Da-Yan Tower

Da-Yan Tower

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Geographic location:Inside the Daci’en Temple, Yanta District, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province

Level:AAAAA

Famous scenery:Big Wild Goose Pagoda Ruins Park, Xuanzang Three-Tibet

Suitable for the play season:Suitable for all seasons

The Big Wild Goose Pagoda is located in the Dacien Temple of Jinchang Square (now in the south of Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province) in Tang Chang’an City. It is also known as the “Cien Temple Tower”. In the third year of Tang Yonghui (652), Xuanzang hosted the construction of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda for the preservation of the Buddha statues brought back to Chang’an by the Silk Road. The first five floors were added to the nine floors, and then the number of layers and heights were counted. The change was finally fixed to the seven-story tower that I saw today, with a height of 64.517 meters and a base length of 25.5 meters.

As the earliest and largest Tang Dynasty square brick tower, the Big Wild Goose Pagoda is a typical form of the ancient Indian Buddhist temple, which was introduced into the Central Plains with Buddhism and integrated into the Chinese culture. It is a combination of ancient Chinese working people. The iconic building of wisdom.

On March 4, 1961, the State Council announced that the Big Wild Goose Pagoda was the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units. On June 22, 2014, at the 38th World Heritage Committee meeting in Doha, Qatar, the Big Wild Goose Pagoda was the “Silk Road: Changan-Tianshan Corridor” as a joint application of China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. A site in the Road Network was successfully included in the World Heritage List.

Da-Yan Tower

Historical evolution

In the temple building tower

In the third year of Tang Yonghui (652), Master Xuan Zang built a five-story brick tower in the West Tower of Chang’an Ci’en Temple for the worship of Buddha statues, relics and Sanskrit classics brought back from Tianzhu. The Famen Temple of Baoji is opposite to the tower building temple. The Big Wild Goose Pagoda is built by the temple.

During the Northern Weidao Emperor Wudi, the Jingjue Temple was built here, and Emperor Wendi built the Wushui Temple at the site of the Jingjue Temple. In the 22nd year of Tang Zhenguan (648 years), Li Zhi, the prince of the prince, prayed for his mother, Wende Empress (that is, Chang Sunshi), to pray for the blessing, to repay the mother-in-law, and to ask the Taizong to build the Buddhist temple and give it the name “Cien Temple.” At the beginning of the temple, he invited Gao Song Xuan Zang to take the seat of the mage. Xuanzang founded the Mahayana Buddhism Law (according to the relative truth (phase) and absolute truth (sex) of all things (law), and because of Emphasizing that there is no need for extraterritorial independence, also known as the literary sect. Since the founder Xuanzang and his disciples often lived in the Ci’en Temple, it is also known as Ci Enzong. This temple has become a holy place for Chinese Mahayana Buddhism. In the first year of Tang Xianqing (656), Tang Gaozong’s royal book, “The Monument to the Great Ci’en Temple”, was named “Daci En Temple”. The Big Wild Goose Pagoda is located in the Ci’en Temple, hence the name “Cien Temple Tower”.

The Dacien Temple where the Big Wild Goose Pagoda is located is the place where Xuanzang specializes in translation and Tibetan scriptures. Master Xuan Zang presided over the temple in Ci’en Temple. He wanted to properly install the relics like the relics. He hoped to properly build a stone tower outside the main entrance of the Ci’en Temple in Tang Yonghui for three years. 652) The March drawing was played. Because Xuan Zang’s plan for the height of the Futu (stupa) is 30 feet high, Tang Gaozong is difficult to achieve because of the great project, and he is unwilling to work hard on the ground. The imperial court subsidized the construction of a five-story brick tower in the Temple West.

The newly built Buddhist Pagoda is a small wild goose pagoda built in Chang’an Jianfu Temple. Therefore, the Ci’en Temple Tower is also known as the Big Wild Goose Pagoda. The Jianfu Temple Tower is called the Small Wild Goose Pagoda and has been passed down to this day. The original Big Wild Goose Pagoda is shaped like a western-style sloping slope, with bricks and soils that cannot be climbed, and each floor is relic. Master Xuan Zang personally presided over the construction of the tower, which took two years to complete.

In addition to the Sanskrit scriptures of the Bedolo leaves retrieved from Tianzhu, there are more than 10,000 relics in the Big Wild Goose Pagoda.

