Geographic location:Located in the southeast of Dafeng District, Jiangsu Province
Climate:Transition zone between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone
Protected object:Elk, white stork, white-tailed sea eagles, red-crowned crane
Jiangsu Dafeng Elk National Nature Reserve is located on the coast of the Yellow Sea. The total area of the reserve is 78,000 hectares, including 2668 hectares in the core area, 2220 hectares in the buffer zone and 7312 hectares in the experimental area.
Jiangsu Dafeng Elk National Nature Reserve is the world’s largest elk nature reserve. It has the world’s largest wild elk population and has established the world’s largest elk gene bank.
The protected area has received nearly 1 million visitors from more than 40 countries, including 380,000 young people at home and abroad, accounting for 40% of the total number of tourists. It has played a huge role in promoting popular science education on wildlife conservation and raising public awareness of the environment.
On October 8, 2015, the National Tourism Administration announced that the Yancheng Dahua Zhonghua Elk Garden Scenic Spot in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province was promoted to a national 5A-level tourist attraction.
Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve, the name of the ducks, is located in the forest of the southeast corner of Dafeng. It covers an area of 15,000 mu. The area is covered with woodland, grassland and marshland and natural water surface. Located in the southeast of Dafeng District, Jiangsu Province, the geographical coordinates are between 32°56′-33°36′ north latitude and 120°42′-120°51′ east longitude.
As a typical coastal wetland, the main wetland types include tidal flats, seasonal rivers and some constructed wetlands, and there are a large number of forest land, reeds, marshes, salt bare land and forest grasslands.
Dafeng District belongs to the transition zone between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone, which is suitable for the growth of warm-temperature crops. The maritime climate shows a slow recovery in spring, the temperature in autumn is stable and the decline is slow, the first frost is late, and the frost-free period is long. The monsoon climate is affected by the cold air of the continental monsoon in winter, with more northwest winds, mainly rainy weather, often with low temperature and frost; summer is affected by maritime monsoon, more southeast wind, abundant precipitation, rain and heat at the same time; spring and autumn In an alternating period, it forms a dry, wet, warm, cold and variable climate. The boundaries between spring and summer, autumn and winter are not obvious. Winter temperatures are warmer, and snow freezing and freezing of rivers is rare. The annual average temperature is 14.5 °C, the frost-free period is 299 days, the annual precipitation is 751.0 mm, and the sunshine is 2325.4 hours.
There are 14 species of mammals, 182 species of birds, 27 species of amphibians and 299 species of insects.
At the national level, there are 23 species of elk, white pheasant, white-tailed sea eagle, and red-crowned crane; There are more than a thousand elks imported from the UK in the reserve. The species are rich and diverse, with significant ecological, social and economic value.
There are more than 240 species of higher plants in the reserve, mainly Gramineae, Compositae, Cyperaceae, Leguminosae, Polygonaceae. The vegetation is a salt meadow, a salt swamp, and aquatic vegetation. There are also plantations, artificial pastures and semi-ripe soils.
The flora is complex, but the community is younger. Vegetation succession is rapid and habitat stability is poor. There are reeds, stalks, soda stalks, salt stalks, etc. in the world; temperate distribution in the north is scorpion, iris and apocynum; pantropical distribution is Bermudagrass; tropical Asia and tropical Oceania are Zoysia The distribution in the Mediterranean and Central Asia belongs to the mane and the genus of the genus of the south temperate zone and the north temperate zone. No national level protection plants.
In the 1960s, in the Dafeng District, the New Group, Dalong, Sancha, Liuzhuang and other places were unearthed from the stag antlers and the elk bones (subfossils). The historical documents and unearthed cultural relics fully proved that Dafeng was the hometown of the elk. In the spring of 1984, the International Wildlife Foundation and the Ministry of Forestry of China organized experts, scholars, and technicians to investigate and investigate this and confirm that it is suitable for the elk life.
With the approval of the State Council, the Ministry of Forestry and Jiangsu Province jointly established the Elk Nature Reserve. The Ministry of Forestry invested 1.2 million yuan and started construction in 1985. The protection is divided into three stocking circles. The core circle covers an area of 45 mu, the middle circle is 1815 mu, and the outer ring is 131.4 million mu. They are all enclosed by iron fences to gradually expand the activity circle of the elk group. The protected area is paved with gravel roads, with management studios and living rooms, and high-voltage power supply for lighting and development in the area.
The Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was established in 1986 and was originally part of the Dafeng Forest Farm.
On the morning of August 13, 1986, 42 pieces of elk (13 males and 29 females) were transported by air from 8 packs in London, England, and they were transported to Shanghai by air. They were transported by car to the Dafeng Reserve.
In 1995, Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was included in the “Human and Biosphere Nature Reserve Protection Network”.
