Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

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Geographic location:Southeastern Jilin Province

Level:AAAAA

Famous scenery:Tianchi, Changbai Waterfall

Suitable for the play season:Best in summer and autumn, skiing in winter

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area is located in the southeast of Chibei District, Erdaobaihe Town, Antu County, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin Province. It is adjacent to North Korea in the southeast. It is located on the north slope of Changbai Mountain, 34 kilometers away from Changbai Mountain and 65 kilometers away from the border of China and North Korea. The area is 52.42. Square kilometers.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area is a national AAAAA-level tourist scenic spot. The main peak of Changbai Mountain is named after white pumice and snow. It is known as the “Millennium Snow Covered Pine, Straight to the First Peak of Humanity”. The scenic spot is a famous tourist attraction with “Shenshan, Shengshui, Qilin, Xianguo” and the birthplace of Manchu. In the Qing Dynasty, it has the reputation of “Holy Land”. The emperor must personally or delegate the minister to Jilin Ula (present-day Jilin City) Changbai Mountain. In the summer of 1983, Deng Xiaoping boarded the top of Changbai Mountain, inscribed the banner of “Changbai Mountain” and “Tianchi”, and issued a compliment: “Life is not a long white mountain, it is a great pity!” Changbai Mountain has been the sacred territory of China since ancient times and is the top ten famous mountains in China. Changbai Mountain in the “Shan Hai Jing” said not salty mountains, the Northern Wei Dynasty called the Taishan, Tang called Taibai Mountain, Liaojin has the name of Changbai Mountain.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Geographical environment

Geographic location

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area is located in Chibei District, Erdaobaihe Town, Antu County, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Southeast of Jilin Province. The map is located at 127°42’55”E to 128°16’48”E, 41°41’49”N to 42 °51’18″N.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Topography

The Changbai Mountain Scenic Area is on the edge of the East Asian continent, bordering the strong folds of the Pacific Ocean. Before the Mesozoic period of 200 million to 75 million years, there have been many crustal changes and formation of ancient rock formations. The Mesozoic experienced hundreds of millions of years of wind and rain erosion, forming a series of mountain basins. In the new generation, it became a undulating quasi-plain with scattered hills. The scenic area is a typical volcanic landform. From the bottom up, it is mainly composed of basalt platform, basalt plateau and volcanic cone. On the vast basalt platform and basalt plateau is the volcanic cone – the main peak of Changbai Mountain. The basalt plateau (also known as the mountain slope sloping plateau) is located between the basalt platform and the volcanic cone. It is a relatively obvious sloping zone. The slope of the ground is generally around 10 degrees and the altitude is between 1000 and 1800 meters. It is a steep volcanic cone. The transition zone of the body to the basalt platform.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Climate characteristics

The Changbai Mountain Scenic Area is a temperate continental mountain climate affected by the monsoon. In addition to the characteristics of the general mountain climate, there are also obvious vertical climate changes. The overall feature is that the winter is long, the summer is short and cool, the spring is very dry, and the autumn is foggy and cool. The average annual temperature is between -7 °C and 3 °C, and the average temperature in July does not exceed 10 °C. The annual precipitation is between 700 and 1400 mm, and the precipitation from June to September accounts for 60% to 70% of the annual precipitation. Clouds and fog, large winds and low air pressure are the main features of the climate of the main peak of Changbai Mountain.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Natural resources

Resource overview

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area is rich in resources and has a wide variety of flora and fauna. It is the most representative typical natural complex in the northern half of Eurasia. It is one of the rare “species gene pools” and “natural museums” in the world. According to statistics, there are more than 1,800 species of higher plants, more than 50 species of mammals, more than 280 species of birds, 50 species of fish and more than 1,000 species of insects.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Animal resources