Da-Yan Tower

Five alterations

the first time:
The original architectural design of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda is a mimic of India’s famous and unique ritual tower, the Buddha Gaya (Daju Tower), which has 5 floors and a height of 60 meters.
the second time:
Later, Tang Gaozong Li Zhi felt that this Indian-style building was somewhat uncoordinated with the overall architectural style of Chang’an City, so it was rebuilt and the Big Wild Goose Pagoda was raised to the 9th floor.
the third time:
During the Chang’an period (701-704), the court also carried out the third construction of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda. Wu Zetian broke the practice of the positive odd-numbered heights that had been formed in the Tang Dynasty Buddhist pagoda, and increased the height of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda to an even 10th floor. (In addition, Wu Zetian and Wang Gong nobles donated money to rebuild on the original site, and built a new seven-story brick tower.)
the fourth time:
After the Five Dynasties, Tang Changxing two years (931 years), the Tang Dynasty Dynasty carried out the fourth reconstruction of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda, and the Big Wild Goose Pagoda was restored to the seventh floor. Later, several major earthquakes occurred in Xi’an, and the tower top of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda shook and the tower shattered.
the fifth time:
In the 32nd year of Ming Wanli (1604), the Big Wild Goose Pagoda was repaired for the fifth time. This is a major repair and reinforcement project. On the basis of maintaining the basic shape of the tower body of the Tang Dynasty, the outer surface was completely covered with a 60 cm thick cladding. The tower is 64.5 meters high and the tower base is 25 meters long and covers an area of ​​2061 square meters. This is the big wild goose pagoda seen today.

Da-Yan Tower

Building pattern

Building structure

The Big Wild Goose Pagoda is a square-shaped pavilion-type tower with brick-like wood structure. It consists of three parts: tower base, tower body and tower brake. The whole tower is 64.7 meters high, the tower base is 4.2 meters high, the north and south length is about 48.7 meters, and the east and west length is about 45.7 meters. The bottom of the tower body is 25.5 meters long and has a square cone shape; the tower brake height is 4.87 meters. There are 9 in the 1st and 2nd floors, 7 in the 3rd and 4th floors, and 5 in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th floors, each with four sides.

Da-Yan Tower

Yanta Palace

In May 2008, Wang Yarong, director of the Institute of Religious Studies of the Shaanxi Provincial Academy of Social Sciences, said that like the underground palace under the pagoda of Famen Temple, there may be a thousand-year underground palace under the Xi’an Big Wild Goose Pagoda. It is speculated that after Xuanzang returned from India, the treasures brought back may be hidden in the underground palace under the Big Wild Goose Pagoda.

According to historical records, in the 19th year of Tang Zhenguan (645), Xuanzang returned from India and brought back a large number of Buddha relics, hundreds of Bayein Sanskrit scriptures and eight gold and silver Buddha statues. In order to enshrine and collect the Buddhist scriptures, gold and silver Buddha statues, relics and other treasures brought back by the court, Xuanzang personally presided over the construction of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda. But the treasures that Xuan Zang brought back to the present are in the end, but no one knows.

Wang Yarong believes that there is a underground palace under the general conditions of the ancient pagoda. Like the underground palace under the pagoda of Famen Temple, the underground of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda must also have a underground palace, but the Big Wild Goose Pagoda has not yet been discovered. It is speculated that the underground palace under the Big Wild Goose Pagoda is likely to contain Buddhist treasures that Xuanzang brought back.

Xie Shoutao, director of the Xi’an Big Wild Goose Pagoda, said that in 2007, the relevant departments had probed the internal structure of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda. The ground penetrating radar had detected holes in the underground of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda. These holes should be the underground palace of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda.

Da-Yan Tower

Cultural relics

Tower

There are stone gates on the base of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda. There are beautiful lined Buddha statues and brick carvings on the door frame. On the bottom of the south gate, the stone is embedded on both sides, and the west is written from right to left. The poem written by Tang Taizong Li Shimin and the great calligrapher of the book, the book of the Great Tang Dynasty, is written in the book. It is written from left to right, Tang Gaozong Li Zhi’s author, and Yan Liang’s handwritten book, “The Data Book of the Three Tangs of the Tang Dynasty”, known as the “two holy three monuments.” The specifications of the two monuments are the same. The head of the monument is the head of the skull. The two sides of the monument have obvious points. The trapezoid is narrow and wide (this is the typical shape of the Tang monument). The monument is a square monument with a line engraved pattern. The height is 337.5 cm, the width of the monument is 86 cm, and the width is 100 cm. The inscription highly praises Xuan Zang Master for learning the Western Heaven, promoting the historical achievements and extraordinary spirit of the Dharma, and the world is called “The Wild Goose Church”.

These two monuments were erected by Xuanzang in the fourth year of Tang Gaozong Yonghui (653 years) and have been preserved so far. It is an important cultural relic of studying calligraphy, painting and sculpture in the Tang Dynasty. It is worth mentioning that the Tang Dynasty painter Wu Daozi, the great poet Wang Wei and others have made many murals for the Ci En Temple, but unfortunately it has long been lost in history. However, on the stone gates and door frames of the four-door cave under the Big Wild Goose Pagoda, there is still a beautiful Tang Dynasty line depiction. In addition, the Xuan Zang negative map and the Xuanzang translation map are embedded on both sides of the ticket hole of the South Gate.

The Big Wild Goose Pagoda was once the title of the Tang Dynasty’s new middle school scholar, namely the name of the famous Yanta Eight Scenic Spot. But unfortunately, the name of Yanta has not been seen. The reason is that Li Deyu, the prime minister of Tang Wuzong, was not a scholar. He was deeply jealous of the scholars and ordered to cancel Qujiang’s drinking, and he would “discard the title”.

The new scholars of the Tang Dynasty were all named in the Big Wild Goose Pagoda, so that the later generations of the “Yanta Title” were called the Jinshi and the first. There are a large number of inscriptions in the past dynasties. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, there were more than 200 pass-throughs for the names of the geese that were left in the Tang Dynasty.

