Dazu Rock Carvings

Dazu Rock Carvings

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Geographic location:Dazu District, Chongqing

Level:AAAAA

Famous scenery:Baoding Stone Carving, Beishan Stone Carving, Nanshan Stone Carving, Baoding Shengshou Temple

Play season:Suitable for all seasons

Dazu Rock Carvings is located in the Dazu District of Chongqing City. It was built in the Tang, Five Dynasties and Song dynasties. The Ming and Qing dynasties continued to be excavated. World Cultural Heritage, one of the eight largest grottoes in the world, distributed in the southwest, northwest and northeast of the county, a total of 23 sectors. There are 19 places like Baoding Mountain and Beishan. Among them, Baoding Mountain has the largest scale and the most beautiful statues. In addition to Buddha statues and Taoist statues, there are also statues of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism in the same cave, and Buddhist statues account for the largest proportion.

Dazu Rock Carving represents the highest level of world grotto art in the 9th-13th centuries, and is the last monument in the history of human grotto art. It shows the major developments and changes of Chinese grotto art styles in the Tang and Song Dynasties from different aspects, and has the irreplaceable historical, artistic and scientific value of the early grottoes. It is famous for its large scale, exquisite carving, diverse subjects, rich connotations and well-preserved. In December 1999, Dazu Rock Carvings, represented by Baoding Mountain, Beishan Mountain, Nanshan Mountain, Shimen Mountain and Shiji Mountain, were listed on the World Heritage List by UNESCO.

Dazu Rock Carving is now the national AAAAA-level tourist scenic spot, the national key cultural relics protection unit, Chongqing’s top ten cultural symbols, and the 2016 National Day holiday tourism “the best scenic spot for comprehensive order”. On December 7th, 2018, it was selected as the cultural tourism charm list of 2018 “Charming Chinatown” sponsored by CCTV Financial Channel of CCTV and Yingke Tourism.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Historical evolution

Construction start

Dazu County, built in 758 AD (the first year of Tang Zhenyuan), is affiliated to Changzhou. In 885 AD (the first year of Tang Guangqi), Changzhou moved from Jingnan County to Dazu. By the year 1279 (the end of the Southern Song Dynasty), Dazu had always been the seat of Changzhou Prefecture. The “Five Mountains” cliff statue in the Dazu Rock Carvings was completed in this nearly 400 years.

Among the existing Dazu stone carving works, the earliest is the Jianshanzi Cliff Statue, which was cut in 650 AD (the first year of Yonghui in the early Tang Dynasty). In the following 200 years, only a new statue of the holy water temple was built. These two Chu and Zhong Tang statues totaled only 20 baht. It was not until AD 885 that Changzhou moved to Dazu.

In 892 AD (Tang Jingfu first year), Changzhou thorn history, Chongchang, Pu, Sui, and Hezhou were all commanded. Jingnan Army Festival made Wei Junjing, and built a grain storage for 10 years in the county town of Beilonggang Mountain (now Beishan). At the same time as the Yongchangzhai of the tens of thousands of soldiers, the Buddha statue was first built in Beishan. Since then, state and county bureaucrats and local officials, civilians, monks and nuns have followed suit, until between 907 and 965 AD (when the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten States. Sichuan is the country, the history is called the former, the later) to create a continuous image of Buddha. The first statue in the history of Dazu Rock Carvings.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Image origin

Since the introduction of ancient Indian cave art into China in the third century AD, in the fifth and seventh centuries (Wei Jin to the Tang Dynasty), two peaks were formed in northern China, but by the eighth century. The middle leaves (after Tang Tianbao) are heading for decline. On the occasion of this continuation, the cliff statues in Dazu County, located in the Yangtze River Valley, have emerged from the end of the ninth century to the middle of the thirteenth century. The Dazu Rock Carvings represented by the “Five Mountains” Cliff Statue have formed another time in the history of Chinese cave art. The peak of imagery has continued the history of Chinese grotto art for more than 400 years. Since then, the art of Chinese grottoes has stagnated, and no large-scale grottoes have been newly built in other places. The Dazu Rock Carvings have become the last monument in the history of Chinese grotto art construction.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Late Tang statue

In the 360 years from 892 to 1252 (later Tang Jingfu to the Southern Song Dynasty), Dazu successively built 34 Buddhism, Taoism and “three religions” statues, and the number of statues accounted for about 80% of the total number of Dazu Rock Carvings. Among them, except for the Beishan Moya statue, which was built in the first year of Tang Jingfu in the late 892 AD, the rest were built in the more than 170 years from the Yuan Dynasty to the Southern Song Dynasty in the period from 1082 to 1252 AD.

