple. It is one of the five jungles of Lushan Buddhism.
Iron boat peak
The iron boat peak is commonly known as the “mast stone”, which is opposite to the Longshou Cliff. One day in Jiankang (now Nanjing) invited Xu Xun and others to make people dream. The last night’s dream was broken and asked if it was auspicious. When Xu Xun and others knew their intentions, they were interpreted as “the broken wood on the wood, the word “not”, and the public desire to use the knife soldiers, not to act rashly.” Wang Dun was not happy after listening, and he secretly killed. Xu Xun and others have also expected that he will escape by boat. In the middle of the boat, Wang Dun really sent troops to catch up. Fortunately, Xu Xun learned to have a spell, and called the two dragons to take off, and warned everyone to close their eyes and not peep. When the ship flew over the purple peak of Mount Lushan, the clouds were fascinating, the bottom of the boat rubbed against the treetops, and the boat sneaked. The two dragons suddenly left, and the ship immediately fell to the Shimen Cave under the Zijing Peak and became iron. Ship peak.
In 1992, there were Jingguan Pavilion and close stone carvings on the top of the iron ship.
Overpass ice overflow
The Tianqiao Ice Spillway is located between the U Valley of the West Valley and the U-shaped Valley of the Jinxiu Valley Glacier. The ice flow in the West Valley flows from the overpass to the Jinxiu Valley. After the ice, the water overflowed the ice and eroded a natural stone bridge. The bridge collapsed 630 years ago.
Shimen Ice Camp
The stone gate is about 3,000 meters long and 200 meters wide. The valley is trough-shaped and is also a glacier valley. At its exit, the bedrock and its overlying ice deposits form a threshold across the valley, forming an ice ridge. Shimenyu, the water system is richly developed, and there is a Shimenyu Waterfall that is rushing and rushing.
Nasal Mountain (Shoe Mountain)
An isolated island in the Poyang Lake, about 90 meters high, is composed of limestone, high in the east and low in the west, surrounded by cliffs. The mountain is like a shoe line. It seems to be a blue satin embroidered shoe lost in the lake by the “Xiangyang Fairy”. It is like the nose of a person lying on the back of the lake. Geologically, this special glacier landform is called the nose of the mountain.
Lulin Lake is located in the East Valley Lulin Basin at an altitude of 1040 meters, so it is also known as the East Lake. Surrounded by mountains, the pines and cypresses have beautiful scenery. It was originally a reed valley where the grass was overgrown and the beasts were infested, between the two peaks of Yuping and Xingzhou. In 1954, a dam was built in the second peak to store water, and it was completed the following year. The dam is 32 meters high, 120 meters long and 12 meters wide. The whole lake covers an area of about 90,000 square meters and has a water storage capacity of 1.2 million cubic meters. It is used as a water tower and a spillway respectively. The water stored in Lulin Lake is the main source of water for 13,000 residents in Lushan Town.
It takes about 20 minutes from the Huanglong Temple along the stone steps to reach the Lulin Bridge.
Not far from the north of the Lulin Bridge, it is a small basin in the central part of the Lushan Mountain. There is a palace-style building, the Lushan Museum, the modernized Lushan Building and the People’s Theatre.
Wu Laofeng is located in the southeast of Lushan Mountain. Because the top of the mountain was broken by the mouth of the mountain, it was divided into five juxtaposed peaks. Looking at the five old men sitting on the ground, the five peaks of the original mountain were collectively referred to as “five. Old peak.” It is rooted in the lake, the peak of the peak, 1358 meters above sea level.
The Wu Laofeng is steep and straight, and its southeastern cliff is steep and steep, while the northwest slope is relatively slow. Tourists can climb the trail to climb the mountain. Li Bai, a great poet of the Tang Dynasty, left a eternal singer here: the five old peaks in the southeast of Lushan Mountain, and Qingtian cut out Jin Furong. Jiujiang Xiu color can be tied, I will nest the clouds.
