Geographic location:Nanyue District, Hengyang City, Hunan Province
Famous scenery:Nanyue Hengshan, Tibetan Buddhist Temple, Nanyue Temple
Opening hours:All weather
Hengshan Scenic Area, located in Nanyue District of Hengyang City, is the main Taoist sacred place of Taoism, with an altitude of 1300.2 meters. Because the climatic conditions are better than those of the other four mountains, it is everywhere Maolin bamboo, green all the year round; exotic flowers and plants, four fragrances, natural scenery is very beautiful, so there is the beauty of Nanyue. The Qing Dynasty Wei Yuan “Heng Yue Yu” said: “Hengshan is like a line, like a mountain, Huashan is like a mountain, and a mountain is like a mountain. Only Nanyue is like a fly.”
Hengshan is northeast-southwest, north from Futianpu Township, Hengshan County, Hengyang City, and south to Hengmu County, Hengyang County, 38 kilometers long. It starts from Jiepai Town of Hengyang County in the west and ends in Nanyue District of Hengyang City. 17 kilometers, with a total area of 640 square kilometers.
The main peaks of Hengshan include Huiyan Peak, Zhurong Peak, Zijiafeng Peak, Tianzhu Peak, Yuelu Mountain, etc. The highest peak Zhurong Peak is 1300.2 meters above sea level. On the northeast slope, east slope and southeast slope of Hengshan, there are 26 rivers, which are injected into Xiangjiang River through the Yisu River, Jingpo River, Wushigang, Longyin Port, Weizhou Port and Bailu Port in Hengyang, Xiangtan and Hengshan counties.
Hengshan Scenic Area is a national key scenic spot, a national civilized scenic tourist area demonstration site and a national AAAAA level tourist area.
According to the Han Dynasty “Ganshi Xing Jing”, in the ancient Kyushu, Zhengnan is the south and Jingshan is the most famous mountain in Jingzhou. Zheng Xuan of the Eastern Han Dynasty explained that the name of Nanyue Hengshan came from the stars in the sky. In the sky, the star is stuck in the tube, and in the lower part, the tube grows and grows. Like a scale, it is necessary to maintain the balance between the two ends, so it is called Hengshan. Because Hengshan corresponds to the wings of the 28 stars in the sky, the degree should be balanced, that is, like the scale, it can weigh the weight of the heavens and the earth, and also maintain the balance between the heavens and the earth, be able to balance the virtues, praise the truth, goodness and beauty of the world, and punish the human world. False and ugly.
Development and construction
In 1982, the Nanyue Hengshan Scenic Area was approved by the State Council to be included in the list of the first batch of national key scenic spots;
In 2000, it became the first batch of 4A-level tourist areas in China;
In 2001, it won the national top prize and the only national civilized scenic tourist area in Hunan.
In February 2006, it was selected into the first national natural and cultural double heritage list;
In 2006, it was named one of the 50 places that China is most worthy of foreigners to visit;
In March 2007, it became the first batch of 5A scenic spots in China;
On August 1, 2007, Hengshan Scenic Area was approved as a national nature reserve by the State Council;
In 2008, it was rated as one of the top ten scenic spots in China.
Hengshan Scenic Spot is located in the important comprehensive transportation hub of the country and the important town of Zhongnan, Nanyue District, Hengyang City, Hunan Province. It was originally under the Hengshan County of Hengyang City. The locals refer to Hengshan County as the Hengshan County, while the locals in Hengshan Mountain are called Nanyue Mountain. Good to say Nanyue Mountain. It is 27°2′～27°26′ north latitude and 112°33′～112°47′ east longitude. The Hengshan Basin is south of Hengshan and the hilly area of Xiangzhong in the east.
The main parts of the mountain body of Hengshan Scenic Spot are: the peak of the forest-like granite block is located at an altitude of 1000 meters. The above is the rock mass of the Hengshan granite, which is produced by the rock-bearing rock. It rises several times and is strongly weathered and washed by the slope. In the range of no more than 20 kilometers long and no more than 20 kilometers wide, there are 19 over-kilometer mountains that form a peak-like mountain. The middle and low mountains of the knife-shaped granite are located at an altitude of 300-1000 meters. They are arranged in asymmetric ribs on both sides of the main ridge of Hengshan, east-west, parallel to the north and south. The ridge on the side of the ridge extends 4 to 5 kilometers to the west, and the ridge on the east side extends 2 to 3 kilometers to the east. The height is stepped down from the base, and the river is cut down very sharply. The ridge is sharp like a blade, the slope is steep, and the valley is secluded. The metamorphic rocks with steep ridges are located at an altitude of 200-800 meters, adjacent to the south and north ends of the granite mountains. They form an important part of the Hengshan Mountains. For example, the peak of the southern tip is 951 meters above sea level, and the northern end of Tianma Mountain is 422 meters above sea level.