At the end of the 13th century, in the late Southern Song Dynasty, the statues of the war stone were interrupted. By the end of the fifteenth century, during the Yongle period of the Ming Dynasty, the image of the cliffs gradually recovered and extended to the late Qing Dynasty. From the beginning of the fifteenth century to the end of the nineteenth century (the Ming and Qing dynasties), there were 39 statues of cliffs in the 500 years. Although there are many good products, they are mostly small statues, and the number of statues is less than 20% of the total number of statues.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Northern Song Dynasty statue

During the 100-year period from 965 to 1077 (the Northern Song Dynasty to the Xining Period), the cliff statues were stagnant. So far, the county has not found a statue of the year. At this time, the stone carvings in the temple were raised. There are traces of the ruins that can be found or have texts. There are Dazhong Temple in the east, Shibi Temple in the west, and Yanen Temple in the north. By the 1980s, only one of the Dazhong Temples had been unearthed, and more than 100 pieces of Buddhist sculptures were unearthed.

From 1078 to 1173 AD (from Yuanfeng in the late Northern Song Dynasty to Shaoxing in the early Southern Song Dynasty), Dazu Stone Carvings set off a second climax. Since 1082 (Yuanfeng five years), the main manor of the manor, Yan Xun, has been working on the “three religions” statues in Shijie Mountain, and the statues in the county have been built one after another. They have carved out Buddhism, Taoism and “three religions.” “The image area is 32. Nanshan, Shimenshan statue area and Beishan Duobao Tower were built in this area. The Beishan Statue District, which was built in 892 AD, lasted for more than 250 years and was completed in the 16th year of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty in 1146.

During the 70-year period from 1174 to 1252 AD, the Southern Song Dynasty, from the Xizhi to the Bianyou years, Zhao Zhifeng, a Dazu who was called the “Six-generation ancestor of the ancestors,” was entrusted with the Buddhist secret religious group founded by Liu Zun, a late Tang Dynasty, and preached in Baodingshan. He focused on promoting Buddhism for more than 70 years. The Quartet raised nearly 10,000 statues of Buddha statues and built a unique large-scale cave temple in the history of Chinese Buddhism, which made the Dazu stone statues reach their peak. In the meantime, the statues in other parts of the county were basically stagnant. The Quartet Taoist collection is under the seat of Zhao Zhifeng, and the stone carving master gathers Baodingshan to perform. Baoding Mountain has become the center of the Chinese Buddhist Tantra Chengdu Yoga School.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Wushan statue

At the end of the thirteenth century and the middle of the seventeenth century, Dazu was twice shackled. In the “Five Mountains” Cliff Statue, in addition to the Baodingshan Shengshou Temple burned twice, twice rebuilt, the cliff statue has been well preserved.

After the completion of the “Five Mountains” Cliff Statue, in addition to the secular decoration and cultivation, until the end of the 19th century to the beginning of this century, the local people added a few small cymbals such as Guanyin, Shanshen, Tiangong and Ditan next to the statue area. The scale and style of the statues in the Tang and Song Dynasties have been basically maintained. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, it has been properly protected and open to the public.

The Dazu Rock Carvings represented by the Beishan, Baodingshan, Nanshan, Shiqishan and Shimenshan (referred to as “Five Mountains”) Cliffs are an important part of Chinese cave art, and also the world’s grotto art from the end of the 9th century to the middle of the 13th century. The most magnificent and splendid page of China’s late Tang Jingfu’s first year to the Southern Song Dynasty. Dazu Rock Carvings was built in the first year of Tang Yonghui in 650 AD. It flourished from the end of the ninth century to the middle of the thirteenth century. Yu Xuan went to the Ming and Qing Dynasties and was the representative work of the late Chinese grotto art.

The “Five Mountain” Cliff Statue is famous for its large scale, exquisite carving, diverse themes, rich connotations and well preserved. The collection of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucian “three religions” is different from the previous caves. With distinctive nationalization and living characteristics, it is unique in Chinese cave art. With a large number of physical images and historical materials, it shows the major developments and changes of Chinese grotto art style and folk religious beliefs from the end of the 9th century to the middle of the 13th century. It has made important contributions to the innovation and development of Chinese grotto art. History, art, science, and appreciation of values that were not replaced by previous generations of grottoes.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Stone carving

In the area of Dazu District, Weinan District, Laoshan District and Tongliang District, Dazu District is a municipal district under the jurisdiction of Chongqing Municipality. It was built in the first year of Tang Dynasty (758) and is named after “Dafeng Dazu”. It is well-known at home and abroad. “Hometown of Stone Carvings” and “Hometown of Hardware”, the first batch of Grade A open areas in China, the starting point of the Three Gorges Tourism County determined by the state, the National Ecological Agriculture Advanced Zone, and an important window for Chongqing to open to the outside world. The stone carvings in the Dazu District are dotted with hundreds of statues of the cultural relics protection units, more than 50,000 statues and more than 100,000 inscriptions, including 6 national key cultural relics protection units.