The Xianren Cave is a sloping hole in the Sinian sandstone. The sandstone level is gentle and the raking surface is inclined. There is a group of steep and small faults. The flowing water collapses into a hole along the fault and the surface of the crack. The cave is about 4 meters wide and 12 meters deep and is a holy place for Taoist activities.
West Valley Glacier U-Valley
The U-shaped valleys with good preservation on Mount Lushan mainly include: Wangjiapo U Valley, U Campus U Valley, East Valley U Valley, West Valley U Valley, Qili Chong U Valley, Shimenyu U Valley, Changyu U Valley, etc.
Wangjiapo U Valley: Located in Lushan NE, between the Da Yueshan ridge and the small Tianchi-Dazhai Mountain ridge. The U Valley is more than 4,000 meters long and 700 meters wide. The source elevation of the valley is about 800-1000 meters, and the front edge elevation is about 200 meters. The cross section is U-shaped, the longitudinal section is slightly stepped, the upper section is relatively narrow, and the lower section is relatively wide. There is a small V-shaped valley superposition on the valley side on the NW side in the U-shaped valley. There is a lieutenant at the bottom of the valley, in which hail remains. In the U-shaped valley, more typical glacial streak stones have recently been discovered. The boulder of the glacier streak has a diameter of more than 5 meters and is slightly pentagonal. It is composed of hard and dense quartz sandstone, and five glacial streaks are found on it. Glacier streaks are about 5 to 19 cm long, 0.7 to 1.5 cm wide, and 0.5 to 3 cm deep. The streaks are narrow and deep, and the marks are smooth. The long axis of the streaks is generally uniform but different, and the overall direction is The U-shaped valley has the same direction of the long axis.
U Campus: Located between the edge of the daughter city and the ridge of the long ridge, the source of the valley bottom is about 1350m, the elevation of the valley is about 1100 meters, the length is about 3,000 meters, the width is about 170 meters, and the residual depth is only 30-50 meters. At the end of the U valley, there is a hailstone hailstone, and there are glaciers piled up. At the bottom, there are rock powders that are squeezed and milled by glaciers. Dr. Schrocht (Professor of the Zurich Institute of Technology), the Secretary-General of the International Quaternary Federation in 1986, has also discovered shell-like and iron-like gravel and glacier streak, which he believes with glacial deposits in the Alps. The features are exactly the same.
Shimenyu U Valley: Located at the lower end of the Huanglong Temple hail, although the U valley is more seriously damaged by the late water, it can still recognize the basic characteristics of the glacier U valley. The bottom of the valley is between 800 and 400 meters, and the U valley is about 1,200 meters long. The longitudinal section is a typical step shape, and the ice steps and ice basins are arranged. At the Baizhang Ladder of Shimeng Waterfall, there is an ice step. Below is an ice basin remnant. The Diaoyutai Stone Gate was once an ice step and an ice ridge relic. The Wenzhu Jingshe below is an ice basin relic. At the center of the ice basin, there are still bottom squats formed by hailstones and gravel, and then down the famous Shimen 涧 ice ridge. The ice ridge is about 320 meters long and about 80 meters wide. The saddle-shaped depression in the middle of the ice ridge should be the vent of the ice ridge, and the modern river valley at the SW end of the ice ridge should be the remnant of the ice ridge. Outside the ice rink is an ice level, and then down is the school.
The remains of the Quaternary hailstones on Mount Lushan are well preserved: Lulin Hail, Huanglong Temple Hail, Sanyi Town Hail, and Kiln. The rocks that make up the hail are all South China pebbly sandstones.
Lulin Hail: the location of the Lulin Lake Basin, just below the U Valley of the University Campus. The hail is about 1,300 meters long and about 750 meters wide. The bottom elevation is about 1000 meters, which is slightly inclined to NW. In the early days of AD, before the transformation into an artificial lake, it was still a natural lake in the mountains, and it was found to have ice-stained mud. At the Lulin Bridge, there were still remains of ice ridges.