The Hengshan Scenic Area is a subtropical monsoon humid climate type. In winter, the Hengshan scenic spots are mostly controlled by the dry and cold air masses of Eurasia. The cold currents in the north are frequented southward, causing the snow and ice to freeze and the climate is relatively cold and humid. In summer, most of them are low-latitude ocean warm and humid air masses, warm and high wet weight; at the turn of spring and summer, The Hengshan Scenic Area is in the transition zone of alternating cold and warm air. The front, shear line and cyclone activities are frequent, resulting in damp and rainy weather, and the weather is changeable. During the summer, the subtropical high ridge height controls the Xiangdong and Xiangzhong areas. It is very hot and hot. During the year, it is generally the coldest in January and the hottest in July. The average temperature of Hengshan Scenic Area is 17.6 °C. The winter is warmer, with an average temperature of 5.3 °C in January. The average temperature in spring and autumn is between 17 and 19 °C, and the autumn temperature is slightly higher than the spring temperature. The summer temperature is higher, and the average temperature in July and August is between 28.6 and 29.5 °C. The annual rainfall of Hengshan Scenic Area is about 1553.5 mm. The guarantee rate of precipitation greater than 1000 mm is above 90%. From April to September, the average precipitation was 820 mm, accounting for 61% of the annual precipitation.
The Hengshan Scenic Area is rich in biological resources and has a wide variety. There are 152 species of genus Brassicaceae in 48 families and 101 genera, and 2,666 species of 144 families and genus of vascular plants, including 1,807 species of 767 genera of wild plants, 119 species of key protected plants at national and provincial levels, including 21 species of national first-class protected plants. There are silver fir, metasequoia, bald fir, phoenix tree, golden flower tea, southern yew, Bole tree, long-slung magnolia, etc., and 67 national second-class protected plants. It has the world’s unique natural distribution plant fluffy acacia and Hengshan hoofed fern. There are 529 species of endemic plants in China, of which 17 are plant model specimens collected from Hengshan. There are 109 kinds of 3781 strains in 45 families of ancient and famous trees. There are 173 species of 83 genera and 37 families of fungi. There are many types of forest vegetation in Hengshan Hengshan. There are 7 vegetation types and 21 groups, including subtropical coniferous forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, evergreen deciduous broad-leaved forest, bamboo forest, evergreen shrub, deciduous shrub and mountain top grass. A large area of plantation forests of Pinus massoniana, cedar, Chinese fir, and bamboo, and secondary forests mainly composed of the genus P. genus, G. chinensis, Camellia, Brassica, Rhododendron, and Hengshan Hengshan Scenic Area 3/4 of the area.
The wildlife resources of Hengshan Scenic Area are increasing year by year. There are 184 species of 48 orders and 48 species of wild animals, and 28 species of rare and endangered animals, including 1 grade I and 22 grade II. China’s priority protection animals are endemic to China. 4 species of thrush, brown Headed bird, white-headed pheasant, yellow-bellied tit. The more famous wild animals include Chinese sturgeon, giant salamander, red Chinese sturgeon, silver ring snake, pangolin, wild boar, gray chest bamboo chicken and so on. The insects in Hengshan are mainly forest insects, with a total of 1835 species of 186 families and 17 orders.
The Hengshan Scenic Area is rich in groundwater resources, mainly based on fissure water. According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 300 spring wells in Hengshan Scenic Area, and the average recharge modulus of groundwater is 150,000 to 200,000 cubic meters per square kilometer. The annual total is about 2730~ 36.4 million cubic meters.
There are no large and medium-sized water conservancy projects in the area, and the distribution is extremely uneven. Most of them are in Qianshan. There are 8 small reservoirs in the whole area, with a normal storage capacity of 4.88 million cubic meters, 1,700 mountain ponds and a water storage capacity of 2.1 million cubic meters. The reservoir and mountain ponds have a large storage coefficient, and the total annual water storage capacity is about 9.265 million cubic meters. Another Hengshan Xinglong Reservoir is under construction, with a total designed storage capacity of 2.94 million cubic meters and a normal storage capacity of 2.77 million cubic meters.