The Dazu Rock Carvings are the general name for 102 cliff statues in the county. Among them, 75 are listed as cultural relics protection units at all levels, including Baodingshan, Beishan, Nanshan, Shimenshan and Shiqishan at the national level; Jianshanzi, Miaoshan, Shuchengyan and Qianfoyan at the municipal level; Fengshan Temple at the county level. Wait 66. The statue is 1030 窟 (cavity), about 50,000. The content is mainly Buddhism, followed by Taoism, and the rest are statues of Buddhism and Taoism, Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism, historical figures, and guarantors (also known as meritorious masters); inscriptions, inscriptions, and inscriptions of more than 100,000 words. The engraving categories are mainly high and bas-reliefs, a few round carvings, and a few odd lines.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Baoding Stone Carving

Baoding Mountain is located 15 kilometers northeast of Longgang Street in Dazu District, with an elevation of 527.83 meters. The statue of Baodingshan Cliff was built in the Southern Song Dynasty. The Buddha statues are carved on the mountain rocks within 2.5 kilometers, including the statues of Dafo Bay and Xiaofowan centered on Shengshou Temple. The Dazu Dafo Bay is the main body, followed by Xiaofowan, which is distributed in the east, south and north. More than 360 giant carvings, with six reincarnations, the majority of Baolou, Huayan three icons, a thousand Guanyin and so on.

At the Baoding Buddha Bay, there is the Chuandong Ancient Temple Shengshou Temple, which was founded in the Southern Song Dynasty. The temple is full of sculpt, and it is located in the woods with beautiful scenery and elegant environment. The south side of the temple is the Longevity Building. It is a two-storey flying squat corner pavilion.

The Baoding Stone Carvings by Zhao Zhifeng, known as the “sixth generation of ancestral ancestors”, in the Southern Song Dynasty from 1174 to 1252, lasted for more than 70 years, and the overall concept organization was excavated. It is a large-scale Buddhist Tantra with nearly 10,000 statues. Dojo. The key protection area of Baodingshan Moya statue is 7.93 hectares, the general protection area is 37.14 hectares, and the construction control area is 53.30 hectares.

Shengshou Temple is built by mountains and is magnificent. Zhao Zhifeng of the Southern Song Dynasty was founded, and later he was rehabilitated by Yuan and Ming Bing, and both Ming and Qing. The existing Shanmen, Tianwang Hall, Di Shi Temple, Daxiong Hall, the Three Buddha Hall, the Burning Light Hall and the Seventh Temple of Vimal Temple were rebuilt in the Qing Dynasty. The building area is 1631.68 square meters.

Dafo Bay is located at the left of the Shengshou Temple in the shape of a U-shaped mountain bay. The cliff face is about 500 meters long and about 8-25 meters high. The image is engraved on the cliffs of the east, south and north, and is made up to No. 31. In turn, the statue of the gods, the six reincarnations, the vast treasures, the three saints of Huayan, the Guanyin of the thousand hands, the story of the Buddha, the sacred map of the Sakyamuni, the prince of the Kowloon bath, the disguise of the peacock king, the Pilu cave, the parents’ disguise, Leiyin map, large convenient Buddha’s graceful disguise, view of the Buddha’s disguise in disguise, six consumption map, hell disguise, Liu Benzun’s figure, the ten kings, the cow’s figure, the round hole, the Liu Zunzheng statue. All the images are illustrated and there is no repetition.

Xiaofowan is located on the right side of Shengshou Temple and sits south to the north. Its main building is a stone mandala with a height of 2.31. The width of the east is 16.50 and the depth is 7.90 meters. On the altar, stone walls and stone chambers are built with stones. The Buddha and Bodhisattva images are carved on the table. There are mainly the ancestral temples, the sacred sects of the sacred sects, the seven buddhas, the sacred caves, the sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred sacred caves.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Nanshan Stone Carving

Nanshan, the ancient name of Guanghua Mountain, is located in Wuhuali, southeast of Dazu District. The original Taoist temple on the top of the mountain, the famous jade emperor. The Nanshan stone carvings originated in the Southern Song Dynasty (AD 1127—1279) and belonged to Taoist statues. The Ming and Qing dynasties were slightly supplemented.

On August 16, 1956, the Sichuan Provincial People’s Committee announced that the Nanshan Moya Stone Carvings belonged to the Sichuan Provincial Cultural Relics Protection Unit; after Chongqing resumed its municipality, it was also awarded Chongqing’s key cultural relics protection unit by Chongqing. There are fifteen statues in the cliff statue here. The works are mainly based on Taoist works and are a major feature of Nanshan Stone Carvings.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Beishan Stone Carving

The Beishan Moya statue was originally engraved at the end of the Tang Dynasty and ended at the end of the Southern Song Dynasty. It is the largest stone inscription in the Dazu Rock Carvings, and is located on the North Mountain 2 km north of the Dazu District. Centering on the Big Buddha Bay, there are five places in Guanyinpo, Yingpanpo, Foeryan and Beita Temple. It is more than 500 meters long. The rock is about 7 meters high and is carved along the cliff. From the south to the north, if the shape is new moon, the cave is like a hive. More than 5,000 statues. The statues are exquisite and exquisite, and the craftsmanship is skillful. Except for some inscriptions, towers and shallow caves, the rest are well preserved.