Sanyi Township Hail: The location of the current Lushan Botanical Garden. The hail is about 720 meters long, about 410 meters wide and 150 meters deep. The elevation at the bottom of the ice is about 1000 meters. The exit is slightly tilted toward NE, and there are still remains of ice casks under the Wangjing Pavilion.
West Valley Ice Table
The ice table, also known as the ice table, refers to the phenomenon that huge boulder boulder gathered in the U-shaped valley or in the foothills lie on other glaciers. The ice table in the U-shaped valley of the West Valley Glacier has a huge boulder length of 8.9 meters, a width of 6.1 meters and a height of 4.5 meters. The upper part of the boulder is 5.6 meters long, 4.5 meters wide and 2.9 meters high.
There are six main karst caves found in the area. The Dragon Palace Cave of Pengze and the Monkey Cave of Lushan Mountain are formed by the erosion of the Cambrian mudstone limestone of 560 million years ago. The Longgong Cave has been developed in a huge scale. The stalactites are rich in content and the cave is 2.7 kilometers long. It is a unique underground art gallery. The Monkey Cave is being developed. The cave is nearly a kilometer long and its tourism value is far less than that of the Dragon Palace Cave. The lion cave and the dragon cave that Jiujiang County has developed and the Henggang cave newly discovered by Ruichang are one type. The early Permian thick limestone from 250 million years ago was dissolved by the later groundwater. The lion cave is divided into three layers, and the stalactites are more developed, forming more than 40 major attractions. Longdong is located at the western end of the Hukou Bridge and has not yet been developed. The Henggang Cave is huge in scale and has a certain development prospect. The Yongquan Cave, which has been developed in Jiujiang County, is formed by the dissolution of groundwater from the middle and lower Triassic dolomitic limestone. The cave has three layers. The stalagmites, stone pillars, stone plaques and stone curtains are complete, forming 32 major scenic spots.
Sandstone sloping cave
These caves are almost all located in the Sinian sandstones of the Laoshan area. The layers of thick sandstone often form the top and bottom of the cave. The wall of the cave is mostly composed of two sets of X-shaped shear joints. Due to the erosive action of groundwater, the feldspar quartz tuff sandstone is eroded by the eclipse at the intersection of several sets of shear planes or on the small fault zone to form a smaller cave. For example, Xianren Cave, Ghost Cave, and Papaya Cave are all such. There are many crystal clusters and single crystals on the cave wall and the top of the cave.
Rock block stacked Dongfu
Most of these caves are located under the steep cliffs of Mount Lushan and are made up of huge blocks of collapsed rocks. For example: Lingxiao Cave, Shenxian Cave, Guanyin Cave, Qizhi Cave, Ziyan Cave, Wu Laodong, Dark Dragon Cave, Longyun Cave, etc. Most of these caves are located at a cliff with an altitude of 400-800 m. The natural environment is very beautiful, and the ancient temple ruins and ancient trees are often hidden in the bamboo forest, and the tourist taste is also high.
There are fault-type hot springs at the foot of Lushan, Yunshan, Jiugongshan and Jiuling Mountain. The “Xingzi Hot Spring” under Huanglong Mountain in the Geopark is the most medically valuable.
Xingzi Hot Spring was developed in the Song Dynasty and was once known as Huanglongling Soup Institute. After investigation and research, the hot spring contains more than 30 kinds of trace elements. It is a typical hydrogen sulfide hot spring and has high medical value. It is the same as the French “Fan Debai” hot spring and the British “Baisi” hot spring. Type, water quality can be compared with Huaqing Pool in Xi’an. The average water temperature is 62 ° C, and the amount of water that can be mined per day is 1063 tons. The Xingzi Hot Spring Sanatorium is surrounded by beautiful scenery and has long been a scenic spot.