The total area of Hengshan Scenic Area is 11991.6hm2, all of which are ecological public welfare forests. The forest coverage rate is 78.8%, of which 90.7% is in the core area, 76.6% in forest land, 20.6% in shrub land, and 2.5% in unforested land. The nursery land accounts for 0.1%, and the total standing stock volume is 425,803 cubic meters. The proportions of young forests, middle-aged forests, near-mature forests and mature forests in public welfare forests were 39.87%, 27.06%, 21.81%, and 11.26%, respectively. The dominant species in Hengshan Scenic Area are fir, masson pine and broad-leaved trees. According to the 2005 survey, the area of forest land in the whole area is 15114.4 hectares, accounting for 83.6% of the total land area of the whole district, including 10076.0 hectares of forest land; 683.7 hectares of sparse forest land; 3900 hectares of shrub land; 429.5 hectares of undeveloped forest land; 21.9 hectares; 2.7 hectares of suitable forest land; 0.6 hectares of auxiliary forest land. The forest coverage rate is 77.8%, and the forest greening rate is 77.78%. The stock of standing timber reached 983,400 cubic meters, and the total number of standing bamboos was 6,779,800. There are 7 173 hectares of original secondary forests in the whole district.
The land types of Hengshan Scenic Area are divided into five types, namely, red soil, mountain yellow soil, mountain yellow brown soil, paddy soil, and mountain meadow land (vegetable garden soil), and six sub-categories. Due to the large vertical variation of Hengshan Hengshan climate, the vertical distribution of soil is obvious. According to the survey results of land use status of the Ministry of Land and Resources, the total land area in 2010 was 17,927.78 hectares.
Zhu Rong, Zi Gai, Tianzhu, Shijie and Furong are known as “Hengyue Wufeng”. Li Baishi “returns to blow the five peaks of snow, often flying flowers and falling into the Dongting.” Du Fu’s poem “Zhu Rong Wufeng Zun, the peaks and peaks are low.” Covered five peaks towering, is the representative of Hengshan.
Zhu Rongfeng, with an elevation of 1289.8 meters, is located at 112°41′05′′ east longitude and 27°18′6′′ north latitude. It is located in the Nanyue District of Hengyang City and is the highest peak and main peak of Hengshan Mountain. Legend has it that Zhu Rong has lived here, and the peak is named.
Zijiafeng, at an altitude of 1028 meters, is located at 112°43’56′′ east longitude and 27°18′45′′ north latitude. It is located in the Nanyue District of Hengyang City. There is Xianrenchi Lake at the top and Dongling Cliff under the peak.
Furong Peak, 114 meters above sea level, is located at 112°41′45′′ east longitude and 27°17′20′′ north latitude. It is located in the Nanyue District of Hengyang City. It is called Rongfeng in ancient times, and there is a square stone on the peak. word.
Shiqifeng, at an altitude of 1189 meters, is located at 112°42′20′′ east longitude and 27°17′30′′ north latitude. It is located in the Hengyang area of Hengyang City. There is a wind cave on the peak of the Leichi Temple. It is said to be the site of Chen Zhenren’s refining Dantai. There is a fairy stone room under the peak, and the sound of the sound is often heard.
Tianzhu Peak, at an altitude of 1061 meters, is located at 112°40’55′′ east longitude and 27°16′10′′ north latitude. It is located in Nanyue District of Hengyang City.
Hengshan Memorial Arch
Nanyue Hengshan Memorial Arch is the mountain gate of Nanyue. It is tall and majestic and magnificent. Nanyue Hengshan Archway was built in 1989. It is 20.4 meters high and 21.7 meters wide. It is the largest stone archway in China. The pattern above is the true figure of Nanyue, which is commonly known as the mountain emblem Suzaku of Nanyue Hengshan. There is a saying that it is said that Nanyue Hengshan is one of the first ancestors of China. Yandi Shennong used the whip to drop the Suzaku, so the Suzaku pattern became the mountain emblem of Nanyue Hengshan. Above the mountain emblem is the relief of “Nanyue Four Musts”, namely: the height of Zhu Rongfeng, the show of the Tibetan Buddhist Temple, the depth of Fangguang Temple and the wonder of the water curtain hole.
