Geographic location:Chengde City, Hebei Province
Famous scenery:Puning Temple
Suitable for the play season:Best in summer and autumn
Chengde Mountain Resort is a famous tourist attraction in China. It is also a world cultural heritage, a national AAAAA-level tourist attraction, a national key cultural relics protection unit, and one of the four famous gardens in China.
Chengde Mountain Resort is also known as “Chengde Palace” or “River River Palace”. It is located in the north of the city center of Chengde in Hebei Province, on the narrow valley of the west bank of the Wulie River. It is the place where the emperors of the Qing Dynasty took summer vacations and handled government affairs.
The Summer Resort was built in 1703. It took three years to complete the Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong dynasties. It took 89 years to complete. The Summer Resort is based on the simple and elegant mountain villages. It takes the natural beauty of the landscape and absorbs the scenery of the south of the Yangtze River. It has become the largest ancient imperial palace in China.
The summer resort is divided into four parts: palace area, lake area, plain area and mountainous area. The whole mountain is rich in water in the southeast and mountainous in the northwest. It is the epitome of China’s natural landform. It is a glorious milestone in the history of Chinese gardens. It is the classical Chinese garden art. Masterpieces are the highest example of Chinese classical gardens.
On March 4, 1961, the Summer Resort was announced as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units, and the Summer Palace, Humble Administrator’s Garden and Lingering Garden, which were simultaneously announced, were called the four famous gardens of China. They were included in December 1994. World Heritage List”.
The construction of the Summer Resort is divided into two stages.
The first stage: from the forty-two years of Kangxi (1703) to the fifty-two years of Kangxi (1713), the development of the lake area, the island of Zhanzhou, the construction of the embankment, and the construction of palaces, pavilions and palace walls, so that the beginning of the summer resort With scale. In the Kangxi Emperor’s Garden, Jiajing wrote the “Thirty-six Scenes” in the name of four characters.
The second stage: From the sixth year of Qianlong (1741) to the 19th year of Emperor Qianlong (1754), Emperor Qianlong carried out a large-scale expansion of the summer resort, adding palaces and many exquisite large-scale garden buildings. Emperor Qianlong imitation of his grandfather Kangxi, in the name of the three words and titled “Thirty-six Scenes”, collectively known as the seventy-two scenes of the Summer Resort.
In the 20th year of Emperor Kangxi (1681), in order to strengthen the management of the Mongolian area and consolidate the northern border defense, the Qing government established the Mulan paddock in the Mongolian grassland more than 350 kilometers away from Beijing. Every autumn, the emperor leads the princes of the princes, the Eight Banners Army, and even the Hougong Temple, and the descendants of the royal family to tens of thousands of people to go hunting in the Mulan paddock to achieve the purpose of training the army and defending the border. In order to solve the emperor’s eating and living along the way, between Beijing and Mulan paddock, 21 palaces were built one after another. The Rehe Palace is one of them. The summer resort and surrounding temples were built in the forty-two years of Kangxi (1703), and the last project was completed in the fifty-seventh year of the reign of Emperor Qianlong (AD 1792). It experienced three generations of Emperor Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong, which lasted for 89 years. Attacking North in the British and French forces
At the time of Beijing, the Emperor Xianfeng fled with a group of ministers.
From the fifty-second year of Emperor Kangxi to the forty-five years of Emperor Qianlong (1713 to 1780), the surrounding temples were built along with the construction of the summer resort.
During the Emperor Kangxi and Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty, about half a year was spent in Chengde. The important political, military, ethnic, and diplomatic events in the early Qing Dynasty were handled here. Therefore, Chengde Mountain Resort has become an accompanying capital and a second political center outside Beijing. Qianlong met and banned the important people such as Errut Mongolian Duerbert Taiji Sanche Ling, Turkite Taijiji Baxi, and Tibetan political and religious leader Sixth Panchen Lama. They also received special envoys here. The first British mission to China headed by Macartney. Qing Emperor Jiaqing and Xianfeng died here. In 1860, the British and French coalition forces attacked Beijing, and the Qing Emperor Xianfeng fled to the summer resort to take refuge. In this house, several unequal treaties such as the Sino-Russian Beijing Treaty were approved. The “Xinyi Coup” that influenced the historical process of China also originated here. With the decline of the Qing Dynasty, the summer resort has gradually declined.