There are many rising springs in the geological park, most of which are rising springs distributed along the fault zone. For example: Baochunquan, Ganluquan, Yangyanquan, Taohuaquan, Qingxinquan, the water quality is good, that is, there is appreciation value and drinking value. . Some rising springs have a daily flow of more than 2,200 tons, and the water quality is good, such as the Jinzhu Spring of the Haihui, the Yunhui Spring of the Wrangler and the cold spring of Saiyang. Although some springs have a small flow, the water quality is very good, such as the Zhaoyinquan of Guanyinqiaotou (the sixth spring in the world), Bailongquan under the Wu Laofeng, Qishengquan, and a drop of spring in the fairy cave. The smart springs of Donglin Temple and Xiufeng have higher reputations but poor water quality.
The wave well in Jiujiang City is 14.7 meters deep. The well water communicates with the water of the Yangtze River. The Yangtze River rises in water and the waves in the well are inoculated in 201 BC.
The huge Yulin Lake Reservoir between Yongxiu and Wuning County covers an area of about 308 kilometers. It is very similar to the Qiandao Lake between Zhejiang and Anhui. There are more than 900 large and small islands in the lake, which have been initially developed into a water tourism area. In addition, Lulin Lake and Ruqin Lake on the top of the mountain are also two important scenic spots. The Shi Niushan Reservoir, Nancheng Reservoir, Guanyintang Reservoir and Jinglin Reservoir under the Lushan Mountain are also large in scale, which also plays a role in setting off the scenery of Lushan Mountain.
Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in the country, is the Lianhe Lake on the Lancang River. The bottom of the lake has the main channel of the Minjiang River. It is a typical over-water lake. About 2050 years ago, due to the effluent of Meijiazhou, the Yangtze River had a topping effect on the Yangtze River, and the sinking of the earth’s crust caused the lower reaches of the Minjiang River to form a lake. There are still two ancient counties in the Western Han Dynasty. remains. Poyang Lake in the north of Xingzi County was once an integral part of the ancient “Peng Yuze”. The Poyang Lake in the south of Xingzi County is called Luoxing Lake. It is said that the Lake District used to be a crater. The old temple is under the “Devil Triangle”. Some people think that it is related to the high magnetic meteorite at the bottom of the lake.
This 5,500-kilometer Lianhe Lake has a lake area of only 500 kilometers in winter, forming the country’s largest wetland. Each winter, there are 236 species of more than 380,000 migratory birds to the wetland for winter. 98% of the world’s most rare white cranes come here. winter. Therefore, Poyang Lake is an ideal water playground in the summer and winter is a tourist attraction for migratory birds.
The large waterfalls with tourism value in the area are concentrated in the cliffs around the Lushan Mountain, especially in the Shandong side. In fact, there are more than 20 famous waterfalls, which combines the beauty of form, beauty, illusion, dynamic beauty and beauty. Lushan Waterfall and Yandang Longyan and Huangshan Stalagmite are also called “the world’s three strange”. The waterfall of Bishan in Lushan has almost a common feature in its spatial structure. There is a stone-shaped crack at the upper end, and the main body of the waterfall in the middle. There is a Bitan under the waterfall.
There are many cliffs in Lushan Mountain, the vegetation is developed, the rainfall is abundant, the streams are clustered, and the waterfall is particularly developed. For example, there are 7 waterfalls in the 800-meter stream among the red mountains and valleys. The largest is the Sandiequan Waterfall, with a drop of 150 meters. Xiufeng’s Huangyan Waterfall was also famous for Li Bai’s poem “Rizhao incense burner produces purple smoke, and the waterfall is hanging in front of the river. The flow is three thousand feet straight down, and it is suspected that the Milky Way falls for nine days” and is famous in the world. The Guliangquan Waterfall in Kangwang Valley has the best water quality. The Tang Dynasty tea Dr. Lu Yu was named the first spring in the world. The rock next to the Scissorsxia Waterfall is also scissor-shaped folds (spikes). The rocks next to the Wulong Waterfall form a natural stone-like twist, and the tourist tastes are very high.
The landscape of Lushan Mountain is quite special. It is a multi-genetic composite geomorphic landscape, which is formed by superposition of fault block mountain tectonic landscape, ice erosion landform landscape and flowing water landform landscape.