Beishan, the ancient name of Longgang Mountain, 1.5 kilometers north of Chenglonggang Street in Dazu District, with an elevation of 545.5 meters. Surrounded by green trees, there is a sloping white tower on the top of the mountain and two large Buddhas under the tower. The key protection area of Beishan Moya statue is 7.62 hectares, the general protection area is 21.82 hectares, and the construction control area is 28.15 hectares. The statue of Cliffs in Beishan Fowan was excavated in the period from 892 to 1162 (the first year of Tang Jingfu to Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty). The statue is about 300 meters long and 7-10 meters high. The squatting cave is like a hive, divided into two sections, the south and the north. It is 290 (the first section is from 1 to 100, and the north section is from 101 to 290). Among them, there are 264 caves, 1 inscription, and 8 buildings.

There are nearly 10,000 statues of Beishan Cliffs, mainly for the worldly prayers. There are 51 kinds of statues, mainly Buddhism Tantrics, accounting for more than half of the total. Secondly, there are third-order teaching, pure land patriarchal and so on. These imagery themes were extremely popular among the people at that time, and they were the product of the secularization of Buddhism, different from the pre-Chinese caves. The Beishan statue is famous for its exquisite carving, exquisite craftsmanship and exquisite elegance. It shows the development and changes of Chinese folk Buddhist beliefs and grotto art styles from the end of the ninth century to the middle of the twelfth century (late Tang, Five Dynasties, and Two Song Dynasties).

There are 12 types of late Tang Dynasty statues at the end of the ninth century. They are dominated by Guanyin and Guanyin, the combination of the earth and the apes, and the Amitabha Buddha. The statues are dignified and full, the temperament is thick, the clothes are fine, and the clothes are thin and body-like. No. 5, Vishnamon, King No. 9, Thousand-Handed Guanyin, No. 10, Sakyamuni Buddha, No. 51, Three Buddhas, No. 52, Amitabha, etc. are all representative works. In particular, the No. 245 view of the Buddha Sutra is rich in content and has a clear hierarchy. It is engraved with the words “Western Sansheng”, “Three Products and Nine Healths”, “No Resentment”, “Sixteen Views”, and Yuele Tianren, Loutai Pavilion, etc. The figure is 539, with more than 460 pieces of various utensils, which preserves many historical materials; it is second to none in Chinese caves.

The five generations of statues in the middle of the 10th century accounted for more than one-third of the Beishan statues. It was the region with the most statues in China during this period. There were 18 kinds of statues, and there were new contents such as the pharmacist’s transformation and the Dharani. Its artistic characteristics are small and exquisite, with a variety of postures, handsome expressions, and the ornamentation is gradually becoming more and more beautiful, showing the transitional style from Tang to Song. For example, the Buddha and Bodhisattva images of No. 53 include both the plump and simple carvings of the Tang Dynasty and the slender body of the Song Dynasty. No. 273, the Avalokitesvara and its waiter, No. 281, the oriental pharmacist, the pure land is equal, the thin-fitting body is quite Tang style, and the appearance is beautiful and like the Song.

From the late 10th century to the middle of the 12th century, the Song Dynasty had a wide range of subject matter, with as many as 21 kinds, especially Guanyin, which is known as the “Chinese Pavilion of Guanyin Statues”. The works of this period are closer to life and reflect the aesthetic taste of the Song Dynasty. The statue has the characteristics of distinctive characters, beautiful posture, well-proportioned proportions, and gorgeous appearance. The most representative is the No. 136 runner built in the Tibet from 1142 to 1146. The statue of the cave reflects the tranquility of the heart with a quiet face sculpt, and reveals its noble status with exquisite cloak. With line shape, the line is heavy, and it is rich in Chinese national characteristics. The body is covered with a streamer, the streamers are covered with beads, the strings are exquisite and clear, and the decoration is strong; and the preservation is as good as the new one, which is recognized as “a pearl in the crown of Chinese grotto art”. Others such as No. 125 No. 1 Guanyin, No. 113 and No. 133 Shuiyue Guanyin, No. 155 Peacock Ming Wang Cave, No. 177 Pazhou Chalk, No. 180 No. 180, Guanyin disguised caves, etc. are all this period. Treasures. The image, posture, character, look and even pleats and ornaments of these statues are rich in composition, exquisitely carved, step by step, and face-to-face.