The couplet on the stone pillar in the middle of the archway is: Xiuqi to Gaoyu, see the four wonders, the five peaks win the world, the civilization is called the Austrian region, there are two sacred traces, the seven ancestral dojos.
Shenzhou Ancestral Temple
Shenzhou Ancestral Temple is located in the Xinxin Hengshan portal, the Xinxin Ridge, below the Yuban Bridge. It is a large-scale magical temple integrating Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. The Shenzhou Ancestral Temple is divided into four categories: the first is the ancestral home of the hundred families; the second is the 72nd ancestral hall; the third is the three sects and the sages; the fourth is a Buddhist temple.
The founder of Buddhism in Hengshan Scenic Area is Master Hui Si. In Chen Guangda’s second year, he went to Hengshan and led more than forty disciples to create a prajna forest. He promoted the thoughts of one heart, three eyes and Dinghui, and formed his own unique style and unique insights. He became the source of Chinese Tiantai sects and Hengshan. Buddhism and even Chinese Buddhism opened up new horizons. Therefore, Master Hui Si was praised as the founder of Hengshan.
Hengshan is also one of the three centers of the Tang Dynasty. Tang Suzong is the first choice for Hengshan Libini. The Tang dynasty chose 21 people for the Hengming Daming Temple, and Hengshan Hui won the first. The master of Hengshan Yunfeng’s forensic was chosen as the head of the five elders of the Five Sacred Mountains in the Tang Emperor. He has lived in Hengshan for more than 50 years and has a scholarship of 50,000, which was the highest in the country at that time. Xi Cao was called a barrister at the time. After he died, Liu Zongyuan wrote “Tower”. Since there was a group of high-ranking sects in Hengshan, Hengshan Lawzong became one of the three centers in the country.
Hengshan is the most famous Taoist holy land in China. Its Taoist culture has a long history, numerous high roads, rich theoretical theory, and the first sectarianism. It has far-reaching influence and is a valuable human resource of China. Taoism is the first religion to be introduced into Hengshan. According to the Ming Dynasty “Heng Yuezhi” records, the first Taoist who entered Hengshan was Zhang Daolin, the founder of Zhongtian Teachers. He traveled from Tianmu Mountain to Hengshan, and wished to Rongfeng, worshipping the Qingyutan, Guangtiantan, and worshiping Rongjun. However, Zhang Daolin did not pass on the Hengshan Mountain and did not open it. At the time of Emperor Wu of the Jin Dynasty, the famous god Wang Gu and the skin of the gods lived together in the Hengshan Golden Mother Temple. They were refining the inside and outside of Dan for several years, and the fetus was returned to the Yuan Dynasty. They were named by Mr. Tai Hui and Mr. Tai Su, but they also had no sectarian inheritance. I don’t know what to expect. The Taoist figure who had a great influence on Hengshan in the later generations was Wei Weicun, the most influential sect.
Hengshan Shou culture has a long history. The “Star Classic” contains: Hengshan Hengshan corresponds to the star of the 28th star of the comet, and the comet is in charge of the life of the human world. Hengshan is named Shouyue. Song Huizong in the Hengshan Royal Shouyue giant stone inscription, is still in the Hengshan Jin Jianfeng emperor rock. The first sentence of the Emperor Kangxi’s “Re-construction of Hengshan Temple Inscription” is: Hengshan is a giant town in Tiannan, and it should be called Beidou Yuheng, also known as Shouyue, and once again Yuding Hengshan is Shouyue. Historical records of the past are often referred to as Hengshan Hengshan in the mountains of Bishou and the mountains of the Lord Shou.
In China, people often use “Fu Ru Donghai, Shoubi Nanshan” to express their beautiful wishes. The so-called Shoubi Nanshan is originally from the “Book of Songs and Xiaoya”, “If the moon is constant, such as the rise of the sun, such as the life of Nanshan “. The life of a figurative person is as long as that of Nanshan. The Nanshan in the Shoubi Nanshan refers to Hengshan.
The culture of Hengshan Academy began in Tang Suzong, and Minhou Li Bizhi was hidden in the Hengshan Yanxia Peak. The residence collection was extremely rich, and it was said that it was over 30,000 axes. Later, Li Fan’s son Li Fan was in the history of Suizhou and built Hengshan in Hengshan. The academy is now known as the Houhou Academy for commemoration. At about 816-824, Zeng Guofan of the Qing Dynasty wrote in the book “Remastering Hu Wending Gongshu Academy”: “The Academy of the World, Chu Weisheng, Chu Zhishu, Heng Weisheng.”
