Geographic location:Hangzhou, Zhejiang
Famous scenery:Ten views of the West Lake
Suitable for the play season:March-May, September-November
Hangzhou West Lake Scenic Area is located in the center of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. It is divided into Hubin District, Huxin District, Beishan District, Nanshan District and Qiantang District. The beautiful lakes and mountains and numerous historical sites are famous both at home and abroad. It is also a famous tourist destination in China. For the paradise on earth. The height of the mountains in the scenic area is no more than 400 meters. The ring is arranged on the south, west and north sides of the West Lake. Among them, Wushan and Jewel Mountain are like two arms, one south and one north, extending to the urban area, forming a beautiful space in Hangzhou. contour line. The total area of the scenic spot is 49 square kilometers, including 6.5 square kilometers of lake surface. The lake is the main body. The old name is Wulin Water, Qiantang Lake and Xizi Lake. The Song Dynasty was called the West Lake. It consists of a large number of shrubs and shrubs with different sizes and different sizes; it is mainly plant landscaping, supplemented by pavilions, terraces, buildings, pavilions, corridors, rafts, bridges and ridges. West Lake is famous in Hangzhou, and Hangzhou is named after West Lake. “The world’s West Lake thirty-six, the most beautiful is Hangzhou.” On May 8, 2007, it was officially approved by the National Tourism Administration as a national AAAAA-level tourist attraction. On June 24, 2011, “West Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou, China” was officially listed on the World Heritage List.
Hangzhou West Lake Scenic Area is located in the west of Hangzhou City. It is located in the plain, hills, lakes and rivers. It is surrounded by mountains on three sides and is adjacent to the urban area. It is divided into Hubin District, Huxin District, Beishan District, Nanshan District and Qiantang District. The total area is 49 square kilometers, including 6.5 square kilometers of lake surface. West Lake is famous in Hangzhou, and Hangzhou is named after West Lake.
Since ancient times, “the world’s West Lake thirty-six, the most beautiful is Hangzhou.” The West Lake Scenic Area is dominated by lakes. It consists of a large number of shrubs and shrubs with different sizes and different sizes. It is mainly planted and landscaped, with rich seasonal changes, supplemented by pavilions, terraces, buildings, pavilions, corridors, bridges, bridges. . Surrounded by the lake, surrounded by greenery, the mountains are lush, the bridges are painted with willows and the clouds are caged. Between the mountains, the forest is beautiful, and the stream is deep. The layout of the garden is based on the true mountain water, history and culture, myths and legends, and there are mountains outside the mountains, lakes in the lake, scenery outside the scenery, and gardens in the garden.
It is a subtropical monsoon climate with warm and humid climate and four distinct seasons. The annual average temperature is 16.2 °C, the average summer temperature is 28.6 °C, the average winter temperature is 3.8 °C, and the frost-free period is 230-260 days. The average annual rainfall is 1500 mm, and the average relative humidity is also relatively high, between 70% and 85%. With the weather conditions such as the reverse conversion of winter and summer winds, obvious seasonal changes will occur, forming the climatic characteristics of spring rainy, hot summer heat, cool autumn, and dry winter. The city of Lianhai in the east of the city and the Lianshan in the west have complex and diverse topography and geomorphology. The geographical distribution of light, heat and water is uneven, and the microclimate resources are abundant. However, due to the instability of the monsoon in the duration and intensity of the advance and retreat, it often leads to meteorological disasters.
