Geographic location:Songpan County, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province
Famous scenery:Huanglonggou, Huanglong Temple
Suitable for the play season:September to October is the best time to travel
Huanglong Scenic Area is located in Songpan County, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. The area is 700 square kilometers. It is the only well-protected plateau wetland in China, 100 kilometers away from Jiuzhaigou and 1700-5588 meters above sea level.
Huanglong is known as the “four musts” of colored pools, snow-capped mountains, canyons and forests. Together with the beaches, ancient temples and folk customs, it is called “seven musts”. The scenic spot is composed of Huanglonggou, Danyunxia, Munigou, Xuebaoding, Xueshanliang, Hongxingyan and Xigou. The main landscape is concentrated in Huanglonggou, which is about 3.6 kilometers long. The gully is covered with calcium carbonate. It is arranged in terraces and is well-known for its rich flora and fauna resources. It enjoys the reputation of “World Wonders” and “Human Yaochi”. In 1992, it was included in the World Natural Heritage List. In addition to the alpine landscape, you can find a variety of different forest ecosystems, as well as limestone structures, waterfalls and hot springs. There are many endangered animals in the area, including giant pandas and Sichuan-nosed golden monkeys.
Huanglong is dominated by the surface travertine landscape with large scale, exquisite structure and rich colors. It is famous for its rare karst landforms. On October 9, 2016, the National Tourism Administration released the “Red and Black List” for the 11th holiday tour, and the best scenic spot in the comprehensive order of Huanglong Scenic Spot. It is the World Natural Heritage, the World Man and Biosphere Reserve, the “Green Globe 21” certificate, the national AAAAA level tourist attraction, and the national key scenic spot.
Huanglonggou, the main scenic spot, is like the image of the “dragon” in the minds of Chinese people. It has always been described as “the human pool” and “the symbol of China”. It is respected by the local people of all ethnic groups. The Tibetans call it “Dongri Syrjun”, which means the East Conch Mountain (referring to Xuebao Mountain) and the golden Haizi (referring to Huanglonggou).
Development and construction
In October 1982, Huanglong was approved by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China as a national key scenic spot.
In December 1992, Huanglong was officially listed on the World Heritage List by UNESCO as a natural heritage.
In 1997, it was listed by the United Nations as the World Man and Biosphere Reserve.
In February 2001, the company won the “Green Globe 21” certificate, and Huanglong has become a world-class scenic spot with three crowns.
The Huanglong Scenic Area is located in the southern section of the Songshan Mountains in Songpan County, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in northern Sichuan Province. It is a transitional zone from the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to the Sichuan Basin. The scenic area ranges from 103°25′59′′ to 104°8′45′′ east longitude, and 32°30′53′′ to 32°54′17′′ north latitude. The highest peak of Mount Lushan, Xuebao Peak, with an altitude of 5,588 meters, is the most eastern point in China where modern glaciers exist. The total area is 700 square kilometers and the outer protection zone is 640 square kilometers.
The overall feature of the Huanglong area is the Shanxiong Gorge. Its characteristics are that the peaks are like forests, the ridges are vertical and horizontal; the canyons are deep and the cliffs are steep; the branches are rivers and the south is north. The elevation range of Huanglong is 1700-5588 meters above sea level. Generally, the relative height difference between peaks and valleys is more than 1000 meters. Most of the 3700-4000 meters are ice-eroded landforms. It is magnificent and majestic. The Huanglong multi-karst gorge has a variety of spaces, steep cliffs, rich water features and lush vegetation. According to the shape of the bottom of the valley, there are several species such as the Danyun Karst Creek Gorge, the Zhazi Calcium Forest Gorge and the Erdaohai Calcium Daihu Gorge. The source of the Minjiang River in Huanglong is a trunk-like dendritic water system. The upper riverbed is wide and the downstream canyon is deep, the south side tributaries are arranged in a straight line, and the north side tributaries are arranged steeply, forming a unique width of the upper and lower, and the north straight. Jiangyuan style.
Huanglong is at the intersection of the units in the spatial position. It is structurally located at the junction of the Yangtze Plateau, the Songpan-Ganzi fold system and the Qinling geosyncline wrinkling system. The topography is the second terrace of China’s second landform, the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the western Sichuan Basin. Mountain junction. In the scenic area, it is the east-west snow-mountain fault, the Hu-tooth fault and the north-south-south fault, the Zhazishan fault, and the cross-cutting fault, and the lithology, sequence, sedimentary and other paleogeographic conditions of the Huanglong headquarters and the Munigou scenic spot There are large differences in stratigraphic structure and structural traces.