Anti-Japanese war culture
The first Hengshan military conference was held in November 1938. Chiang Kai-shek decided to accept the proposal of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The two parties jointly established the Nanyue guerrilla cadre training class, and planned to build Nanyue Martyr’s burial burial anti-Japanese warriors. The meeting decided to establish a training course for guerrilla cadres, which is located in Hengshan, Nanyue. It was named the Military Training Committee Nanyue guerrilla cadre training class, and invited the CCP to send personnel to participate. After the decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Ye Jianying and Li Tao, Bian Zhangwu, Wu Shiru, Xue Zizheng, and Li Chong attended the teaching work. Soon the training class was established and renamed the Military Training Committee Military Training Department Nanyue guerrilla cadre training class, Chiang Kai-shek and director, Bai Chongxi, Chen Cheng and deputy director; Tang Enbo, Ye Jianying, two deputy director of education. Later, Tang was transferred to the front line of Henan, and Li Mozhen was appointed as the education chief by Chen Cheng.
The second Hengshan Military Conference was held in Nanyue in late October 1939. The joint meeting of the party and government in various war zones in Jiangnan held a summary of the lessons learned from the Xiangbei battle.
The third Hengshan Military Conference was held on October 16, 1941. The meeting was held for 7 days. The meeting was a sober and correct assessment of the victory of the Xiangbei Battle. Near the Hengshan Banshan Pavilion, there is an old villa of the Chiang Kai-shek official residence, which was built by He Jian, the chairman of the Hunan Provincial Government during the National Government, and is also known as He Gongguan. Between 1930 and 1944, Chiang Kai-shek went to Nanyue and lived here five times with his wife, Song Meiling. In the towering ancient wood behind the house, there is a mysterious fortress of the Hengshan command post hidden in a reinforced concrete structure. Deep down along dozens of steps, in a 20-square-meter underground secret room, the room can accommodate dozens of people, drainage, ventilation, lighting facilities are good, when Jiang Song and the seniors of the Kuomintang defended against the Japanese airstrikes and Command the war of resistance. After more than 60 years of dust sealing, the underground secret room was discovered by the descendants. The highest military command center in Taiwan has continued to use the name of the “Hengshan Command Post”.
New Year’s Day pilgrimage, temple fair, and August incense are the basic forms of Hengshan folk culture. The formation of this culture is inseparable from the unique geographical environment of Hengshan. Hengshan is not only the activity center of Buddha, Confucianism and Taoism in the past, but also the holy place of primitive religion to worship the Hengshan Mountain God. The folk customs and customs that have been created and developed on the basis of religion have finally formed a folk culture with unique styles and characteristics that is different from any place today.
High-speed rail: Beijing-Guangzhou high-speed railway, Xianggui high-speed railway and Shanghai-Kunming high-speed railway are all open. Passengers from all over the country can take the high-speed train to Nanyue Hengshan and get off at Hengyang East Station. They can take the Hengyang Central Bus Station, Wangjiang Bus Station and Nanyue Tourist Line. Kilometer, fare: 18 yuan.
Train: Shanghai South takes the K759 train and gets off at Hengyang Railway Station. Then take the bus from Hengyang Railway Station to Nanyue to Nanyue Hengshan Scenic Area. Ten minutes away, the whole journey is 38 kilometers and the fare is 10 yuan.
Take the train to Beijing-Guangzhou Railway, Xianggui Railway, Hengchaji Railway and get off at Hengyang Railway Station. The fare is 10 yuan. You can take the bus to Chongsheng Jingzhu Square first, and there is CMB to Nanyue District on the side of the square. The fare is 10 yuan.
Car: Hengyang Central Bus Station has a direct bus to Nanyue Bus Station. The journey takes 19 minutes. Then you can take the No. 3 free bus to the Nanyue Mountain Entrance.
Self-driving: Beijing-Hong Kong-Macao Expressway, Tanheng Expressway, Henggui Expressway, Hengshao Expressway, Hengkun Expressway, Hengyan Expressway, and Nanyue Expressway directly to Nanyue Hengshan Scenic Area.