The mountains around the West Lake are not more than 400 meters in height, but the peaks are stone show, and the forests are beautiful and beautiful. According to the difference in lithology and the height of the mountains, they can be divided into inner and outer circles. There are North Peak, Tianma Mountain, Tianzhu Mountain and Wuyun Mountain in the outer circle. The mountain body is mainly composed of quartz sandstone. The lithology is relatively hard and difficult to weather and eroded. The peaks and peaks are quite beautiful, the rivers are vertical and horizontal, and the flowing water is clear. It is the most probable area of the West Lake. There are Feilaifeng, Nanfeng, Yuhuangshan, Fenghuangshan, Wushan, Geling and Gemshan in the inner circle. The mountain is low. The mountain is mainly composed of limestone, which is easily affected by water flow, multi-cave, haze, water music and stone house. , Zilai, Ziyun and other caves. The mountains around the West Lake are the remnants of the Tianmu Mountain. From the west to the east, there are like dragons and phoenixes. The predecessors have the poems and mountains as “Dragon Flying Phoenix Dance to Qiantang”. These peaks are arranged on the south, west and north sides of the West Lake. Among them, Wushan and Jewel Hill are like two arms, one south and one north, extending to the urban area, forming a beautiful space outline of Hangzhou.
The West Lake is a semi-enclosed still water lake with green water and lakes and mountains. For the nearly equiaxed polygon, the lake is separated by Gushan, Baidi, Sudi, Yanggong Dike, and the size of the area is the West Lake, Xili Lake (also known as “Post West Lake” or “Low Lake”), Beili Lake ( Also known as “Lixi Lake”), Xiaonanhu (also known as “South Lake”) and Yuehu and other five water surface, of which the outer West Lake area is the largest. Gushan is the largest natural island in the West Lake. Sudi and Baidi cross the lake. Three artificial islands, Xiaoweizhou, Huxinting and Mekongdun, stand in the heart of the West Lake, and the Leifeng Pagoda and Gem Mountain in Xizhao Mountain The Baoding Tower is separated from the lake, thus forming the basic pattern of “one mountain, two towers, three islands, three dikes and five lakes”. The lake section is connected by bridge holes. The water area of the West Lake includes 6.5 square kilometers of islands in the lake and 15 kilometers of lakeshore. The deepest is about 5 meters, the shallowest is less than 1 meter, and the average water depth is 2.27 meters. The water body capacity is about 14.29 million cubic meters. Hunan is 3.3 kilometers long and 2.8 kilometers wide from east to west.
Since 2002, Hangzhou City has implemented the West Lake Comprehensive Protection Project to comprehensively protect and rectify the ecological protection, environmental optimization, cultural continuity, and new rural construction of the West Lake, and launched the “New West Lake” eight times in a row. Through the West Lake dredging project and the Qiantang River water into the lake, the water depth of the West Lake increased from 1.65 meters to 2.5 meters, and the water body transparency increased from 50 cm to 73 cm.
In the “West Lake Fish Records” of 1979, it was mentioned that Zhu Yuanding found that there were 32 kinds of fish in the West Lake. In 1981, the West Lake Water Management Office survey showed that there were 51 kinds of fish in the West Lake. In 2004, according to statistics reported by major media, there were more than 20 kinds of fish and shrimp in the West Lake, such as white pheasant, flower bud, squid, squid, and river otter.
Origin of the name
The West Lake was originally a bay that evolved into a lagoon from the bay, forming a common lake from the lagoon. The West Lake was originally a natural lake that was flooded during its development. West Lake is a lake in Qiantang County, so it is called Qiantang Lake (from the Tang Dynasty, “Qiantang” was changed to “Qiantang”), and because there is a lake connected to it in the north, the water level ratio It is low, called the lower lake, so the West Lake is also called the upper lake. The acquisition of the name of the West Lake is the result of the historical development and geographical changes of Qiantang County. Since Qin set up Qiantang County in the mountains of the West Lake, the two counties, the Three Kingdoms, the Two Jins, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the county may have moved out of the mountains and gradually entered the plains. In the eleventh year of Emperor Wendi’s reign (591), Qiantang County moved to Liupu in the foothills of Phoenix, and was promoted to the state of Hangzhou in administrative level.