At the end of 1996, the area of the nature reserve expanded to 2,666 hectares, adding to the third core area.
In 1997, Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was promoted to a national nature reserve.
In 2002, Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was included in the “Internationally Important Wetland List”.
In 2003, Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was listed as a member of the East Asia-Australian Bird Protection Network by Wetland International.
In 2006, Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was identified as a “National Demonstration Nature Reserve” by the State Forestry Administration. Jiangsu Dafeng Elk National Nature Reserve is located in the coastal siltation zone, and the coastline of the Yellow Sea continues to extend to the sea.
On October 15, 2015, the National Tourism Administration website published the “National Tourism Resource Planning and Development Quality Evaluation Committee Announcement”. The Yancheng Dafeng Zhonghua Elk Garden Scenic Spot in Jiangsu Province met the national 5A level tourist scenic spot requirements and was approved as a national 5A level tourist. Scenic area.
In 1986, relying on 39 elks imported from the United Kingdom, the Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve was painted in Huang Beach. After two years of “introduction and expansion” and ten years of “behavior reshaping”, the protected area began to implement the third phase of the rescue project in 1998: “wild release”. In the past ten years, 53 elk were released four times. After ten years of hard exploration, the wild elk has increased by 13.2% annually. 118 wild populations have been formed. As of September 2013, the total number of Dafeng elk has reached 2,027.
After many years of follow-up observation and monitoring, the wild behavior of the elk has been continuously restored. They have strong recognition ability and natural protection awareness in the wild. They have successfully born in complete natural conditions for three consecutive years and have all survived. Elk successfully returned to nature, basically achieving the goal of harmony between man and nature and the balance between social environment and ecological environment, and became a milestone in the process of protecting the world’s elk.
Save the elk
For more than 20 years, there has been no significant change in the number of elk in other countries, and the population of Dafeng elk has increased by 25 times, becoming the pioneer of the expansion of the world elk population. To this end, the elk has withdrawn from the “Red Book” and is listed as a rare species. This is another milestone in the elk protection process. The wild elk successfully completed the second breeding cycle in the South Yellow Sea wetland, and there have been many grandchildren in the wild elk population. After 10 years of exploration and research, the number of wild elk populations in nature exceeds 100, which is basically out of the “dangerous period” of population development.
From 2006 to 2008, the Elk Protected Area conducted deep observations on the relative concentration and scattered areas of the elk in the country. It was found that the elk came to the mountain forest and a female elk while breastfeeding three small deer and elk. A large number of activities such as eating rice grass. These three major discoveries are new breakthroughs in the study of elk work in China. They have important practical significance for promoting the development of wildlife conservation in China and promoting research in related disciplines.
The Dafeng Nature Reserve has formed an ecological model of forest, grass, water, deer and bird symbiosis and a complete elk ecosystem. Spartina alterniflora, once considered a foreign biologically harmful species, has become a favorite food of elk and has been included in the protected area. Biological cycle chain.
The biodiversity of the protected area is very rich. There are 12 species of mammals, 27 species of amphibians and reptiles, 315 species of birds, 599 species of insects and 499 species of plants. Among them, more than 30 species of first- and second-class protected animals such as red-crowned cranes, black-billed gulls, swans, white-tailed sea eagles, and gums have also increased in number. The growth of the species and quantity of birds is particularly prominent. The natural ecological environment of the protected areas has been continuously improved, and the effectiveness of the Yellow Sea wetlands has been fully demonstrated.
In terms of economy, protected areas have become an important tourist attraction for tidal flats. The number of tourists reaches 300,000 per year. Tourism has also promoted the development of restaurants, hotels, transportation and specialty products in surrounding towns and villages, and has become an important support for nearby farmers to get rich. The annual Dafeng Elk Festival has become an important stage for displaying Yancheng’s ecological image and ecological protection achievements and promoting investment attraction. Each time, it has brought more than one billion yuan of negotiation results.
Scientific research results
The research results of Elk have filled the gap in the world. In the work of returning to the hometown of elk and restoring its wild population, the reserve was not afraid of difficulties and explored the law of the elk booming. Researchers in protected areas walked tens of thousands of kilometers in the wild, wrote more than 3,000 observation diaries, and collected more than 1.8 million words of relevant materials. He has published 65 research papers in professional journals at home and abroad, one of which was collected by the National Academy of Sciences.
Written the world’s first elk research monograph “Chinese Elk Research” (more than 400,000 words, published by Jilin Science and Technology Publishing House), and wrote the popular science book “God Regression” (150,000 words, published by China Forestry Publishing House), compiled research papers Set “Elk Protection and Research” (500,000 words). More than 60 scientific research achievements have been obtained, and 18 scientific research projects have been participated and hosted, and five of them have won the Ministry of Science, Technology and Industry Awards. Four achievements, such as “the elk’s adaptation to the light cycle” and “the elk live in the velvet”, filled the gap in the history of the world’s elk research.