In 1961, the State Council listed Puning Temple, Pule Temple, Putuo Zongcheng Temple and Shoufu Fushou Temple among the surrounding temples as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units. From 1976 to 2006, the State Council successively approved the implementation of three “10-year renovation plans for the Eight Temples in the Summer Resort”, which clarified the protection principle based on “rescue and renovation”. The state and local governments have invested hundreds of millions of yuan in special projects. The funds were used for ancient construction maintenance and garden renovation, and a large amount of funds were invested in the comprehensive improvement of the surrounding environment of the cultural relics protection area.
Since August 2010, the Chengde Mountain Resort and surrounding temple cultural heritage protection projects have been fully launched. The project is planned to be implemented in three to five years, with a special fund of 600 million yuan invested by the central government for the protection of cultural relics and the management of the water system in the mountains, and the identification of cultural heritage protection projects in various aspects such as protection of ancient buildings and protection of cultural relics. 3 comprehensive water environment management projects in the mountain village. The renovation project also established a powerful “think tank”, and each project will be “tailor-made” for repairs based on careful investigation. Information was also transmitted from the work office of the Chengde Mountain Resort and the surrounding temple cultural heritage protection engineering headquarters, and the various protection projects are progressing smoothly. Since last year, 13 projects including archaeological exploration, protection and repair of Anyuan Temple, and Dahongtai rescue of the temple of Sumiyoshi have started construction. Five projects including the rescue of the temple of Dafushou and the Qing Dynasty Road of the Qingshan Mountain have been completed.
The Summer Resort is divided into four parts: the palace area, the lake area, the plain area and the foothill area. Located on the south bank of the lake, the palace area is a flat place. It is the place where the emperor handles the political affairs, celebrations and daily life. It covers an area of 100,000 square meters and consists of four buildings: Zhenggong, Songhezhai, Wansong Songfeng and Donggong. The lake area is in the north of the palace area. The lake area includes 43 hectares of state islands. There are 8 small islands, which divide the lake into different areas of different sizes. The layers are distinct, the islands are scattered, the blue waves are rippling, and the land of the fish and rice in the south of the Yangtze River is characteristic. There is a clear spring in the northeast corner, the famous Rehe Spring. The plain area is at the foot of the mountain in the north of the lake area. The terrain is wide. There are Wanshuyuan and test horses. It is a grassy, lush forest and grassland scenery. The foothills area is in the northwest of the mountain village, accounting for about four-fifths of the total area of the park. Here, the mountains are undulating, and the gullies are sloping and horizontal. Many halls and temples are dotted with temples. The entire mountainous village is rich in water in the southeast and mountainous in the northwest. It is the epitome of China’s natural landform. The western part of the plain area is green and the scenery of the Mongolian steppe is beautiful. The eastern ancient trees are towering and have the forest scenery of the Daxing’an Mountains. In the foothills of the east and north of the summer resort, there are magnificent temple groups. This is the Outer Eight Temple. The names are: Huanren Temple, Shanshan Temple (destroyed), Pule Temple, Anyuan Temple, Puning. Temple, Temple of the Sumifu Temple, Temple of Putuo Zongcheng, Temple of the Great. The Outer Eight Temples are based on Chinese-style palace architecture, which absorbs the architectural art characteristics of Mongolia, Tibet, and Victoria, and creates a diverse and unified temple architectural style in China.