In the second year of Changqing (822), in order to increase the water storage capacity of the West Lake, Bai Juyi built a lake embankment near the Shijiao Bridge, which is a section of the Children’s Palace, which is a few feet higher than the original lakeshore. It was originally the junction of Shanghu and Xiayuan. The water level of the West Lake was originally higher than that of the lower lake, and Bai Juyi built the embankment, which caused a larger gap between the upper and lower lakes. Although the lake has long been flooded, this artificial terrain gap is still evident in both the current hydropower station and the east to the ring road west of the West Lake near the Children’s Palace. Bai Juyi built the lake embankment in the early ninth century, which is epoch-making for the development of the West Lake. Since then, the nature of the West Lake has changed, and it has evolved from a natural lake to an artificial lake. The West Lake changed the lake due to the embankment of Bai Juyi, and Bai Juyi still called the lake Qiantang Lake. When the name of West Lake became popular, West Lake was already an artificial lake.
After the West Lake became an artificial lake, the rectification of the West Lake during the Wu Yueguo era. After the Northern Song Dynasty, Jingde Wangji of Jingde four years (1007) not only dredged the whole lake, but also built the gate equipment of the West Lake. In the Song Renshou era (1023—1063), Zhizhou Zheng Yu and Shen Yu, the former used tens of thousands of migrant workers, and squandered the lake in the fields, and carried out large-scale dredging; the latter added a place outside the six wells. A new well with a large amount of water supply, known as Shengongjing. In the second year of Xining (1069), Su Shi studied the water conservancy of the West Lake and explored the plan of unblocking Liujing and Shengongjing. In the first year of Yuanyou (1086), Su Shi came to Hangzhou for the second time in the post of Zhizhou. He made a plan to dredge the West Lake, and went to the court to play the chapter of “Opening the West Lake of Hangzhou”. The chapter is the first use of the name “West Lake” in the official document, indicating that the city of Hangzhou has been established entirely east of the West Lake, and the name of the West Lake has become popular.
Old ten scenes
Originated from the title of the West Lake landscape painting in the Southern Song Dynasty. The ten scenes are all good at winning. The common point is that the location is close to the West Lake or just in the lake. Song died in the Yuan, the West Lake ten scenes once cold and depressed, the sights pointed to the sights, or the old traces are difficult. In the Ming Dynasty, the ten scenes were restored and built. In the 38th year of Emperor Kangxi of Qing Dynasty (1699), Emperor Kangxi went south to Hangzhou, and went through the ten scenic spots of the West Lake. He changed the “two peaks into the cloud” to “double peaks in the clouds”; “the thunder peaks” (or “Leifeng” “Xi Zhao” was changed to “Lei Feng Xi Zhao”; “Nan Ping Evening Bell” was changed to “Nan Ping Xiao Zhong”. Although “Xizhao” and “Xiaozhong” have only been changed by one word, they have not been accepted by everyone. Therefore, only in the Qing Dynasty concerning the works of the West Lake, there are two names of changes. After that, everyone wrote poems and lyrics, still use them. First name. After Emperor Kangxi was the inscription on the ten scenes, the local bureaucrats of Zhejiang Province successively named the name of the book, and carved the stone monument and built the pavilion. At this point, the name of the ten scenes has been recorded from the past only, and it has become the landmark of the ten scenic spots. Later, the Qianlong Emperor patrolled Hangzhou in the south, and wrote a poem on each of the ten scenic spots. It was engraved on the stone monument of the scenic spot, making the name of the Shihu Lake more scenic, and the paintings, poems and travels of the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties and the modern times. , photos, ten scenes are recognized as the representative of the West Lake landscape. In addition to the “Lei Feng Xi Zhao”, the 10th scenic spot of the West Lake, 13 years (1924) dumped, the landscape disappeared, and Yu Jiu Jingjing was rehabilitated, restored and expanded, not only with a new look, but also with the content.
Su Di Chun Xiao, Qu Yuan Feng He, Ping Hu Qiu Yue, Broken Bridge Remnant Snow, Liu Lang Wen Yu
Huagang Guanyu, Leifeng Xizhao, Shuangfengyunyun, Nanping Evening Bell, Santan Yinyue
New ten scenes
In 1985, the citizens of Hangzhou and the local people actively participated in the selection and were determined by the expert selection committee after repeated discretion.