At the same time as the formation of the ancient Poyang Lake in the Late Cretaceous, the rudimentary form of the Lushan fault block mountain was formed. In the Paleogene and Neogene Himalayan orogeny, the majestic and severe fault of the Lushan fault block was formed.
After the Quaternary Ice Age of 3 million years later, Lushan had produced four glacial periods. The erosive effect of this maritime mountain glaciers was particularly strong. On the basis of the tall fault block, a series of ice eclipses were formed. Landform landscape, blade ridge, ice bucket, hail, U valley, peak and so on.
In the late glacial period of 10,000 years, due to the abundant rainfall of the Lushan Mountain and the development of the water system, under the strong erosion of the flowing water, the tectonic geomorphology and ice-eroded landforms of the fault block have been strongly transformed, forming a series of unique water-flow landscapes, fault cliffs. The glacier blade has become a steep peak, and the U Valley has formed new peaks and valleys and gorges. The cliffs and cliffs are extremely majestic, laying the foundation for the formation of a large number of waterfalls.
Structural erosion and accumulation of landforms
The landforms in the Zhuling area on the outer edge of the western part of Lushan Mountain are almost all formed by depressions at the anticline and become high mountains and mountains. The hard Devonian glutenite constitutes the main peak of the mountain, which is similar to Zhangjiajie in western Hunan, but far from Zhangjiajie is steep and steep, so its tourism value is far less than that of Zhangjiajie.
Along the banks of the Poyang Lake and the south bank of the Yangtze River, there are a series of late Pleistocene sand mountains, such as Songshan Mountain, Shaling Mountain, Laoye Temple, Meijiazhou and other places. It is the riverbed sediment of the Late Pleistocene in the ancient Minjiang River. It was also blown up by the squally winds in the dry period to the sand hills on the low hills of the river bank. The sand layer is more than 20 meters thick, forming a unique desert tourism landscape in the lakeside area. The Shaling Mountain and the Laoye Temple are the most typical.
On the shore of Lulin Lake, there is a villa-style building with a combination of Chinese and Western. That was the place where Mao Zedong lived during the Lushan Mountain. He was called Lulin Villa. Because the room number is No. 1, it is also called “Lulin No.1″. The villa was built in 1961, with a single-storey flat roof and an inner courtyard with a total area of 2,700 square meters. In 1984, it was changed to a museum site. The Quaternary Glacier Showroom was specially set up in the Lushan Museum to collect and display a large number of physical specimens, pictures and literature. In 1988 and 1996, it was revised twice to enrich the new content. Over the years, it has provided a good place for scientific research, teaching and understanding of geosciences for geology scientists, college teachers and students and tourists. After the opening of the Lushan National Geological Park and the World Geopark, we will introduce the geological landscape, geological history and other landscapes of the Geopark to Chinese and foreign tourists, educate the geological sciences and environmental knowledge, and disseminate knowledge of the Earth Science. The Lushan World Geopark Management Committee Based on the original “Quaternary Glacier Showroom”, the Lushan Geological Museum was established to further enrich the exhibition content, adding “Geological History Exhibition of Lushan Area”, “Lushan Complex Geomorphic Landscape Display Room” and “Lushan National (World) Geological Park Multimedia CD-ROM Demo” and so on. The Lushan Geological Museum now has 4 exhibition rooms, including 52.7 square meters in the exhibition history of Lushan Geological Evolution, 18.6 meters in the exhibition line, and two exhibition rooms, “Formation of Metamorphic Nuclear Complex and Fault Block Mountain” and “Composite Landform Landscape”. The area is 30.36 square meters, the former is 15.7 meters, the latter is 12.8 meters, the exhibition room of “The Quaternary Glacier Relics of Lushan Mountain” is 50.49 square meters, and the exhibition line is 24.56 meters. The “Lushan Geological Museum” exhibition mark, the “Lushan World Geopark” exhibition mark and the foreword in both Chinese and English are all on the outdoor corridor wall of the “History of Geological Evolution of Lushan Mountain”.