The overall layout of the villa is skillful to use the terrain. Because of the mountain, the area is clear and the scenery is rich. Compared with other gardens, it has its own unique style. The layout of the palace area is rigorous, the building is simple, the garden area is natural and interesting, and the palace and the natural landscape are harmoniously integrated into one, reaching the realm of returning to nature. The mountain village melts the essence of the architectural art of the South and North. The scale of the building is small. The temple and the wall are mostly made of blue brick and gray tiles, the original color of the wood, elegant and solemn, simple and moderate, with the Forbidden City of the capital, the red tile red wall, the gold painting, the magnificent display Obvious control. The architecture of the villa not only has the style, structure and engineering practices of the southern gardens, but also follows the commonly used techniques in the north, becoming a model for the perfect combination of North and South architectural art. Different from other royal gardens, the Summer Resort is based on the topographical features and the overall design. It relies on the natural terrain, because the mountains are water, and the nature is perfect, and the essence of the art of the North and South gardens is integrated. It is a glorious milestone in the history of Chinese gardens. It is a masterpiece of Chinese classical garden art, enjoying the reputation of “the epitome of Chinese geography” and “the highest example of Chinese classical gardens”.
The architectural layout of Chengde Mountain Resort can be roughly divided into two parts: the palace area and the garden area. The Garden Scenic Area can be divided into three parts: the lake area, the plain area and the mountainous area.
The plain area is located in the northern part of the villa and covers an area of 607,000 square meters. The plain area is mainly a patch of grass and woods. It is divided into western grassland and eastern woodland. The grassland is dominated by the test horses and is the venue for the emperor to hold horse racing activities. The woodland is called Wanshuyuan and is one of the important political activity centers in the summer resort. There was Wanshuyuan here, and there were 28 yurts of different specifications in the park. The largest of them is the Yuyu yurt, which is 7 feet and 2 feet in diameter. It is the emperor’s temporary palace. Qianlong often summons the minority princes, religious leaders and foreign envoys. On the west side of Wanshuyuan is Wenjin Pavilion, one of the four major royal collections in China. In addition, Yongyou Temple, Chunhaoxuan, and Suyun Temple are set up in the grassland and woodland.
The mountainous area is located in the northwest of the villa, with an area of 4.435 million square meters. The relative height difference is 180 meters, forming a scene surrounded by peaks and vertical and horizontal. The temples around the Summer Resort occupy a total area of 472,000 square meters, including Boren Temple, Boshan Temple, Pule Temple, Anyuan Temple, Puning Temple, Puyou Temple, Guangyuan Temple, Temple of Shoufu Fushou, Temple of Putuo Zongcheng, Guang’an The 12 magnificent and majestic temples of the Lama Temple, such as the Temple, Luohantang and Shuxiang Temple, are the royal temples built by the Qing government to appease the Mongolian and Tibetan minorities in northwest China and strengthen the management of the frontiers. The concentration of temples, the grand scale, the exquisite architecture, the high degree of Buddha statues and the craftsmanship of the temples make it one of the holy places of Tibetan Buddhism. Many gardens in the mountain area were destroyed before liberation, but the scenery in the mountains is still fascinating, overlooking the pavilion, the scenic spots of the mountain village, several large temples outside the mountain village, and the Chengde city, surrounded by strange peaks and rocks.
The lake area is located in the southeast of the villa, with an area of 496,000 square meters. There are eight large and small lakes, namely West Lake, Chenghu, Ruyi, Shanghu, Xiahu, Yinhu, Jinghu and Banyue Lake, collectively known as Saihu. Most of the scenic buildings in the lake area are modeled after the famous scenic spots in the south of the Yangtze River, such as the “Yanyu Building”, which is modeled after the shape of the Nanhu Yanyu Building in Jiaxing, Zhejiang. The layout of Jinshan Island is modeled after Jinshan, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu. The two islands in the lake have two groups of buildings, one is called “Ruyizhou” and the other is called “Yueshangjiangsheng”. “Ruyizhou” has fake mountains, pavilions, temples, temples, pools and other buildings. The layout is ingenious and is the center of the scenic area. “Moonlight Jiangsheng” is composed of an exquisite courtyard house and several pavilions and churches. Every night on the night of Dongshan, the bright moonlight reflects the calm lake.