The Huanglong Scenic Area is a monsoon climate type with plateau temperate sub-frozen zone. The climate is characterized by: humid and cold, long winter in the year, few days in summer, and connected in spring and autumn. The annual average temperature is 7 °C, the sunshine is sufficient, the fog is much in the morning and evening, and the rainfall is concentrated in May to August every year. The annual average temperature of Huanglong Scenic Area is 5-7 °C, the hottest July average temperature is 17 °C, and the coldest January average temperature is 3 °C. The best time to visit Huanglong is from April to November every year.
The ecological system of Huanglong Nature Reserve is complex and diverse, with high habitat diversity. The natural conditions in the territory are superior, the mountains are tall, the valleys are deep, and the altitude is large. The habitats in the area can be roughly divided into 8 types according to the habitat types of animals.
From bottom to top are: evergreen broad-leaved forest, low mountain secondary shrub, needle-broad mixed forest, coniferous forest, alpine shrub meadow, and also streams, houses and bare rock. In general, mammals are the most abundant species due to their high habitat diversity and abundant food. Followed by the secondary mountain shrubs, followed by coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests, coniferous forests, and alpine shrub meadows. The least species are found in bare rock, houses and stream habitats.
Huanglong travertine landscape, complete types, travertine dam, calculus, travertine, travertine, travertine, travertine, travertine, travertine, travertine, travertine, travertine Taiwan, travertine bonsai and so on, is a veritable natural travertine museum. It is huge: Huanglonggou has a travertine distribution of 3,600 meters, the longest travertine is 1,300 meters long and 170 meters wide; the number of pots is more than 3,400; the edge dam is up to 7.2 meters; Hua Waterfall is as high as 93.2 meters. These are the best in China and the world is unparalleled. It is concentrated: In the vast carbonate strata of the whole region, the travertine wonders are concentrated only in the four valleys of Huanglonggou, Zhazigou and Erdaohai, with an elevation of 3000~3600 meters. The process is complete: Huanglonggou, Erdaohai and Zhazigou are located in the modern formation period, the recession period and the later stage of the travertine, respectively, which provide a complete scene for the study of the succession process of travertine. It combines ingeniously: in the 3,600-meter section of Huanglonggou, it is followed by almost all types of travertines, and cleverly forms a golden “dragon” that plunges into the snowy mountains and seas.
The Huanglong area is more than 3,000 meters above sea level, and there are extensive Quaternary glacial relics. Among them, the Xuebaoding area, the main peak of Lushan Mountain, is the most typical. It is characterized by a comprehensive range, densely distributed, and most eastward. The area has a wide range of mountains and peaks, and there are 7 peaks at a height of 5,000 meters. Among them, there are three modern glaciers such as Xuebaoding (5588m), Xuelanshan (5440m) and Mendongfeng (5058m). This area has become the modern glacier preservation area in the easternmost part of China. The main glacial remnants have angular peaks (distributed above 4000 meters above sea level), blade ridges (over 3,800 meters), and ice-cleared lakes (more than 3,900 meters); the main hail landforms have final quality, middle ridges, lateral ridges, Bottom rafts, etc.; distributed in various glacial valleys, of which the final distribution of final debt is 3000 ~ 3100 meters, 3550 ~ 3650 meters, 3750 ~ 3850 meters. Modern glaciers and ancient glacial relics and their relationship with travertine have important scientific research value.
There are 221 species of 54 orders and 54 families of vertebrate in the protected area, including 6 species of mammals, 6 orders, 18 families, 56 species, 12 birds, 29 families, 156 species, reptiles, 2 orders, 3 families, 5 species, amphibians, 2 orders, 4 families and 5 species. 3 kinds of fish. The state protects animals at the first level: giant pandas, golden monkeys, takins, clouded leopards, leopards, green-tailed rainbow trouts, and jade belt sea eagle; second-class pandas, golden cats, rabbits, lynx, sambar, red deer, Lin Biao, goral, rock sheep, red-bellied horned owl, Tibetan horse chicken, Tibetan snow chicken, bloody scorpion, blue horse chicken and so on. Protected areas can serve as in situ gene banks for genetic resources of certain wild animals.
The characteristics of the protected area animals are: rare and rare, belonging to 23 kinds of national first and second level protection; the mixed phenomenon of animals in the north and south is obvious, because the mountains and river valleys in the area are north-south, and the warm and humid air flow in the valley is deep in the valley, which is beneficial to the south. The fauna is distributed to the north and to the heights. The unique animals in China include giant pandas, golden monkeys, takins, and thymic spurs that are only distributed in the Hengduan Mountains.