The complexity of the natural environment of the Laoshan Mountains provides an advantageous environment for preserving the ancient types of plants and introducing new plant species. Therefore, Lushan has abundant plant germplasm resources and endangered species. There are 2155 species of wild plants in Lushan. There are 40 main plants found in Lushan for the first time or named after Lushan Mountain. The Songshan Botanical Garden has been introduced to Jinsong for more than 60 years. It is one of the three famous garden species in the world. The five-jawed pheasant of Guizong Temple is said to be the hand of the Shusheng Wang. It is also known as the “羲之樟”.
Lushan is rich in wild animals and rare animals. 171 species of birds. The Poyang Lake on the top of Mount Lushan also has a world-famous migratory bird sanctuary. The rare animal leopard is distributed on the top of the mountain. There are more than 2,000 species of insects in Lushan. There were 33 species of insects first discovered in Lushan or named after Lushan. There are 139 species of fish in Poyang Lake. Representative animals include big cockroaches (national second-class protected animals), spiny frogs, crickets, etc. The protected area found the largest crane group in the contemporary world, with more than 4,000 white cranes and white-headed cranes.
Due to abundant rainfall, vegetation development, surface diving and rock fissure water on the mountain, the Lushan Geological Park is rich in confined water. There are 20 major rivers flowing radially to the Poyang Lake or the Yangtze River. The water volume of each river is very abundant, and it is continuous for many years and the water quality is good. The Gushan Lake, Qingshan Lake and Luoxing Lake in the Geopark are all part of Poyang Lake, with large amount of water and no pollution. The water resources are extremely rich and it is a major feature of the Lushan Geopark.
History and culture
The birthplace of literature
For a long time, people have created a Lushan culture with rich connotations and far-reaching influence. In 126 BC, Sima moved to “Southern Mount Lushan” and put “Lushan” into “Historical Records.” A group of cultural celebrities such as Tao Yuanming and Xie Lingyun in the Eastern Jin Dynasty carried out a large number of literary and artistic creation activities in Lushan, making Lushan the birthplace of Chinese idyllic poetry, the source of Chinese landscape poetry, and the birthplace of Chinese landscape painting. Since then, more than 1,500 writers, politicians, and artists such as Li Bai, Bai Juyi, Su Shi, and Wang Anshi have successively boarded and lived in Lushan, and wrote more than 4,000 poems and songs.
Gao Weihui Yuan
In the 4th century AD, Gao Weihui was at the Linlin Temple in Shandong Province, and he pioneered the pure land method of viewing Buddha. It represents the general trend of Buddhism in China. In addition, there are many Tibetan Buddhism, Taoist temples and Taoist temples in Laoshan. There are many religious and sectarian churches in Islam, Christianity and Catholicism. It is a religious mountain with a combination of 6 teachings.
The Lushan Bailudong Academy, the first of the four major academies in ancient China, represents the rejuvenation of the philosopher Zhu Xi and the science trend of China in the past 700 years. Zhu Xi praised this place as a good place for “there is no market, no mountain spring”.
In the 1930s, geologist Li Siguang first discovered the ruins of China’s Quaternary glaciers in Lushan, thus creating the Chinese Quaternary glacier doctrine.
In 1996, Lushan successfully declared the world cultural landscape. In April 2001, it was approved as the National Geopark. On February 13, 2004, UNESCO was named the first World Geopark.
Lushan is known as the “God of Immortals”. Very early, there were famous Taoist alchemists here, and there are still remains of early Taoist activities. The most famous ones are Jane and the Taiping Palace. Donglin Temple was once the “Tianxia Classic Temple” and was listed as the National Key Temple of the Iron Buddha Temple.
Since the ancient times, there have been Bailudong Academy and Tunxi Academy. Bailudong Academy was once one of China’s “four major colleges”, and Huifeng has spread far and wide, affecting both at home and abroad. Up to now, 100 feet long and Panasonic, 157 Tongbei inscriptions, 57 square cliffs inscribed in the tranquility exudes the feeling of inexhaustible traditional culture.