The overall structure of the lake area is surrounded by mountains and waters, and the islands are surrounded by water. The traditional Chinese gardening techniques are used to form the composition of the fairy world in Chinese mythology. Many groups of buildings are cleverly constructed on the islands, embankments and water surfaces, showing a view of the water town. Most of the scenic buildings in the lake area are modeled after the famous scenic spots in the south of the Yangtze River. For example, the “Yanyu Building” is modeled after the shape of the Nanhu Yanyu Building in Jiaxing, Zhejiang. The layout of Jinshan Island is modeled after Jinshan, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu. The plain area is mainly a patch of grass and woods. There were Wanshuyuan here, and the mountainous area was from south to north. It consisted of four gullies, followed by scorpion scorpion, pine grove, pear scorpion and Songyun gorge. Among the mountains, the ancient pines are towering in the sky, and the forests are flourishing. There are more than forty groups of Xuanzhai Pavilions and Buddhist temples and Taoist temples, but many of them have been kept.
The palace area is located in the south of the villa and covers an area of 102,000 square meters. The main palace is the main building of the palace area, including 9 entrances and falls, divided into two parts: “frontward” and “backward”. The main hall is called “Mengbo Jingcheng”, which is built with precious Nanmu, so it is also called Nanmu Temple. The palace area is the place where the Qing Emperor of the Qing Dynasty listens to politics, holds grand ceremonies and sleeps. The style of the building is simple and elegant, but it does not lose the solemnity of the imperial palace. The Palace is now a museum that displays the palace artifacts left over from the Qing Dynasty. There are more than 20,000 pieces of precious cultural relics in Zhenggong District. “Smoke wave to cool” temple is a five-open bungalow.
The palace area is located in the south of the summer resort, with the plains and lakes in the northeast and the mountains in the northwest. The main building is centered, and the ancillary buildings are placed on both sides, which are basically balanced and symmetrical. The natural environment is fully utilized and transformed, so that the natural landscape and the human landscape are ingeniously combined to make the garden of the summer resort palace garden, and the style of the royal garden is also displayed. The palace area consists of four groups of buildings: Zhenggong (which is turned into a summer resort museum), Songhezhai, Donggong (destroyed) and Wansong Songfeng.
The Summer Resort is one of the three ancient buildings in China. Its greatest feature is that there are gardens in the mountains. There are mountains in the park. There are more than 120 groups of large and small buildings. Among them, Kangxi consists of four characters and 36 scenes. Qianlong has 36 characters in three characters. This is the famous 72 scenes of the villa. The 36 scenes of the Kangxi dynasty are:
Tobacco wave to cool, Zhijing Yundi, no summer cool, Yanxunshan Pavilion, Shuifangyan show, Wansong Songfeng, Song
Heqing Mountain, Yunshan Resort, Sibian Yunshan, Beijiao Shuangfeng, Xiling Chenxia, Hammer Peak, Nanshan Snow, Pear Blossom with Moon, Qushui Hexiang, Fengquan Qingyin, Yujianxiang, Tianyu Xian Smooth, warm current, spring stone wall, Qingfeng Lvyu, 莺啭 木, 香远益清, 金莲映日, far and near spring sound, Yunfan Yuexi, Fangyu advection, Yunrong water state, Chengquan ring stone , Chengbo Pinci, Shijiguan fish, Jingshui Yunxiao, Shuanghu clip mirror, Changhong drink practice, Putian Congyu, water flow clouds.
The 36 scenes of the Qianlong dynasty are:
Lizhengmen, Qinzheng Hall, Songhezhai, Ruyi Lake, Qingque Temple, Watchtower, Reindeer Slope, Shuixin Temple, Qizhitang, Changyuantai, Jinghaotang, Lengxiang Pavilion, Cailingdu, Guanlian , Qinghui Pavilion, Prajna Xiang, Canglangyu, a cloud, Pingxiangyu, Wanshuyuan, test horse, Jiashuxuan, Lecheng Pavilion, Suyunyu, Chengguanzhai, Cuiyunyan, 罨 painting Window, Ling Taixu, Qian Shixue, Jingzhai, Yuqinxuan, Linfangshu, Zhiyuyu, Yongcuiyan, Sushangzhai, Yongzhenju.