According to incomplete statistics, there are 84 families and 1,300 species of plants in the reserve. It has the characteristics of mixed species of north and south. There are national protected plants in the area, such as fragrant trees, saplings, Sichuan redwoods, hemlocks, yews, as well as endemic or endemic plants in China such as: snow lotus, wheat hanging spruce, magnolia, dense branch cypress , Songpan scorpion cypress. There are many species of spruce and fir in the protected area, and the arrow bamboo is widely distributed, which is a good place for giant pandas to inhabit.
From the bottom of Huanglonggou (2000 meters above sea level) to the top of the mountain (3800 meters above sea level), there are subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests, mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests, subalpine coniferous forests, and alpine shrub meadows.
Mineral water resources
Huanglong mineral water is exposed in the Munigou scenic spot. The flow rate is 0.58 liters/second, the water temperature is 9.5 to 9.8 ° C, the pH is 6.3, and the salinity is 1159 mg/liter. Appraised by the relevant state departments, it is a natural drinking mineral water for strontium and carbon dioxide. In addition, the Erdaogou in the Munigou Scenic Area also exposes a hot spring group with a water temperature of about 22 °C. The water column of Daquan spurts up to 30 cm and contains sulfur (H2S) at 0.16 ml/L.
It is located at Xuebaoding, the main peak of Lushan Mountain. It is the source of the Lancang River, Wuyuan Bridge. It is a gentle slope with a length of 7.5 kilometers and a width of 1.5 kilometers. The ditch is covered with milky yellow rocks, and it looks like Huanglong in the valley of the jungle. The name of Huanglonggou comes from this. In the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644), Huanglong Temple was built here to enshrine the Huanglong. Huanglonggou is famous for its “singular, unique, beautiful, quiet” natural landscape. It resembles the image of the “dragon” in the minds of Chinese people. The Tibetans call it “Dongri Searle”, meaning the East. Hailuo Mountain (referring to Xuebaoding) and the golden Haizi (referring to Huanglonggou), and followed the annual transfer of the temple, which affects the people of all ethnic groups in the northwestern provinces and autonomous regions. The continuous calcification section of Huanglonggou is 3,600 meters long, the longest calcified beach is 1,300 meters long and 170 meters wide; the number of pots is more than 3,400; the side stone dam is up to 7.2 meters.
Entering the Huanglong Scenic Spot, the first thing we see is a group of exquisite and unique water pools – Yingbin Pool. The pools vary in size, their shapes are strange, the colors are colorful, and they are patchwork. The surrounding mountains are surrounded by trees, the trees are lush, the wildflowers in the mountains are playing, and the butterflies are flying. The mountain path is winding and winding, dotted with the viewing pavilion, adding to the fun.
Say goodbye to the welcome pool, along the winding path of the stack, you can see that thousands of layers of clear water break through the jungle, down the slope, on the rock about 10 meters high, about 60 meters wide, rushing out, forming a number Ten trapezoidal waterfalls, such as pearls rolling down, silver flashing; such as water curtains hanging high, clouds transpiration; silky slow flow, stretch and elegant; such as bead curtains flashing, graceful grace. There is a steep cliff behind the waterfall, which is mostly horse-like and calcified calcification. It is condensed and golden, making the whole waterfall look magnificent. After being dyed by the afterglow of the sun, it reflects different colors. As far as the color is coming from the sky, it is brilliant and dazzling. It is known as the “flying waterfall.”
The body wash is 1273 meters away from the Wuyuan Bridge and is on the second step of Huanglonggou. The travertine flow from the golden sand beach collapsed suddenly and fell into a travertine wall with a height of 10 meters and a width of 40 meters. It is the world’s longest travertine collapse wall. The rushing water flows down from the dike and falls into a magnificent travertine waterfall on the travertine wall. It is very spectacular. The wash hole is located in the lower part of the travertine waterfall.
The bonsai pool consists of a group of nearly one hundred pools with pools and pool jackets. The bank embankment changes with the roots and the topography of the tree, and the embankment is connected to the shore. The living water is homologous and cascaded. The bottom of the pool is yellow, white, brown and gray. The pool surface is clean and dust-free. In the pool, there are wood stone flowers and plants, cypresses and roots, mountain flowers and laughter, and wild fruits. This beautiful landscape, the unique bonsai created by the sky, makes the gardeners stunned.
This landscape, as well as the mirror reflection pool next to the forest, the Po Ruo pool hidden in the azaleas and more than 500 pots, the most colorful pool in the calcified landscape.