Launching the South Yellow Sea Wetland Survey
The South China Yellow Sea Wetland Biodiversity Large-scale Survey Project was officially launched in the Elk Conservation Area in August. It was jointly conducted by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Elk Conservation Area. Professor Jiang Zhigang, the chief scientist of the Institute of Zoology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the famous elk expert Ding Yuhua were co-chaired.
The survey focuses on Yancheng beach wetland and extends north-south along the coastline of Yancheng City. It will comprehensively investigate the geology, geomorphology, hydrology, vegetation, meteorology, wildlife environment and edible plants of the South Yellow Sea wetland in China, and bird resources. And so on, it provides a valuable basis for local ecological construction, species protection, scientific research and rational use.
International Water Bird Census Technical Training Seminar
On November 19-22, 2007, jointly organized by Wetland International-China Office and Jiangsu Dafeng Elk National Nature Reserve, the 2007 International Waterbird Census Technical Training Seminar co-organized by the Japan Economic and Technological Foundation “Holded in the Elk Conservation Area. More than 80 representatives from more than 40 units including the China Birds Ring Center, more than 10 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, including wetland type protection areas, wetland protection authorities, and research institutes, as well as from wetland international, Spain, and Australia. More than 10 foreign experts attended the seminar.
The theme of the conference was to summarize the protection of migratory waterbirds in the Asia-Pacific region, to study waterbirds and their habitat protection initiatives, and to further promote the protection of migratory waterbirds in the Asia-Pacific region. The meeting reviewed the implementation of the migratory waterbird protection strategy and the work carried out by the China Waterbird Network Point, exchanged information and experience on waterbird protection, and trained waterbird census technicians. The meeting also focused on the clearing of the future waterbird census activities. Direction of development.
The Fengshen Terrace was built according to the legend of Jiang Ziya’s Taiwanese platform. Yuan Shitian respected Jiang Ziya down the mountain to assist Zhou Wuwang, Xingguo annihilation, Jiang Ziya riding four does not like to lobby around, and build a platform on the coast of the East China Sea, so that the six gods return home, victorious. This Fengshen platform is 39 meters high and symbolizes the 39 elk that returned in the same year. This tower has some special features – the fifth floor has no doors, because our protected area was built at the beginning, because of the serious shortage of water resources, so I wanted to build a water tower, but built in such a harmonious natural ecological landscape. A water tower seems to be somewhat nondescript, so I made such a bold idea to use the fifth floor as a reservoir. It not only solves the problem of water resources, but also facilitates tourists to enjoy the scenery.
This is like the construction of Guanlutai in the southern suburbs of Beijing. This view of Lutai is to make it convenient for tourists to see deer. The steps of Lulutai are 39-story and are divided into three parts, which symbolize the three stages of the development of the reserve: introduction and expansion, behavior in plastic, and wild stocking. Here we can enjoy the treatment of the royal family to see a group of leisurely elk.
Listen to the slope
This tombstone was built for the elk, and it rested with 39 elks returning to China in 1986. They have fulfilled their long-cherished wish to return home, and they have been rooted and multiplied in the Yellow Beach, making the elk family incense. Now 1,169 in the reserve are their descendants. When they were the youngest 2 years old and the longest 7 years old, the elk theory lived for 25 years, actually 17-18 years, and now their lives have come to a successful conclusion. It can be called the biggest monument built by human beings for the companions who live together on Earth, wild animals. In 1986, 39 elk were here to get off the truck, screaming and rushing to the endless yellow beach. Therefore, there is another nice name here to listen to.
Elk’s calligraphy calligraphy stone carving
The world’s longest stone carving calligraphy corridor with the theme of elk culture. With a total length of 42 meters and a height of 3.9 meters, 39 pieces of black marble are set in the quaint corridor. It means that the descendants of 39 elk are strong and prosperous. The full text of “Lulu Jiji” was written by Mr. Ma Lianyi, a well-known elk culture research scholar in China, and curated by the famous Chinese calligrapher Zhang Zhongguang. It uses the genre form of the royal history in the “Historical Records” to describe the origin of the elk species, coexistence with the ancestors, thousands of groups, collapses, deep gardens, drifting away from home, and everywhere. The history of the twists and turns of returning to the homeland and the revival of the population. It combines calligraphy, stone carving, essay and history into one with high cultural appreciation value.
Biological Grand View Garden
The singular appearance of the tropical rain forest, the vicissitudes of the world’s various landforms, the mysterious long distance of the Butterfly Valley, and the peculiar appearance of the “heart of the earth”… Here are the specimens and related knowledge of rare animals in the sea, land and air. The best place for primary and secondary school students to carry out popular science education.