Yunqi Bamboo Trail, Manchu Guiyu, Tiger Run Dream Spring, Longjing Tea, Jiuxi Smoke Tree
Wushan Tianfeng, Qidun Huanbi, Huanglong Tucui, Jade Emperor Feiyun, Gem Flowing
At the opening ceremony of the West Expo on October 20, 2007, the results of the “Three Comments on the Ten Scenes of the West Lake” were announced.
Lingyin Zen, Liuhe Tingtao, Yue Tomb Qixia, Hubin Qingyu, Qian Wei
Wansong Book Edge, Yang Di Jing Xing, Santai Yunshui, Meiwu Chunzao, Beijie Dream Search
Since 2002, it has successively built the West Lake South Line Scenic Area, Yanggongdi Scenic Area, Hubin Xinjing District, Meijiawu Tea Culture Village, Beishan Street Historical and Cultural Street District, Liangdi Sandao Scenic Area, Longjing Tea Cultural Scenic Area, Lingyin New Scenic Area, Wushan New Scenic spots, Gaoli Temple, Ba Gua Tian Ruins Park, etc., reconstructed and restored more than 150 historical and cultural attractions. The scenic spots and museums around the lake are free to open. The panorama of the West Lake “one lake, two towers, three islands and three embankments” has returned to the world. The hot south of the West is located in the middle of the Yazhong, and it shows the traditional and modern interactions with Chinese and foreign tourists, and adheres to the moving and welcoming atmosphere of the prosperous West Lake.
In 822, the great poet Bai Juyi, who was over half a hundred years old, came to the beautiful Hangzhou as a thorn history. When he saw the scenery of the West Lake, the spirit was alive. Bai Juyi’s political achievements in Hangzhou are numerous, but the most prominent of them is the dredging of Liujing and Zhuxi Lake. In 824 AD, Bai Juyi was full of three years. When he left, he left a lake for the people of Hangzhou, a levee, Baidi, Liujing Qingquan, and 200 poems.
In 1071, West Lake ushered in another “elder” in her history – Su Dongpo. During the Hang period, the disaster relief and the people and the river. Built today is the world-famous Sudi that communicates with the north and south of the West Lake. A building embankment, a thousand poems.
In 1503, Hangzhou ushered in another sage, Yang Mengsong. It took a full five years to say that the imperial court was re-ruling the West Lake. In March 1508, the old view of the West Lake was restored. Part of the mud that was dug was given to the embankment of the village party sage Su Dongpo, which filled it up by two feet, widened five feet and three feet, and spread the willows on both sides. Sudi regained the inherent scenery of the “six bridges of tobacco”. In another part of the mud, another embankment will be built, and the embankment will be driven in parallel. From Qixia Ridge, around Dingjiashan to Nanshan, Hang people are grateful to the county for their love for the people in the West Lake, and they call it “Yanggong Dike”.
Historically, the famous national heroes Yue Fei, Yu Qian, Zhang Huangyan and the Revolutionary Martyrs of the Revolution of 1911, Xu Xilin, Qiu Jin, Tao Chengzhang, etc. buried between the green mountains and green waters. The West Lake is also a fusion of ancient splendid cultures, ancient cave statues in the mountains of the north and south, inscriptions and architecture in the sights, are the treasures of Chinese art.
The origin of the West Lake has many beautiful myths and legends and folktales. According to legend, a long time ago, the dragons and golden phoenixes in the sky found a piece of white jade on the island of the Milky Way. They have been pondering together for many years, and the white jade has become a bright pearl. Where is the pearl of this orb? Where the trees are evergreen, and the flowers are in full bloom. But then this pearl was discovered by the Queen Mother, and the Queen Mother sent Tianbingtian to take the Baozhu away. Yulong and Jinfeng rushed to Suozhu, and the Queen refused, so there was a fight. The mother’s hand was loose, and the pearl It landed on the earth and became a sparkling West Lake. Yulong and Jinfeng also descended into Yulong Mountain (Jade Emperor Mountain) and Phoenix Mountain, and always guarded the West Lake.