About 3.5 kilometers from the mouth of the ditch, there is a Huanglongzhong Temple to allow visitors to rest. According to the “Songpan County”, “Huanglong Temple, Ming Bingma made Ma Chaoyu built, also known as Xueshan Temple. According to legend, Huanglong real people cultivated this road, hence the name. There are three temples in front and back, and the pavilion faces each other. “”
There are three former temples in the ditch, the former temple is the only remaining site; the middle temple has five halls, covering an area of about 5,100 square meters. The existing Guanyin Temple and the ten-story Luohan statue in the temple are located at the end of Huanglonggou at an altitude of 3,558 meters. Square meters, the temple buildings are basically well preserved. According to legend, Huang Long helped the waters to make meritorious deeds, and later generations sacrificed their lives to build temples. The other is that Huanglong repaired the Huanglong Temple because of the cultivation of the Tao. In the main hall of the temple, there is a statue of Huanglong real person wearing a black robe and a serene appearance.
Munigou Scenic Area
The Munigou Scenic Area is located in the southwest of Songpan County and is a new scenic spot in the Huanglong Scenic Area. It combines the beauty of Jiuzhaigou and Huanglong, but it is more primitive and clean, and there is no obstacle to closing the mountain in winter. The mountains, forests, caves and seas in the scenic area are in harmony with each other. The forests and the seas are comparable to the pools in Jiuzhaigou. The calcified pool waterfalls can compete with the Huanglong “Yaochi”.
In the original large forest of Munigou Scenic Area, there is a huge water flow from the 104-meter-high stepped travertine rock mass. The raging roaring seems to be straight down from nine days, and the momentum is extremely spectacular. It is the largest in China. Calcified waterfall – Zhazi Waterfall. Zhazi Waterfall is located at an altitude of 3,270 meters, with a height of 93.2 meters and a width of 35 meters. The upper reaches are lakes and the downstream is a series of stepped river beds. Hundreds of layers of calcified ring-shaped waterfall jade beaded joints, down through the three-stage calcification steps, impact into a huge calcified surface to form a blossoming giant white flower, the waterfall sounds like thunder, sound and shape. On the calcification wall of the second stage of the Great Falls, there is a “water curtain hole”, the water flow in the hole is flying, and the inside of the cave is meteorological.
Splashing jade is a round flat stone platform. When the waterfall pours down from the top of the mountain, it falls on this platform, and the waves splash like white jade. After a steep plank road, you can visit the observation deck in the middle of the waterfall. Looking down from here, it is the “splashing jade” of flying beads splashing jade. Leaving the observation deck, the plank road began to steepen. After a sneak waterfall, you will reach the source of the Sapporo Falls.
Erdaohai is the northern section of the Munigou Scenic Area, separated from the Zhazi Waterfall by a mountain. The name of Erdaohai has a long history and is said to come from two major lakes, Xiaohaizi and Haizizi. “Songpan County” also records: ” Erdaohai, Songpan West, Maanshan, the two seas are connected.”
The Erdao Seaview Area is a narrow and long ravine with a length of 5 kilometers and is connected by a plank road. From the camp area along the boardwalk, you can see Xiaohaizi, Dazizi, Swan Lake, Emerald Lake, Rhino Lake and so on. Each one is like a pearl or a gem. Some are hidden in the jungle; some are exposed to the blue sky. The lake is clear and transparent, the water is like a mirror, and the green forest is reflected in the water, and the scenery of the new year is blue. In the summer and autumn, the lake is full of white water and flowers, and the flowers are difficult to distinguish. The sea and the sea are connected by a plank road, and the intricate gazebo adds a bit of fun to the sea.
Pearl Lake, also known as Bozhu Lake, is said to be the ill bathing pool created by the nine-day fairy who cooks the beads and refines the spring here. The water temperature here is high, even in the harsh winter season when the snow is frozen, the water temperature is around 25 °C. The smell of sulfur at the pool is strong, and people often bathe here. It is said that it can cure skin diseases.
Red star rock
The Red Star Rock Scenic Area is characterized by a large number of strange peaks and different rocky landscapes formed by Quaternary glaciers and glacial dammed lakes. It is rare and has a mysterious color. The Hongxingyan Scenic Area is located on the east side of the Mengla Basin and on the west slope of the Songshan Mountain Range. The scenic spot is high in altitude. It is characterized by a large number of strange peaks and glacial lakes formed by Quaternary glaciers. It is inaccessible and mysterious. color. Located at an altitude of 4,300 meters, the “Red Star Sea” has an asymmetrical five-pointed star shape, which is quiet and beautiful, surrounded by flowers. There is a red cave on the cliff in the middle of the cliff. It is like red blood, and its cause is still unknown. When the wind rises, the cave is hidden in the clouds. When the sun shines, there is a red light that breaks through the clouds and disappears.