At the time of Emperor Kangxi, Huang Tai later lived in the summer resort and lived in the Songhe Qing dynasty in Xitun. In the 14th year of Emperor Qianlong (1749), Emperor Qianlong built another group of buildings in the east of Zhenggong, named Song Hezhai, for the Empress Dowager. At that time, Songhe Zhai was “commonly known as Qingsongyu, and even more white cranes before the court.” There are also reindeer in the courtyard. After the completion of the temple, there were fifteen rooms, three halls, and seven halls named Le Shoutang. Later, they were renamed Yuedu, and they were the palace of the empress. The building of the Shrine, the 15 rooms, and the building of the door have long since disappeared. Le Shoutang has only its base address and was rebuilt in 1998.
It is the main building of the palace area. The Zhenggong was built in the 50th to 52nd year of Emperor Kangxi. It was rebuilt and rebuilt in the 19th year of Emperor Qianlong (1754) and covers an area of 10,000 square meters. Including the nine entrances to the courtyard, from Li Zhengmen, Wumen, Yuejingmen, Jingbo Jingcheng Hall, Sizhishu House, 19 Zhaozhaofang, Yanbo Zhishuang Hall, Yunshan Resort Building, Jinyun Gate and some Chaofang and Diandian and The cloister and other components. It is divided into two parts: “Before” and “Back”. The former dynasty was the office area where the emperor handled military affairs and government affairs; the last bed was the living area where the emperor and the sergeants lived daily. The main hall is called “Mengbo Jingcheng”, which is built with precious Nanmu, so it is also called Nanmu Temple. It is the place where the emperor ruled the political affairs, and various grand ceremonies were also held here.
On the east side of Songhe Zhai, the terrain is lower than Zhenggong and Songhezhai. On the front wall of the East Palace, there is another door, called Dehuimen, which is a heavy city gate. The shape is similar to that of Lizhengmen. After entering Dehuimen. The main building on the central axis has seven halls, eleventh main hall, Qingyin Pavilion, Fushou Pavilion, Qinzheng Hall, and Asheng Temple. In 1945, the Japanese army invaded Chengde and burned Donggong to celebrate the victory. Only the base address is now stored. Among them, the Qingyin Pavilion is commonly known as the Grand Theatre. It is similar to the existing Forbidden City Changyin Pavilion and the Summer Palace in the Summer Palace. The third floor is high and has a magnificent appearance.
Wansong Songfeng Hall
The main hall of Wansong Songfeng. Emperor Kangxi often meets the bureaucrats here, reviewing the chapters, reading and writing. In 1722, Kangxi discovered that the fourth son of the Emperor and the master of the Shuo 弘, the Hong dynasty (Qianlong Emperor), was very clever and very fond of it, so he made the purpose and sent Hongli into the palace. In the summer of this year, Hongli was led by his parents and went to Chengde Mountain Resort with his grandfather. Kangxi gave the side of the summer resort “Wanxi Songfeng” to the Hongli residence, usually entertaining or reviewing the chapter, and Qianlong should be served next to him. After the succession of Hongli, the temple was named Ji Entang. In the 30th year of Emperor Qianlong, Qianlong wrote “The Ji Entang of the Summer Resort” to commemorate the Kangxi Emperor’s care for him.
Smoke wave to the temple
The smoke wave to the cool hall: Long live the house northbound through the door hall, and then there are seven halls in the north, deep into the two, the name of the smoke is cool, is the main hall of the palace after the sleeping part, is also the Qing Emperor in the mountain palace. It is listed as the first of the thirty-six scenes of Kangxi Mountain Resort.
Outer Eight Temple
Lamaism temples were built around the summer resorts in the form of Tibetan and Xinjiang Lamaism temples for the worship of the upper and lower aristocrats of the Western and Northern minorities. On the east and north sides of the Summer Resort, there are 11 monasteries on the banks of the Wulie River and the north of the Lion Valley. Because it is under the jurisdiction of eight temples, eight of which are directly managed by the Qing government, it is called “Chengdewai Eight Temples”. The temples are divided into three types: Tibetan temples, Chinese temples and Han-Tibetan temples. These temples blend the essence of Han, Tibetan and other national architectural art, magnificent and very royal. The 12 temples with different architectural styles were built by the Qing government in order to unite ethnic minorities in Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet and other areas, using religion as a means of cooperation. These temples are mostly built on the slopes of the Xiangyang hillside. The main halls stand out and stand out.