From the end of the 19th century to the 1930s, missionaries and businessmen from 17 countries in the world flocked to Lushan, and built more than a thousand villas with various styles. There are still 636 houses preserved. Stepping into the Lushan villa group is like entering the World Villa Museum. The villas in Lushan occupy a pivotal position in the history of world mountain villa architecture.
Lushan is the birthplace of the Quaternary glaciation theory, and there are Quaternary glacial relics under the mountains. The Lushan Botanical Garden, which is engaged in plant research, was established on August 20, 1934. It is the earliest subalpine botanical garden established in China.
Development and construction
In 1982, Lushan was approved as a national key scenic spot.
In December 1996, Lushan was listed on the World Heritage List as a “world cultural landscape”.
In February 2004, Lushan was included in the world’s first batch of world geoparks.
On January 9, 2005, two major institutions, the International Geopark and Social and Economic Development Promotion Association, and the Asian Geopark Network Office, settled in Lushan.
Jiangxi Lushan World Geopark is the only world-class mountain in the world with the honorary title of “World Cultural Landscape” and “World Geological Park”.
Since ancient times, Lushan has been protected by emperors and officials since the ancient times: in 404 AD, the Eastern Jin Dynasty Taixuan Xuan ordered Shasha, “Wuyishan morality, not in the search for the list”; Mingcheng Zushang was aimed at the mountains and the mountains; the Qing government set up police in Guling Department. The government of the Republic of China established a forestry institution in Lushan in 1911 and the Lushan Administration in 1926.
It was listed as the first batch of national key scenic spots, and established the Jiangxi Laoshan Scenic Area Administration and Lushan Nature Reserve. Lushan entered a new era of scientific protection and orderly development. The Lushan World Geopark Management Committee has developed a series of conservation plans to classify and implement grading management of 159 important geological heritage landscapes.
Popular science research
In 2005, Lushan completed the construction of the World Geopark database. The website is published through the official website of the Beijing Geological Heritage Office of the International Union of Geological Sciences. In 2006, the Lushan World Geopark cooperated with the Institute of Geomechanics of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences to carry out a series of scientific research. In July 2011, the scientific research base of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences was listed in Lushan, and will conduct research and teaching activities in Lushan for a long time.
Since 2004, a summer adolescent geography summer camp has been held every summer to popularize knowledge. In 2011, the “Summer Camp for Science and Technology Culture of College Students in the Mainland, Taiwan and the Mainland” was held. As early as 1978, the “Quaternary Glacier Showroom” was specially set up in the Lushan Museum, and then it was converted into the Lushan Geological Museum on the basis of it. In 2012, the new Lushan Geological Museum was established.
Scientific research value
Experts and scholars from many countries and countries in the world have come to Lushan to engage in Quaternary glacier geology, crustal development history, crustal movement properties, paleogeographic environment changes, biodiversity conservation, plant taxonomy, phytochemistry, pharmacology Teaching and research in the fields of migratory birds, nature conservation, alpine flowers, cloud microphysics, mountain climate and health. The Lushan Botanical Garden has 20 to 30 college and university students each year to internships; it has been awarded the “National Youth Science Education Base” by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Central Propaganda Department, the Ministry of Education, and the China Association for Science and Technology, and has been designated as an educational base by Tongji Medical University. It was designated as a teaching practice base by the biology major of Huazhong Agricultural University.
The transportation of Lushan Mountain is very convenient. The three-dimensional transportation network of Lushan has been formed by aviation, water transport, railway and highway.
The west side of the geological park is the Beijing-Kowloon Railway. Geological Park Center is located 32 kilometers from Jiujiang Railway Station and 36 kilometers from Laoshan Railway Station. It is 35 kilometers away from Jiujiang Airport, 110 kilometers away from Nanchang Airport and only 34 kilometers away from Jiujiang Ship Terminal. Jiujiang City to Nanchang City, Wuhan City, Jingdezhen City, Hefei City, Nanjing City, Shanghai have direct highways.