Xuebaoding is the main peak of the Lushan Mountain Range. At an altitude of 5,588 meters, it is located 50 kilometers east of Songpan County.
Xuebaoding Mountain has snow all the year round, the mountainside rock is sloping, the gully is vertical and horizontal, and the lake is dotted. The larger Haizi has 108, especially the four seas: the southeastern sea like the mirror, like the southwestern sea of the city, the northwest semi-circular sea shaped like a crescent moon, like the northeast triangle sea reflected by the pyramid. Xuebaoding Mountain has a lot of flowers and grasses, bushes and pines and cypresses. At this time, a large number of precious herbs such as Fritillaria, Rhubarb, and Snow Lotus are grown, and they are also places where rare animals such as Qingyang, Mountain Deer, and Scorpion live and multiply.
The west, north and south sides of the Xuebaoding Mountain Peak are high cliffs, which make the climbers unable to do anything. Although the slope is slower in the east and west, it is also fascinating. The Sino-Japanese mountaineering team climbed the cliff top in 1999. After the inspection, it is believed that this is a famous mountain Baoling with unlimited value in scientific research and development of sports.
Sigou Scenic Area
The Sigou Scenic Area is about 12 kilometers away from Huanglonggou, an open ancient glacier valley. The Mizoguchi area is a flat and open floodplain, and the quaint deep mountain town of Huanglong Township is here. The scenic spot is 2700-4200 meters above sea level, and the terrain is complex and changeable. It has both towering peaks and open river beaches. The virgin forests and glaciers, the earthquake relics have undergone hundreds of millions of years of vicissitudes of life, still maintain the original appearance of the time, and the beautiful pastoral scenery. It is the closest to Huanglonggou, but a completely different style of scenery.
The main natural landscape in the scenic area is the ruins of the Quaternary glaciers. The source of the ditch consists of a singular glacial landform and a modern earthquake disaster landscape. The huge mountain steps that suddenly collapsed, the violent rise of rock faults, are often shocking.
In addition, there is an alpine desert landscape in the ditch, which is similar to the “Gobi Beach” on the plateau. They are the remains of the “Himalaya orogeny” that was strong in ancient times. This is a paradise for tourists who love science and like adventure.
On the watershed is a vast alpine meadow pasture. Standing on the watershed, you can overlook the glacier-blocked lake and the innocent virgin forest at the source of Jiuzhaigou. In ancient times, the famous “Long An Ma Dao” in the northwest of Sichuan passed through here, so there is still a wide horse path in the ditch. In the past few years in 2009, visitors have to get off the horse and go hiking in the ditch to enjoy the natural scenery of the virgin forest and alpine meadow pastures.
Danyunxia has become one of Huanglong’s “five musts” with the scenery of Junxiu Yin Canyon. It is rich in tree species, shrubs and flowers and is a paradise for plant lovers. The peak of the jade shoots in the Danyunxia scenic area starts at the fan hole, stretching for 18.5 kilometers, with a drop of 1,300 meters and a peak-to-valley height difference of 1,000 to 2,000 meters. Here, the winter is white and the mountains are green, especially the red rhododendrons in the spring and the red maples in the autumn. The scene seems to be descending from the sky under the sunset. Dan Yunxia is named after it. Mountains and clouds, trees and winds, Dan Yunxia almost every day, clouds rise from the forest, lingering in the mountains, when the time is hidden. The forest in Danyun Gorge is densely populated. It originates from the Lijiang River in Xuebaoding. It is like a white dragon shaking its head and swaying in the middle of the gorge in the gorge. It is echoed with Huanglong.
Reminder: The Huanglong Scenic Spot with an altitude of over 3,000 meters is one of the highest scenic spots in China. When visitors come to travel, they must be prepared to prevent altitude sickness. It is recommended to take Rhodiola or take it with you 7 days before going to Huanglong. Silently carrying oxygen tablets.
External transportation: You can fly to Jiuhuang Airport in Chuanzhusi Town. The airport is 43 kilometers away from Huanglong. During the tourist season (April-November), there are airport buses from the airport to Huanglong. After about 4 hours, you will drive to Jiuzhaigou. 100 yuan / person. You can also take the shuttle bus from Huangnan Station in Chengdu to Huanglong. The road is full and the road is in good condition.
Tickets: 190 yuan / person in the peak season, 80 yuan / person in the off-season.
Cable car: Up 80 yuan / person, down 40 yuan / person.