The beauty of the beautiful scenery of the West Lake, the deep victory of Lin Biao, the rich cultural relics and historic sites, the beautiful and moving myths and legends, the natural integration of nature, humanities, history and art.
Among the more than 100 scenic spots in the scenic spot, there are more famous “West Lake Ten Scenes” and “New West Lake Ten Scenes” and “Three Comments on West Lake Ten Scenes”. The West Lake has a large number of historical sites, including 5 national key cultural relics protection units, 35 provincial cultural relics protection units, and 25 municipal cultural relics protection units. There are also 39 cultural relics protection points and various special museums to embellish them. A famous historical and cultural resort.
In 1982, West Lake was rated as a national key scenic spot. The protection of the cultural landscape of the West Lake was officially incorporated into the national heritage protection system.
In 1985, he was selected as one of the “Top Ten Scenic Spots in the Country”.
In 2006, West Lake was included in the list of China’s World Cultural Heritage.
In 2007, West Lake was rated as “National AAAAA Level Scenic Spot”.
On June 24, 2011, “West Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou, China” was officially listed on the World Heritage List.
Hangzhou is famous for its beautiful West Lake landscape. Known as the “paradise on earth”, it expresses the sincere praise of people from all walks of life for this beautiful city. During the Yuan Dynasty, it was praised by the famous Italian traveler Marco Polo as “the most beautiful and luxurious city in the world”. Su Dongpo, a great writer in the Song Dynasty, once wrote: “The world is the best in the West Lake 36.”
The predecessors have poems saying: “The lakes on the shore are strange, the mountains and rivers are suitable for each other, and they are only picturesque, and they don’t know in the paintings.”
West Lake Longjing Tea, Xihu Vinegar, West Lake Wild Duck, West Lake Crisp Fish, West Lake Leek, West Lake Tartare, Xihu Beef Tart, Huijuan Ham Dried Duck Noodles, Sweet-scented Osmanthus fragrans, West Lake Osmanthus, West Lake Honey Emperor Flower and so on.
Smoke-free West Lake
In 2014, the arrival of the National Day holiday, Hangzhou West Lake Scenic Area also ushered in a large number of tourists, but compared to 2013, the “heat” of the West Lake Scenic Area in 2014 has declined. Statistics, in the first two days of the Golden Week, the West Lake Scenic Area welcomed a total of 1,447,500 person-times, including a 3.4% decline on the 1st, and a decrease of 21.81% yesterday. At the same time, there is another welcome change in the West Lake in 2014, that is, the scenic area has become cleaner.
During the National Day of 2013, the “Smoke-free West Lake” environmental protection publicity campaign planned by the Municipal Sanitation and Environmental Sanitation Management Center of Xihu Scenic Area? Seventeen college student volunteers smashed more than 7,000 cigarettes in three hours. On October 2, 2014, the volunteers picked up the cigarette butts again under the same conditions, and the results were much less. In 2013, more than 7,000 cigarettes were seized, compared with 3,200 in 2014.
Single and double number limit
On December 11, 2014, the “Notice of the General Office of the People’s Government of Hangzhou Municipality on Implementing the “Environmental Action” of the Motor Vehicles in the West Lake Scenic Area (Draft for Comment) ended the online hearing.
According to the draft for comments, starting from January 1, 2015, Hangzhou will adopt a single weekend number (including holidays), while limiting the emission of vehicles, creating a low-carbon demonstration zone, and advocating “stopping for more than 3 minutes”. On weekends and holidays throughout the year, from 8:30 to 17:00, the diesel (steam) oil vehicles that prohibit the discharge of the national II and below will enter the three sections of Beishan Street, Yanggong Dike and Nanshan Road; form buses, taxis, public bicycles, Low-carbon transportation mode of “five in one” for water transportation and battery vehicles.