In the Beishan Moya statue, the existing monument is 7-way. Among them, the “Wei Junjing Monument” engraved in 895 AD has the important value of complementing the history of the Tang Dynasty. The “Zhao Yu Jian Gong Shen Dao”, engraved in the period from 1163 to 1189 AD, is the book of Cai Jing, one of the four major calligraphers of the Song Dynasty. Treasures of art; Twenty-two chapters of the ancient filial piety, are called by the historians as “the only moment between the universe.” In addition, there are still 17 inscriptions and poems, and 77 statues. Studies on historical geography, religious beliefs, staging of stone caves, historical figures, etc. are of high value.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Shijieshan stone carving

Shiqi Mountain is located in Fohui Village, Sanqu Town, 25 kilometers southwest of Longgang Street in Dazu District, with an elevation of 444.6 meters. According to the “Han Xing Ji Monument” of Fohui Temple, the statue was built in the 10th to 1096th period of the Northern Song Dynasty. The statue is about 130 meters long and about 3 to 8 meters high. It is made up of number 10. The key protection area of Shiyan Mountain Cliffs is 0.21 hectares, the general protection area is 0.18 hectares, and the construction control area is 2.47 hectares.

The stone cliff statues of Shijie Mountain are typical of the “three religions” unity of the interpretation, Taoism and Confucianism. They are rare in the caves. Among them, No. 6 is Confucius and Shizhe, and the wall is engraved with the statue of Confucius, the great thinker of Confucianism, and the most famous disciple of Confucius. This is very rare in the grotto statues. No. 7 is a three-person Buddhist temple. No. 8 is the old prince, and the Chinese Taoist founder, Laozi, sits in the middle of the statue, and has seven real people and masters. According to the statue, the above three statues were all funded by Yan Xun, the master of the large manor, and were also carved by the famous sculptor Shi Wenwei.

On August 16, 1956, the Sichuan Provincial People’s Committee announced that the stone cliff statue of Shijie Mountain belongs to the Sichuan Provincial Cultural Relics Protection Unit. (After changing to Chongqing key cultural relics protection unit). On April 26, 1963, the Dazu County People’s Committee announced that the Qianfo Cliff Cliff was caused by the Dazu County Cultural Relics Protection Unit. Shijie Mountain is represented by Laojun Cave.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Shimenshan stone carving

Shimen Mountain is located in Xinsheng Village, Shima Town, 20 kilometers east of Longgang Street in Dazu District, with an altitude of 374.1 meters. The statue was excavated in the period from 1094 to 1151 (the Shao Song of the Northern Song Dynasty to the Shaoxing of the Southern Song Dynasty for twenty-one years). The carved cliff face is 71.8 meters in length, the cliff height is 3.4 to 5 meters, and the number is 16th. There are 12 caves in the statue. In addition, there are 20 pieces of surviving statues, 8 inscriptions, 8 inscriptions, 8 pieces of Bian Xiu and Wen Weiyi, Wen Judao and Qi Zhongjin. The key protection area of Shimenshan Cliffs is 1.06 hectares, the general protection area is 1.30 hectares, and the construction control area is 5.50 hectares.

The Shimen Mountain Cliff Statue is a Buddhist and Taoist imagery area, especially the Taoist statue. For example, the No. 2 Jade Emperor’s eye-catching eyes, like a copper bell, can seem to be a thousand miles; the wind is ugly, and the ears are fine-grained; the two are like muscles, the veins are exposed, and the techniques are exaggerated. No. 7 is a single-legged five-way emperor. The left foot is independent of a hot wheel. It has a wide range of deep eyes, wide lips and thick lips, and a robe with flying wings. No. 10 Sanhuangdong has 35 statues of existing statues. It is elegant and elegant, and the clothes are folded and stretched. The method of “humanity” is more than “taste”. On the 12th, the Dongyue Emperor Baodi was engraved like the 98 body, with Dongyue Emperor and Shuming Queen in the middle, reflecting the prominent position of the Dongyue family in the Taoist gods from the 10th to the 13th centuries (Song Dynasty). Buddhism mainly includes pharmacists Buddhism, Shuiyue Guanyin, Sakyamuni, Ten Saints Guanyin Grottoes, Peacock Ming Wang Jingchang Grottoes, and Lili Emperor. Among them, the No. 6 Ten Sheng Guanyin Grottoes are the most beautiful.

The Shimenshan Grottoes, engraved in the Song Dynasty, are located in the Shimen Mountain, Xinsheng Village, Shima Town, Dazu District, because of the name of the two giant stones. It is along the rock statues, a total of 13 caves, or fairy or release, or ghosts, living in a district, are exquisite, awe-inspiring, exquisite. In 1996, the State Council announced that it was a national key cultural relics protection unit.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Cultural Value

World Heritage

On December 1, 1999, it became a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage.

Log in for meeting the following criteria for World Cultural Heritage: (i) representing a unique artistic achievement, a creative masterpiece of genius; (ii) being able to commemorate architectural art and commemorate for a certain period of time or within a certain cultural region of the world The development of art, town planning or landscape design has had a major impact; (iii) it provides a unique, at least special, testimony to a lost civilization or cultural tradition.