In the fifty-two years of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1713), the Mongolian princes celebrated the 60th birthday of Emperor Kangxi, and wrote a book called “Calling” outside the Chengde Mountain Resort, and built a temple to celebrate the birthday party. Emperor Kangxi was pleased to “enough” and built the Shuren and Shanshan Temples. The Shanshan Temple has long been abandoned, and the Shuren Temple has become the only remaining temple in the Kangxi period. It is even more precious. 溥通普, universal, broad meaning, there is the emperor’s deep love and love to spread the world. From the 56 years of Kangxi fifty-two years (1713) to the forty-five years of Emperor Qianlong (1780), Emperor Kangxi and Emperor Qianlong successively built 11 large temples in the eastern and northern parts of the summer resort. The imperial court was stationed in the Lama and enjoyed the “Silver Silver”, and outside the capital, it was called the Outer Eight Temple. The 7 existing ones are separated from the Lion Valley by the north of the summer resort. From the east to the west, there are temples of the Shoufu Shou, the temple of Putuo Zongcheng, and the temple. The Outer Eight Temples are built like a series of stars and summer resorts. They are the trend of the moon, symbolizing the relationship between the people of the frontiers and the Qing government, and showing the historical process of the reunification, consolidation and development of China’s multi-ethnic countries.
The Budala Palace is located in the south of Shiziling Mountain in the north of the Summer Resort, covering an area of 257,900 square meters. The scenic spot consists of the temple of Putuo Zongcheng and the temple of Shoufu Fushou in the royal temple complex. The two temples were built in 1767 (the thirty-two years of Qianlong) and 1780 (the forty-five years of Qianlong). Built for the imitation of the Potala Palace in Lhasa and the Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse, it is commonly known as the Little Potala Palace and the Panchen Palace. The Budala Palace is a combination of two Han and Tibetan temples. The scale of the building is grand and majestic.
Puning Temple Scenic Area is located on the bank of Wulie River in the northeast of the Summer Resort, covering an area of 57,800 square meters. The scenic spot consists of Puning Temple and Puyou Temple in the Royal Temple Group. The two temples were built in 1755 (the 20th year of Emperor Qianlong) and 1760 (25 years in Qianlong). Take the peace under the heavens and bless the meaning of all beings in the world. The Puning Temple is home to the world’s largest gold-painted woodcarving Buddha statue, the Thousand-Handed Thousand-Eyes Guanyin Bodhisattva, and the Puyou Temple is a school of lamas studying Buddhism. The monks gather here and the incense is strong, making it the largest Buddhist shrine in the north.
The Hammer Peak Scenic Area is located in the eastern part of the Summer Resort, on the east bank of the Wulie River, covering an area of 40,500 square meters. The scenic area consists of the Pule Temple, the Anyuan Temple and the Hamamatsu National Forest Park in the Royal Temple Complex. The two temples were built in 1766 (the 31st year of Qianlong), 1764 (the 29th year of Qianlong); the 磬 hammer peak was formed about 3 million years ago. In the scenic area, the Pule Temple takes the meaning of the whole day, and the main building of the Pule Temple is in the Xuguang Pavilion for the Buddha of joy. The Hamamatsu Peak and the Pule Temple constitute the secret sect of Tibetan Buddhism.
Chengde Mountain Resort is located in the transition zone between the Inner Mongolia Plateau and the North China Plain. It is a temperate continental monsoon mountain climate with four distinct seasons. Although the winter is cold, it is surrounded by mountains and blocks the cold current from the Mongolian plateau, so the temperature is higher than other areas of the same latitude; the summer is cool, the rainfall is concentrated, and there is basically no hot period.
Ticket price of Chengde Mountain Resort in 2012:
High season (April 1 – October 31) 130 yuan
Flat season (November 1st – March 31st) 90 yuan
Student half price