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area has a wide variety of wild animals and abundant resources. There are 1,225 species, belonging to 73 orders and 219 families. Among them, forest insect pests 6 orders 48 families 387 species; forest insects natural enemies 7 orders 29 families 94 species; round mouth class 1 order 1 family 3 species; fish 2 orders 4 families 8 species, amphibians 2 orders 6 families 13 species, There are 11 species of 3 families and 1 species of reptiles, 277 species of 48 families and 48 families of birds, and 58 species of 19 families of 6 orders of mammals; 370 species of 61 families and 30 families of vertebrates. Among the 1225 species of wild animals, there are 50 national key protected animals. Among them, the national first-class protected animals include Siberian tiger, leopard, sika deer, sable, black scorpion, golden eagle, white-shoulder carving, Chinese merganser, etc.; national secondary protected animals include scorpion, lynx, black bear, brown bear, otter, cricket 猁, red deer, green sheep (balt), 鹗, 鸢, peak eagle, goshawk, sparrow eagle, pheasant and so on. Among these animals, there are 15 kinds of medicinal products, 14 kinds of edibles, 2 kinds of furs, and 1 type of ornamentals.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Plant resources

The Changbai Mountain Scenic Area is rich in plant species, and 2,277 species have been found, belonging to 246 families of 73 orders. Among them, there are 550 species of 59 orders and 59 families of lower plants; 1727 species of 187 families of 56 orders of higher plants. There are 36 rare and endangered species in higher plants. Among them, ginseng is a national first-class protected plant, and the ginseng, rock sorghum, open fern, hawthorn sea bream, and bottle grass are national secondary protected plants; Changbai pine, grass grove, flat fritillary, pine hair green, cowhide Rhododendron and Rhododendron chinensis are national third-grade protected plants. The provincial first-grade protected plants include red pine, pine, pine, yew, and siberian juniper. Valuable medicinal plants such as ginseng, Codonopsis, and Yunzhi. Edible plants include mountain fruits, wild vegetables, and fungi.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Mineral resources

The complex geological conditions of Changbai Mountain Scenic Area have formed a rich mineral deposit. By the end of 2000, there were 98 species of proven reserves in Jilin Province (152 species in the country) and 80 species in Changbai Mountain. These minerals were divided into 9 industrial categories. First, energy minerals: coal, oil shale, uranium; second, ferrous metal minerals: iron, manganese, titanium, vanadium; third, non-ferrous metal minerals: copper, lead, cobalt, magnesium, tungsten; fourth, precious metal minerals: gold, Silver; five rare minerals: rare earths, xenotime, monazite, gallium, cadmium, selenium, antimony; six metallurgical auxiliary raw materials non-metallic minerals: kyanite, andalusite, fluorite, flux limestone, dolomite Seven is chemical raw materials, non-metallic minerals: sulfur (pyrite, associated sulfur), calcium carbide for calcium carbide, arsenic, boron, phosphorus; eight is building materials and other non-metallic minerals: graphite, piezoelectric crystal, smelting crystal, cement Use marble, etc.; nine is water and gas minerals: groundwater, mineral water.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Main Attractions

Tianchi

Located at the top of the volcanic cone of the main peak of Changbai Mountain, Changbai Mountain Tianchi is a crater that has accumulated water into a lake after a long period of time. Changbai Mountain Tianchi is 2189.1 meters above sea level. Tianchi is slightly elliptical, 4.4 kilometers long from north to south and 3.37 kilometers wide from east to west. The total water storage capacity is 2.04 billion cubic meters. The water temperature in Tianchi is 0.7 °C to 11 °C, and the annual average temperature is 7.3 °C. Tianchi is the highest mountain lake in China. It is the birthplace of the three major rivers in the Northeast—the Songhua River, the Yalu River and the Tumen River.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Changbai Waterfall Group

There is a gap between the Tianwen Peak and the Longmen Peak on the north side of the Tianchi Lake in Changbai Mountain. The pool water overflows from the gap and flows down the cliff at 1250 meters to form a waterfall with a drop of 68 meters. This is the Changbai Waterfall Group. It is the first place in Changbai Mountain and the largest waterfall group in Northeast China. It is connected to Tianchi and passes through Erdaobaihe, which is the source of Songhua River.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Julongquan

Julongquan is the hot spring with the largest amount of water, the widest distribution and the highest water temperature in the hot spring group. It is the first spring of Changbai Mountain. It is located about 900 meters north of Changbai Waterfall, on the lower side of the falling peak of the northern part of the pen. The distribution area is more than 1,000 square meters, and the Erdaobai River passes through the middle of the hot spring group. On the right side of the river, the springs are concentrated, there are dozens of places, and there are 7 large springs. Numerous heat flows from the bottom of the earth, like a group of dragons spray water, hence the name Julongquan, built in the lower part of Julongquan “Yi Shen bath” bath.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Black air outlet