On December 1, 1999, according to the World Cultural Heritage Selection C (I) (II) (VI), the 23rd session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee held in the historical and cultural city of Marrakech, Morocco, was adopted at the 23rd session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. The five cliffs of Beishan, Baodingshan, Nanshan, Shiqishan and Shimenshan in the stone carvings are officially listed as world cultural heritage. Only one of China’s declared World Heritage sites has been approved, that is, the world’s cultural heritage “Dazu Rock Carvings”, which is the second time that China’s cave stone carving heritage was selected after the Mogao Grottoes in 1987.

World Heritage Committee evaluation: The steep cliffs of the Dazu area contain a unique series of stone carvings from 9th to 13th centuries. These stone carvings are famous for their high artistic quality and rich and varied subjects. From the secular to the religious, they vividly reflect the daily social life of China during this period and fully prove the harmony of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism during this period. Get along with the situation.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Grotto art

Dazu Rock Carvings in Chongqing is famous for its large scale, exquisite carving, diverse subjects, rich connotations and complete preservation. It combines the essence of Chinese Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucian “three religions” imagery art, and has become a shining pearl in Chinese cave art with distinctive nationalization and life characteristics. With a large number of physical images and historical materials, it shows the development of Chinese stone carving art and folk religious beliefs from the end of the 9th century to the middle of the 13th century. It has made important contributions to the innovation and development of Chinese stone carving art. The irreplaceable historical, artistic and scientific value of the predecessors. Many Europeans, especially the French, loved the Dazu Rock Carvings.

The Dazu Rock Carvings are the general term for the grotto art that is mainly represented by the cliff statues in the Dazu District. Dazu is the hometown of stone carvings. There are more than 40 stone carvings in the county, with more than 50,000 statues. The most famous and largest ones are two, one is Baoding Mountain and the other is Beishan. These two are national key cultural relics protection units, and are the masterpieces of the grotto art after the late Tang Dynasty in China. Dazu County is a suburban county under the jurisdiction of Chongqing Municipality. It is listed as a cultural relic protection unit with 75 statues, more than 50,000 statues and more than 100,000 inscriptions. Among them, there are 6 national key cultural relics protection units.

The Dazu Rock Carvings were excavated in the first year of Tang Yonghui (AD 650) and flourished in the Song Dynasty. There are more than 50,000 statues of the existing stone cliffs, and the inscriptions are more than 100,000 yuan, covering more than 100 places. Among them, Beishan (including the North Tower), Baoding Mountain, Nanshan, Shimen and Shiqi Mountain stone carvings are the most important stone carving statues of the largest in the Dazu Rock Carvings.

The stone carvings are mainly composed of Buddhist statues, and they have both Confucianism and Taoism. It has the characteristics of grotto statues and belongs to the category of grotto art. The early “temple temple” structure is completely a cliff statue. For example, the Buddha statues are all exposed, and they are connected with the cliffs, giving a very intuitive feeling. Breaking through some religious constraints, making the statue more human. There are five kinds of carvings: round carving, high relief, bas-relief, convex relief and yin carving, but mainly high relief, supplemented by other forms. Not only countless figures of all walks of life, but also numerous social life scenes, but also a large number of written records, is a vivid historical picture.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Art value

In the long-term development of Chinese grotto art, the grotto art of each period has accumulated its own unique patterns and connotations. The early grotto art represented by Yungang Grottoes was influenced by the Indian Gandhara and the multi-art art in the fourth to fifth centuries. The statues showed the characteristics of “Hu Fan Fan Xiang”. The medium-term grotto art represented by the Longmen Grottoes was characterized by the integration of Indian culture and Chinese culture from the 6th to the 9th centuries. As the masterpiece of the late grotto art (late Tang to Southern Song Dynasty, from the end of the ninth century to the middle of the thirteenth century), the Dazu Rock Carvings on the basis of absorbing and melting the essence of the early grotto art, in terms of subject choice, art form, modeling skills, aesthetic appeal They have made breakthroughs in the past generations, and they have become a model of Chinese-style grotto art with distinct nationalization and living characteristics. Together with Dunhuang, Yungang and Longmen, they form a complete Chinese cave art history. The Dazu Rock Carvings “Three Religions” have a complete image, which is different from the previous caves. The Taoist statues represented by the Nanshan Moya statues in the middle of the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries are the most exquisite and most complete Taoist statues in China during this period. In the stone cliff statues of Shijie Mountain, the Confucian statues of Confucius, the founder of the Chinese Confucianism, are rare in the art of grottoes. The statues of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, “three religions” and the statues of Buddhism and Taoism represented by Shimenshan Cliffs are also rare in Chinese cave art. As far as preservation is concerned, Dazu Rock Carving is one of the best preserved in the Chinese Grotto art group.