Da-Yan Tower

Relic

Tang Gaozong Yonghui three years (652 years), Master Xuan Zang built the Great Wild Goose Pagoda for the storage of the image, relic, how many relics Xuan Zang Master brought back, recorded in the “Mage Biography” is only 150 meat relics and one The name of the bone relic, the specific number is not stated. In the same book describing the repairing tower section, it shows that “there are relics in the center of the layer, or one thousand, two thousand, and more than 10,000 grains.” After the Chang’an rebuilt the big wild goose pagoda, how to deal with the original relic in the tower, There are no detailed historical records.

The Buddha relics on the Big Wild Goose Pagoda are now donated by friends. On June 10, 1998, the Big Wild Goose Pagoda hosted the abbot of the Xuanzang Temple in India and the Indian overseas Chinese high-ranking Shi Wuqian Master. The original origin of the Master was from Xianyang, Shaanxi. He was born in his early childhood and in the early 1940s, he used Xuanzang as a model. Go to India to seek law and be a abbot at the Xuanzang Temple in India. On the same day, he took out a red paper bag with the golden “One Buddha” and the lotus pattern, with two precious Buddha relics (a diameter of 3.5 mm and a diameter of 1.5 mm). Gifted to the Big Wild Goose Pagoda. In order to make up for the shortcomings of the mystery of the Giant Goose Pagoda, let more people look at the Buddha’s relic and display the Buddha’s treasure on the Big Wild Goose Pagoda.

Da-Yan Tower

Bayeux

Among the relics preserved in the Big Wild Goose Pagoda, the most noteworthy number is the Bayeux, which is written on the leaves of Bedolo. Since there is no paper in ancient India, the writing is often replaced by Bayeux. The 657 true scriptures that Xuanzang retrieved along the ancient Silk Road are Bayeux. The four-story tower of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda enshrines two bay leaves with a length of about 40 cm and a width of about 7 cm. It is engraved with dense Sanskrit. It is said that there are fewer than 10 scholars who know the word in the world, which is very rare.

Da-Yan Tower

Cultural relic protection

On March 4, 1961, the Big Wild Goose Pagoda was announced by the State Council as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units.
In 1964, after a renovation, the Big Wild Goose Pagoda basically maintained its original appearance. The Big Wild Goose Pagoda was found to have tilted in 1719 due to repeated human damage and its own structure. After more than 20 years of comprehensive rectification by the relevant departments, the slope of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda has obviously eased and stabilized. In 2005, the amount of tilt was 1001.9 mm.
Since 2009, the government has implemented a well-sealing and recharge of groundwater to protect the ancient culture of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda and accelerate the recovery of the groundwater level. Six groundwater recharge demonstration sites have been built in the city. I hope that this will raise the groundwater level as soon as possible and gradually “righteous” the Big Wild Goose Pagoda. Xi’an City injected about 1200 tons of water into the ground every day, and the Big Wild Goose Pagoda has gradually returned.
In 2011, the Xi’an Municipal Government approved the implementation of the “Strictly Strict Water Resources Management System Work Plan in Xi’an”, which requires strict management of groundwater development and utilization. 2215 eyes of various self-prepared wells have been closed, and the depth, mining volume and mining time of new mining wells have been strictly limited, and groundwater recharge has been carried out in the groundwater over-exploitation area of ​​the city to speed up the restoration of groundwater environment. The data of each monitoring well showed that the maximum depth of the groundwater level in the recharge area was 2.1 meters, and the inclined big geese tower had been restrained, and the “retrograde correction” no longer continued to tilt.
On April 1, 2013, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage approved the “Request for the Application of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda” (Shaanxi Wenzi [2013] No. 20), and agreed in principle to the second plan.
On June 22, 2014, at the 38th World Heritage Committee meeting in Doha, Qatar, the Big Wild Goose Pagoda was the “Silk Road: Changan-Tianshan Corridor” as a joint application of China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. A site in the road network was successfully included in the World Heritage List.
On April 18, 2015, the 50th anniversary of the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the theme of this year’s “4·18” International Monuments and Sites was “Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Founding of the International Council of Monuments and Sites”, calling on countries to enrich The colorful activities promote the concept and contribution of ICOMOS in the protection of international cultural heritage sites. The International Monument and Heritage Site Xi’an International Protection Center (IICCX), as ICOMOS’s business center in Xi’an, actively responded to the call of ICOMOS, focusing on the theme of “Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the International Council of Monuments and Sites”, in the Big Wild Goose Pagoda and Xiaoyan The tower and Dahua Spinning Mill launched a series of activities to promote the promotion of cultural heritage.

Da-Yan Tower

Travel Information

Address: Daci’en Temple, Yanta District, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province

Opening hours: 09:00-17:00 (daily)

Tickets: Big Wild Goose Pagoda 25 yuan / person, off-season 20 yuan / person

Transportation: Bus 5, 21, 22, 23, 27, 30, 41, 224, 320, 401, 500, 501, 527, 601, 606, 609, 715, etc.

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