Mountaineering along the northern slope to Tianchi, at the junction of the Yuehualin belt and the alpine tundra, the intersection of the eastern end of the Laofeng Peak and the viewing platform, naturally forms a gap, which is known as the black estuary of Changbai Mountain. At the tuyere, you can enjoy the full view of Changbai Waterfall, where you can see the U-shaped valley. Looking up at the black wind vent from the bottom of the U-shaped valley, the black wind vents became the gate of the castle. The hole opened between the two bunkers, known as the “South Gate”. There are often groups of white-waisted Swifts on the black wind vents, and the cliffs are just the Swift’s lair.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Develop and use

Geothermal resources

The development of geothermal resources in Changbai Mountain began in the 1970s, and in 1973 a hot spring well was drilled near the Huangsongpu area. In the 1990s, the Sixth Geological Survey conducted a general survey of geothermal resources in Changbai Mountain through advanced methods such as remote sensing geological interpretation, geothermal geological mapping, geochemistry, integrated geophysical exploration, drilling engineering and hydrothermal alteration. Through comprehensive surveys, the distribution of geothermal resources in Changbai Mountain has been systematically mastered.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Mineral water resources

The volcanic activity of Changbai Mountain is unusually frequent and erupted several times, opening up a wide range of lava terraces. The unique geological structure has caused the groundwater to form a unique natural mineral water resource of Changbai Mountain. Changbai Mountain has abundant mineral water reserves and stable flow. According to preliminary statistics, the amount of water that has been discovered in the mineral springs has reached more than 1 million tons. Among the 48 mineral water sources that have passed the provincial or national level appraisal, there are 13 water sources suitable for the construction of large-scale (100,000 tons per year) mineral water production base, suitable for medium-sized production (annual production of 50,000-100,000 tons) There are 6 water sources in the mineral water production base. There are 29 water sources suitable for the construction of small (under 50,000 tons of mineral water) production bases.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Historical evolution

The Jurchens of the Jin Dynasty have always used Changbai Mountain as their birthplace. They often worship the Changbai Mountain Peak in order to bless their national sports Changlong, and the Emperor Yongchang. Jin Shizong’s Wan Yanzhen had just been enthroned, and in the 12th year of Dading (AD 1172), Changbai Mountain was enshrined as the king of Xingguoling, and the famous literati Hanlin Academy was composing the party’s Huaiying’s essay, “Feng Changbai Mountain is the spirit king. In the book, the text is trying to deify Changbai Mountain. The emperor also established the Lingying Wang Temple in Changbai Mountain in the fifteenth year of Dading (AD 1175), and ordered the Minister to hold a ceremonial ceremony and bring this “Book” to the memorial.

In the 25th year of Dading (AD 1185), Emperor Jin Shizong enshrined the Songjiang River from the Yangtze River in Changbai Mountain (then known as the Mixed River), and ordered the Minister to write the book “Combined with the God of the River”. Go to the memorial before the festival. Jin Shizong has further deified the Changbai Mountain and the Songhua River.

When Jin Zhangzong was finished, Yan Changming four years (AD 1193) Jinfeng Changbai Mountain was “Kai Tian Hong Sheng Di”, which was higher than the title of the king and the public titled by his father Jin Shizong. It is in the same level as the Jade Emperor in the sky and the emperor on the ground, and is located in the position of the Holy Emperor of the Jin Dynasty.

In the eleventh year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty, Nurhachi led the army and finally led the Eight Banners in the Central Plains in 1644, establishing the Qing Dynasty. Therefore, the Qing Dynasty has always regarded Changbai Mountain as the birthplace of the ancestors, and respected Changbai Mountain as the “God of Changbai Mountain.”

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Documentary record

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area has a history of language and characters, which can be traced back more than 4,000 years ago. In the earliest geography book “Shan Hai Jing” in China, there is a record, “Shan Hai Jing” will call Changbai Mountain not salty mountain (that is, Shenxian Mountain).