The “Five Mountains” Cliff Statue is well preserved. All the caves and statues have not suffered from large man-made and natural disasters except for the history of repairing the damaged parts of a few statues. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, in the daily maintenance and protection, strictly abide by the principle of “do not change the original state”, based on the firm literature and inscriptions, using traditional techniques combined with modern science and technology. Its design, materials, crafts, layout and other aspects have maintained the historical authenticity. While protecting the main body of the “Five Mountains” statue, it pays attention to the protection of its surrounding environment and basically does not change its environmental relationship. Therefore, on the whole, the “Five Mountains” cliff statue basically maintains the scale, original shape and style of history.

The Avalokitesvara of the Dazu Rock Carvings is the only true thousand-hand Guanyin in China, about 1006. The Beishan statue is built on the rock, and the cave is like a hive. It is known as the “Glass Art Exhibition Hall” between the end of the 9th century and the middle of the 13th century. The statue of Baodingshan Dafo Bay is 500 meters long and magnificent. Disguised and changed, both pictures and texts; layout layout is strict, and the teaching system is complete. It is a rare large-scale cave esoteric dojo in the world with a total concept and built over 70 years. The imagery pursues both the beauty of form and the accurate expression of content. The content of the story and the philosophy of life and life philosophies can be used to understand the world, to be emotional, to induce happiness, and to blame. Covering the broad social thoughts, it saves people’s lives and never loses. The statues of Nanshan, Shiqi Mountain and Shimen Mountain are carefully carved. They are rare treasures of the interpretation of the “three religions” in the Chinese cave art group.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Cultural relics restoration

In May 2008, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage designated the restoration project of the Dazu Rock Carved Avalokitesvara as the National No. 1 Project for the Protection of Stone Cultural Relics, and organized experts to conduct consultations. After nearly three years of preliminary investigation and research, the results are worrying: 34 kinds of diseases such as stone, painted and gold foil have eroded the Avalokitesvara, and the damage area has reached more than 200 square meters.

In April 2011, Avalokitesvara began to start a full-scale repair. The idea is: first cure the problem, that is, to reinforce the severely weathered rock mass without damaging the surface gold foil; the post-treatment table, including gold foil backing, painting restoration, missing Programs such as part filling. The State Administration of Cultural Heritage has allocated more than 45 million yuan. Since then, the restoration experts from the China Cultural Heritage Research Institute, the Dunhuang Research Institute and the Longmen Grottoes, together with the staff of the Dazu Rock Carving Academy, have formed a rehabilitation team of more than 20 people. They divided the Avalokitesvara into upper, middle and lower layers and repaired them one by one.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Protection status

Buddha head being stolen

On June 4, 1995, the head of the Buddha statue of Sakyamuni in the Southern Song Dynasty in the Dashan Pagoda in the Dazu Rock Carvings was stolen. After 25 days, the police arrested Wang Hongjun, the principal offender in Chengdu, and found the Buddha head that was too late to sell. Wang Hongjun was sentenced to death by the court and executed in 1996. As a accomplice, Yang Wende escaped the police arrest and hid. In June 2006, Dazu police received a report and Yang Wende appeared in the Chongqing building materials market. On August 30, the police passed the control and arrested Yang Wende, who worked in the building materials market.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Buddha head appeared in Wenqiangjia

In 2004, the two stone carving heads of the Shimen Mountain Cliffs in Dazu were stolen. The police received an alarm and filed a case for investigation. Only the case has not been broken yet, and the Buddha’s head has since disappeared. In August 2009, the task force staff “found” a Buddha head that had been missing for more than five years in Wenqiang Villa. In order to identify the value of cultural relics collected from Wenqiang, Chongqing has invited experts from the Palace Museum in Beijing to come to the appraisal.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Repair work

Due to the alternating dry and wet environment and acid rain, the “Thousand Hands Guanyin” was seriously affected, and there were large areas of flaking, hollowing, cracking and so on on the surface of the image. In March 2011, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of China approved and approved the China Stone Relics Protection No. 1 Project, “The Great Restoration Plan for the Dazu Rock Carvings of the Avalokitesvara Statues”, and on April 18th of that year, it began to engrave the Dazu Rock Carvings “A Thousand Hands Guanyin”. A restoration project of the largest and most scientific system in history was carried out.

As of September 13, 2012, the Dazu Rock Carving “A Thousand Hands Guanyin” has completed the restoration of the top 242 hands, 9 arms and 66 pieces of crafts. The repair area is about 20 square meters, accounting for 1/4 of the total body repair.

On June 12, 2015, Chongqing Dazu Rock Carvings World Cultural Heritage Expo Park held a completion ceremony for the rescue and protection project of the Avalokitesvara statue, which means the first grotto restoration project in the country, and the Chongqing Dazu Rock Carvings of the Avalokitesvara statue for nearly 8 years. The restoration project is completed and officially opened to tourists.