In other books of the Northern and Southern Dynasties (such as “Wei Shu”, “Qi Shu”, etc.), there are often “Long Taishan” and “Zhangbai Mountain”. Later, in the “Tangshu-Dongyi Biography”, we can see the relevant records: “Mohe is Su Shen, and the end of the chestnut is the southernmost to the Taibai Mountain. It also migrates to Taishan and connects with Koryo.”

In the “Khitan National Records”, there are records: “Changbai Mountain is more than a thousand miles southeast of Lengshan, and the animals are white.”

In the “History of Gold”, it is recorded: “There is a woman who has Changbai Mountain.” In the middle of the Jin Dynasty, Zhao Bingwen (1159—1233, the word Zhou Chen) was a long poem, “The Changbai Mountain Walk”.

The Yuan Dynasty poet Wang Jie (Zi Yibo, Hebei Dingxing) also described Changbai Mountain in his long poem “Liaodong High Women”.

The emperors of the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Kangxi, Qianlong and Jiaqing all came to the northeast to pay tribute to the birthplace of their ancestors, and also wrote a large number of poems and praises of Changbai Mountain. Kangxi has the poems of “Wangqi Changbai Mountain” and “The Sacrifice to the Long White” (two articles). Qianlong has five articles entitled “Sacrifice Changbai Mountain Wen”, and Jiaqing has two articles entitled “Changbai Mountain Announcement”.

Changbai Mountain Scenic Area

Travel guide

Traffic routes

Railway

Baihe Station is the nearest train station to Changbai Mountain Scenic Area. There are trains to Changchun and Tonghua. From Changchun by K953 train to Baihe, you can also go to Dunhua Station first, then transfer to the Bai National Highway along the 201 National Road. Depart from Beijing, take K215 times to Dunhua, then transfer to Baihe.

Highway

To Changbai Mountain, you must first go to Baihe Town, 201 National Highway and 202 Provincial Highway through Baihe Town. From Dunhua to the 201 National Road, from Yanji to the 202 Provincial Highway, and from Tonghua to the 201 National Highway, you can go to Baihe. In addition, there are also cars from Antu. There is a bus from Yanji South Bus Station to the Changbai Mountain Tianchi Scenic Area every day. There is also a shuttle bus to Erdaobaihe, which can be chartered from Erdaobaihe to Changbai Mountain.

Aviation

In the surrounding cities, Changchun, Tonghua, Jilin and Yanji have airports, of which Yanji Airport is the closest to Changbai Mountain and Yanji Airport is located in the west of Yanji City. By plane to Changbaishan Airport, you usually go to Yanji City first, and then take a bus from Yanji City to Changbai Mountain. From Yanji, there are daily flights to major cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. There are daily flights from Beijing to Yanji, 4-5 daily in the peak season, and at least one daily in the off-season. Shanghai Pudong to Yanji have flights every Monday and Thursday.

Specialty food

Korean cold noodles

Korean noodles are generally made from wheat flour, buckwheat flour and sweet potato starch, and boiled with bovine bone. When eaten, add ice cubes, peppers, beef slices, apple slices and other seasonings. Cold noodles are one of the favorite staples of Koreans in the summer, and the Jindalai cold noodles in Yanbian are a representative.

kimchi

Spicy cabbage is also known as Korean pickles, and some people are called kimchi. It is a kind of food that has been handed down from generation to generation by Koreans. It is inseparable from spicy cabbage in the family of Yanbian Koreans in Jilin Province. Spicy cabbage is more nutritious than ordinary kimchi or pickles, and has a variety of vitamins suitable for preserving fresh vegetables. The spicy cabbage is unique in its production process. Its taste is sour, sweet and spicy. It has the effect of relieving hangover, helping digestion and increasing appetite.

Korean rice sausage

A traditional food of ordinary Korean people, the rice intestines are rich in vitamin B, iron and protein. The steamed rice intestines can be processed into various dishes of different shapes. There are many kinds of rice sausages in Yanbian. Here you can also enjoy a variety of food such as white fried rice sausage, seasoned rice sausage and rice sausage rice.

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