On May 10th, 2017, Dazu Rock Carvings another precious statue with the equivalent of Qiandeng Guanyin on the Baoding Mountain. The 31-meter Baoding Mountain Reclining Buddha Restoration Program has been completed and has been repaired recently. It is estimated that the entire repair time will be more than 5 years, and tourists can still visit during the repair period.

On May 27, 2017, Italy’s Veneto Cultural Heritage Cluster signed a contract with Chongqing Dazu Rock Carving Research Institute, and plans to repair the Shuchengyan Cliff Statue in the Dazu Rock Carving Archaeological Site within two years.

At the end of June 2019, the National Cultural Relics Bureau Sichuan-Chongqing Grottoes major demonstration project pilot Dazu Rock Carvings Baodingshan Reclining Buddha and Xiaofowan Cliffs Protection and Rehabilitation Project was officially launched.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Legal guard

In 1998, the Chongqing Municipal Government promulgated the “Measures for the Protection of Dazu Rock Carvings in Chongqing”. In order to better protect the Dazu Rock Carvings, the current method has been upgraded to local regulations. In September 2016, at the 28th meeting of the Standing Committee of the Fourth Session of the People’s Congress of Chongqing Municipality, the Chongqing Dazu Rock Carving Protection Regulations were submitted for consideration by the municipal government. (Draft) entered the group for the first time.

The draft stipulates that the Dazu Rock Carvings include the Beishan Cliff Statue, the Baoding Mountain Cliff Statue, the Nanshan Cliff Statue, the Shijie Mountain Cliff Statue and the Shimen Mountain Cliff Statue, and other affiliated statues, ancient buildings, ancient sites and affiliated cultural relics. It is prohibited to discharge sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, dust, smoke, etc. in the protection scope and construction control zone of Dazu Rock Carving, and promote the use of electricity, gas and solar energy. Motor vehicles will not be able to enter the scope of protection. If they do not drive according to the prescribed route, they will face a fine of up to 2,000 yuan. Those who portray, smear, post, climb, damage cultural relics or cultural relics protection facilities will also be fined up to 10,000 yuan. If the fireworks and firecrackers are ignited in a non-designated place and the Buddha’s incense is serious, they will face a fine of up to 1,000 yuan.

In March 2017, the “Dazu Stone Carving Protection Regulations (Draft)” entered the second instance. The second-instance draft regulations determine that the lecturers, tour guides, and tourism volunteers who are engaged in the explanation activities within the protection scope of the Dazu Rock Carvings shall receive free training provided by the Dazu Rock Carving Protection Management Organization to provide visitors with explanation services consistent with the historical and cultural connotations of the Dazu Rock Carvings. It is the first time in Chongqing to specifically carry out local legislation for a cultural relics protection unit.

On March 30, 2017, the “Regulations on the Protection of Dazu Rock Carvings in Chongqing” was reviewed and approved at the 35th meeting of the Standing Committee of the Fourth Session of the People’s Congress of Chongqing. The regulations will come into force on June 1.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Visiting needs

Tourist route

If you come from Chongqing, you can go to Longtousi South Bus Station, Longtousi North Bus Station, Caiyuanba Long-distance Bus Station, and (also at Chenjiaping Long-distance Bus Station). Take the Chongqing Expressway to Dazu District and get to the bus directly (every 20 minutes). Class) One and a half hours to Dazu.
A friend who came from Chengdu can take a direct bus to the bus at the Lotus Pond Coach Station. You can also take the Chengyu High-speed Railway to Dazu South Station to change to the bus to the scenic spot.
After arriving at Dazu, you can choose to walk or call a taxi to Beishan Stone Carving. The station has a bus to and from the Baodingshan stone carving.

Ticket price

Low season (December 1st – February 28/29 of the following year)
Baodingshan Stone Carving Ticket: RMB 110
Shengshou Temple Ticket: RMB 15
Baoding Mountain and Beishan Stone Carvings Coupon: RMB 120
Beishan Stone Carving Ticket: RMB 70
Except for the one-time validity of the Beishan and Baodingshan stone inscriptions, the remaining tickets will be valid once in a day.
High season (March 1 – November 30)
Baodingshan Stone Carving Ticket: RMB 115 [6]
Shengshou Temple Ticket: RMB 15
Baodingshan and Beishan Stone Carvings Coupon: RMB 140 [6]
Beishan Stone Carvings Ticket: RMB 70 [6]
Except for the one-time validity of the Beishan and Baodingshan stone inscriptions, the remaining tickets will be valid once in a day.

Explaining service

Explain the standard of each session: RMB 200 for the special level; RMB 150 for the first level; RMB 130 for the second level; RMB 120 for the third level.
The number of visitors is 1-25.

Opening hours

Opening hours 08:30-18:00
Stop selling tickets 16:30

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